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Middle East :: Azerbaijan Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Azerbaijan
  • Background field listing

    Azerbaijan - a secular nation with a majority-Turkic and majority-Shia Muslim population - was briefly independent (from 1918 to 1920) following the collapse of the Russian Empire; it was subsequently incorporated into the Soviet Union for seven decades. Azerbaijan remains involved in the protracted Nagorno-Karabakh conflict with Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh was a primarily ethnic Armenian region that Moscow recognized in 1923 as an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan. In the late Soviet period, a separatist movement developed which sought to end Azerbaijani control over the region. Fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh began in 1988 and escalated after Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By the time a ceasefire took effect in May 1994, separatists, with Armenian support, controlled Nagorno‑Karabakh and seven surrounding Azerbaijani territories. The 1994 ceasefire continues to hold, although violence continues along the line of contact separating the opposing forces, as well as the Azerbaijan-Armenia international border. The final status of Nagorno-Karabakh remains the subject of international mediation by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) Minsk Group, which works to help the sides settle the conflict peacefully. The OSCE Minsk Group is co‑chaired by the United States, France, and Russia.

    In the 25 years following its independence, Azerbaijan succeeded in significantly reducing the poverty rate and has directed revenues from its oil and gas production to develop the country’s infrastructure. However, corruption remains a problem, and the government has been accused of authoritarianism. The country’s leadership has remained in the Aliyev family since Heydar ALIYEV became president in 1993 and was succeeded by his son, President Ilham ALIYEV in 2003. Following two national referendums in the past several years that eliminated presidential term limits and extended presidential terms from 5 to 7 years, President ALIYEV secured a fourth term as president in April 2018 in an election that international observers noted had serious shortcomings. Reforms are underway to diversify the country’s non-oil economy and additional reforms are needed to address weaknesses in government institutions, particularly in the education and health sectors, and the court system.

  • Geography :: Azerbaijan
  • Location field listing
    Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    40 30 N, 47 30 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 86,600 sq km
    land: 82,629 sq km
    water: 3,971 sq km

    note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991

    country comparison to the world: 114
    Area - comparative field listing
    about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Maine
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,468 km
    border countries (5): Armenia 996 km, Georgia 428 km, Iran 689 km, Russia 338 km, Turkey 17 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (713 km)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    dry, semiarid steppe
    Terrain field listing
    large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland, much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) to the west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 384 m
    lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
    highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,466 m
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 57.6% (2016 est.)
    arable land: 22.8% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 2.7% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 32.1% (2016 est.)
    forest: 11.3% (2016 est.)
    other: 31.1% (2016 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    14,277 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
    Natural hazards field listing
    Environment - current issues field listing
    local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton; surface and underground water are polluted by untreated municipal and industrial wastewater and agricultural run-off
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
  • People and Society :: Azerbaijan
  • Population field listing
    10,205,810 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Azerbaijani(s)
    adjective: Azerbaijani
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Azerbaijani 91.6%, Lezghin 2%, Russian 1.3%, Armenian 1.3%, Talysh 1.3%, other 2.4% (2009 est.)

    note: the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region is populated almost entirely by ethnic Armenians

    Languages field listing
    Azerbaijani (Azeri) (official) 92.5%, Russian 1.4%, Armenian 1.4%, other 4.7% (2009 est.)

    note: Russian is widely spoken

    Religions field listing
    Muslim 96.9% (predominantly Shia), Christian 3%, other <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1 (2010 est.)

    note: religious affiliation for the majority of Azerbaijanis is largely nominal, percentages for actual practicing adherents are probably much lower

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 22.84% (male 1,235,292/female 1,095,308)
    15-24 years: 13.17% (male 714,718/female 629,494)
    25-54 years: 45.29% (male 2,291,600/female 2,330,843)
    55-64 years: 11.41% (male 530,046/female 634,136)
    65 years and over: 7.29% (male 289,604/female 454,769) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 43.4
    youth dependency ratio: 33.7
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.7
    potential support ratio: 10.3 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 32.6 years
    male: 31.1 years
    female: 34.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.77% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Birth rate field listing
    14.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Death rate field listing
    7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Net migration rate field listing
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Population distribution field listing
    highest population density is found in the far eastern area of the county, in and around Baku; apart from smaller urbanized areas, the rest of the country has a fairly light and evenly distributed population
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 56.4% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.58% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    note: includes Nagorno-Karabakh
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    2.341 million BAKU (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    23.8 years (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    26 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 21.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 22.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 73.6 years
    male: 70.5 years
    female: 76.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.88 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    54.9% (2011)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 87.4% of population
    total: 94.1% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 12.6% of population
    total: 4.9% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.7% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    3.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4.8 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 89.1% of population
    total: 95.1% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 10.9% of population
    total: 4.9% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.1% (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    9,700 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <500 (2019 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    19.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    4.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.5% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.9%
    female: 99.7% (2017)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 14 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2019)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 13.4%
    male: 11.4%
    female: 15.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
  • Government :: Azerbaijan
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
    conventional short form: Azerbaijan
    local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
    local short form: Azarbaycan
    former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the name translates as "Land of Fire" and refers to naturally occurring surface fires on ancient oil pools or from natural gas discharges
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Baku (Baki, Baky)
    geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: does not observe daylight savings time

    etymology: the name derives from the Persian designation of the city "bad-kube" meaning "wind-pounded city" and refers to the harsh winds and severe snow storms that can hit the city

    note: at approximately 28 m below sea level, Baku's elevation makes it the lowest capital city in the world

    Administrative divisions field listing

    66 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular);

    rayons: Abseron, Agcabadi, Agdam, Agdas, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babak, Balakan, Barda, Beylaqan, Bilasuvar, Cabrayil, Calilabad, Culfa, Daskasan, Fuzuli, Gadabay, Goranboy, Goycay, Goygol, Haciqabul, Imisli, Ismayilli, Kalbacar, Kangarli, Kurdamir, Lacin, Lankaran, Lerik, Masalli, Neftcala, Oguz, Ordubad, Qabala, Qax, Qazax, Qobustan, Quba, Qubadli, Qusar, Saatli, Sabirabad, Sabran, Sadarak, Sahbuz, Saki, Salyan, Samaxi, Samkir, Samux, Sarur, Siyazan, Susa, Tartar, Tovuz, Ucar, Xacmaz, Xizi, Xocali, Xocavand, Yardimli, Yevlax, Zangilan, Zaqatala, Zardab

    cities: Baku, Ganca, Lankaran, Mingacevir, Naftalan, Naxcivan (Nakhichevan), Saki, Sirvan, Sumqayit, Xankandi, Yevlax

    Independence field listing
    30 August 1991 (declared from the Soviet Union); 18 October 1991 (adopted by the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan)
    National holiday field listing
    Republic Day (founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan), 28 May (1918)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least 63 members of the National Assembly; passage requires at least 95 votes of Assembly members in two separate readings of the draft amendment six months apart and requires presidential approval after each of the two Assembly votes, followed by presidential signature; constitutional articles on the authority, sovereignty, and unity of the people cannot be amended; amended 2002, 2009, 2016
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003); First Vice President Mehriban ALIYEVA (since 21 February 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Ali ASADOV (since 8 October 2019); First Deputy Prime Minister Yaqub EYYUBOV (since June 2006)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for unlimited terms); election last held on 11 April 2018 (next to be held in 2025); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly; note - a constitutional amendment approved in a September 2016 referendum expanded presidential terms from 5 to 7 years; a separate constitutional amendment approved in the same referendum also introduced the post of first vice-president and additional vice-presidents, who are directly appointed by the president
    election results: Ilham ALIYEV reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV (YAP) 86%, Zahid ORUJ (independent) 3.1%, other 10.9%

    note: OSCE observers noted shortcomings in the election, including a restrictive political environment, limits on fundamental freedoms, a lack of genuine competition, and ballot box stuffing

    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 9 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - YAP 70, CSP 3, AVP 1, CUP 1, Democratic Enlightenment 1, PDR 1, Great Order 1, VP 1, Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front 1, independent 41, vacant 4
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, vice chairman, and 23 judges in plenum sessions and organized into civil, economic affairs, criminal, and rights violations chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis; judges appointed for 10 years; Constitutional Court chairman and deputy chairman appointed by the president; other court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Milli Majlis to serve single 15-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (replaced the Economic Court in 2002); district and municipal courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Azerbaijan Democratic Enlightenment Party
    Civil Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLI]
    Civil Unity Party or CUP [Sabir HAJIYEV]
    Great Order Party
    Islamic Party of Azerbaijan [Mavsum SAMADOV]
    Musavat [Arif HAJILI]
    Popular Front Party [Ali KARIMLI]
    Motherland Party or AVP [Fazail AGAMALI]
    National Renaissance Party
    Party for Democratic Reforms (PDR)
    Social Democratic Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]
    Social Prosperity Party [Khanhusein KAZIMLI]
    Unity Party (VP) [Tahir KARIMLI]
    Whole Azerbaijan Popular Front Party [Gudrat HASANGULIYEV]
    Yeni (New) Azerbaijan Party or YAP [President Ilham ALIYEV]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Elin SULEYMANOV (since 5 December 2011)
    chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
    FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Earle LITZENBERGER (since 12 March 2019)
    telephone: [994] (12) 488-3300
    embassy: 111 Azadliq Prospekti, Baku AZ1007
    mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
    FAX: [994] (12) 488-3330
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of sky blue (top), red, and green; a vertical crescent moon and an eight-pointed star in white are centered in the red band; the blue band recalls Azerbaijan's Turkic heritage, red stands for modernization and progress, and green refers to Islam; the crescent moon and star are a Turkic insignia; the eight star points represent the eight Turkic peoples of the world
    National symbol(s) field listing
    flames of fire; national colors: blue, red, green
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Azerbaijan Marsi" (March of Azerbaijan)
    lyrics/music: Ahmed JAVAD/Uzeyir HAJIBEYOV

    note: adopted 1992; although originally written in 1919 during a brief period of independence, "Azerbaijan Marsi" did not become the official anthem until after the dissolution of the Soviet Union

  • Economy :: Azerbaijan
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Prior to the decline in global oil prices since 2014, Azerbaijan's high economic growth was attributable to rising energy exports and to some non-export sectors. Oil exports through the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline, the Baku-Novorossiysk, and the Baku-Supsa Pipelines remain the main economic driver, but efforts to boost Azerbaijan's gas production are underway. The expected completion of the geopolitically important Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) between Azerbaijan and Europe will open up another source of revenue from gas exports. First gas to Turkey through the SGC is expected in 2018 with project completion expected by 2020-21.

    Declining oil prices caused a 3.1% contraction in GDP in 2016, and a 0.8% decline in 2017, highlighted by a sharp reduction in the construction sector. The economic decline was accompanied by higher inflation, a weakened banking sector, and two sharp currency devaluations in 2015. Azerbaijan’s financial sector continued to struggle. In May 2017, Baku allowed the majority state-owed International Bank of Azerbaijan (IBA), the nation’s largest bank, to default on some of its outstanding debt and file for restructuring in Azerbaijani courts; IBA also filed in US and UK bankruptcy courts to have its restructuring recognized in their respective jurisdictions.

    Azerbaijan has made limited progress with market-based economic reforms. Pervasive public and private sector corruption and structural economic inefficiencies remain a drag on long-term growth, particularly in non-energy sectors. The government has, however, made efforts to combat corruption, particularly in customs and government services. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijan's economic progress, including the need for more foreign investment in the non-energy sector and the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. While trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics remains important, Azerbaijan has expanded trade with Turkey and Europe and is seeking new markets for non-oil/gas exports - mainly in the agricultural sector - with Gulf Cooperation Council member countries, the US, and others. It is also improving Baku airport and the Caspian Sea port of Alat for use as a regional transportation and logistics hub.

    Long-term prospects depend on world oil prices, Azerbaijan's ability to develop export routes for its growing gas production, and its ability to improve the business environment and diversify the economy. In late 2016, the president approved a strategic roadmap for economic reforms that identified key non-energy segments of the economy for development, such as agriculture, logistics, information technology, and tourism. In October 2017, the long-awaited Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway, stretching from the Azerbaijani capital to Kars in north-eastern Turkey, began limited service.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $172.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $172.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $177.6 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 73
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $40.67 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    -3.1% (2016 est.)
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $17,500 (2017 est.)
    $17,700 (2016 est.)
    $18,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 101
    Gross national saving field listing
    24.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 57.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 23.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.5% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 48.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 6.1% (2017 est.)
    industry: 53.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 40.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    fruit, vegetables, grain, rice, grapes, tea, cotton, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
    Industries field listing
    petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    -3.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Labor force field listing
    4.939 million (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 37%
    industry: 14.3%
    services: 48.9% (2014)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    5% (2017 est.)
    5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Population below poverty line field listing
    4.9% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 27.4% (2008)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 9.556 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 10.22 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    23.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Public debt field listing
    54.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    50.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    13% (2017 est.)
    12.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Current account balance field listing
    $1.685 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.363 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Exports field listing
    $15.15 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.21 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Exports - partners field listing
    Italy 23.2%, Turkey 13.6%, Israel 6.1%, Russia 5.4%, Germany 5%, Czech Republic 4.6%, Georgia 4.3% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    oil and gas roughly 90%, machinery, foodstuffs, cotton
    Imports field listing
    $9.037 billion (2017 est.)
    $9.004 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
    Imports - partners field listing
    Russia 17.7%, Turkey 14.8%, China 9.9%, US 8.3%, Ukraine 5.3%, Germany 5.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $6.681 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.142 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Debt - external field listing
    $17.41 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $13.83 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Exchange rates field listing
    Azerbaijani manats (AZN) per US dollar -
    1.723 (2017 est.)
    1.5957 (2016 est.)
    1.5957 (2015 est.)
    1.0246 (2014 est.)
    0.7844 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Azerbaijan
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    23.57 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    20.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Electricity - exports field listing
    265 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Electricity - imports field listing
    114 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    7.876 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    84% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Crude oil - production field listing
    798,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    718,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    7 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    138,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    100,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    46,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    5,576 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Natural gas - production field listing
    16.96 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    10.34 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    8.042 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    2.095 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    991.1 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    35.6 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
  • Communications :: Azerbaijan
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,686,316
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 16.65 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 10,835,974
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.99 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: after the oil sector, the telecommunications sector contributes the most to the GDP; more competition will allow for falling prices and the strengthening of the 4G TD-LTE standard and the migration to 5G; Azerbaijan has moderate mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration compared to other Asian nations (2020)
    domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 107 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan) (2019)
    international: country code - 994; the TAE fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    3 state-run and 1 public TV channels; 4 domestic commercial TV stations and about 15 regional TV stations; cable TV services are available in Baku; 1 state-run and 1 public radio network operating; a small number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting; local FM relays of Baku commercial stations are available in many localities; note - all broadcast media is pro-government, and most private broadcast media outlets are owned by entities directly linked to the government
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 8,017,120
    percent of population: 79.8% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 1,890,913
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 19 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
  • Transportation :: Azerbaijan
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 42 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 44
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,279,546 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 44.09 million mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    4K (2016)
    Airports field listing
    23 (2020)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 30 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 13 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 3 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 7 (2013)
    under 914 m: 7 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2012)
    Pipelines field listing
    89 km condensate, 3890 km gas, 2446 km oil (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 2,944 km (2017)
    broad gauge: 2,944.3 km 1.520-m gauge (approx. 1,767 km electrified) (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Roadways field listing
    total: 24,981 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 305
    by type: general cargo 40, oil tanker 48, other 217 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Baku (Baki) located on the Caspian Sea
  • Military and Security :: Azerbaijan
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Land Forces, Air Forces, Navy Forces; Ministry of Internal Affairs: State Border Service (includes Coast Guard), Internal Security Troops (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    4% of GDP (2019)
    3.6% of GDP (2018)
    3.8% of GDP (2017)
    3.7% of GDP (2016)
    5.5% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Azerbaijan military has approximately 67,000 total active personnel; 56,000 Army; 2,500 Navy; 8,500 Air Force) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of the Azerbaijan military includes mostly Russian and Soviet-era equipment; since 2010, Russia is the leading supplier of arms to Azerbaijan, followed by Israel and Turkey (2020)
    Military deployments field listing
    120 Afghanistan (NATO) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; service obligation 18 months or 12 months for university graduates; 17 years of age for voluntary service; 17 year olds are considered to be on active service at cadet military schools (2012)
  • Terrorism :: Azerbaijan
  • Terrorist group(s) field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (2020)

    note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T

  • Transnational Issues :: Azerbaijan
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia ratified the Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on a one-fifth slice of the sea; the dispute over the break-away Nagorno-Karabakh region and the Armenian military occupation of surrounding lands in Azerbaijan remains the primary focus of regional instability; residents have evacuated the former Soviet-era small ethnic enclaves in Armenia and Azerbaijan; local border forces struggle to control the illegal transit of goods and people across the porous, undemarcated Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian borders; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    IDPs: 351,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh; IDPs are mainly ethnic Azerbaijanis but also include ethnic Kurds, Russians, and Turks predominantly from occupied territories around Nagorno-Karabakh; includes IDPs' descendants, returned IDPs, and people living in insecure areas and excludes people displaced by natural disasters; around half the IDPs live in the capital Baku) (2019)
    stateless persons: 3,585 (2019)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe