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Middle East :: Georgia Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Georgia
  • Background field listing

    The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.

    Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate parliamentary elections in November 2003, touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions.

    Billionaire Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary elections and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. At the time, these changes in leadership represented unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. GARIBASHVILI was replaced by Giorgi KVIRIKASHVILI in December 2015. KVIRIKASHVILI remained prime minister following Georgian Dream’s success in the October 2016 parliamentary elections, where the party won a constitutional majority. IVANISHVILI reemerged as Georgian Dream party chairman in April 2018. KVIRIKASHVILI resigned in June 2018 and was replaced by Mamuka BAKHTADZE. In September 2019, BAKHTADZE resigned and Giorgi GAKHARIA was named the country's new head of government, Georgia's fifth prime minister in seven years. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.

  • Geography :: Georgia
  • Location field listing
    Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe; geopolitically, it can be classified as falling within Europe, the Middle East, or both
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    42 00 N, 43 30 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 69,700 sq km
    land: 69,700 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: approximately 12,560 sq km, or about 18% of Georgia's area, is Russian occupied; the seized area includes all of Abkhazia and the breakaway region of South Ossetia, which consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti

    country comparison to the world: 122
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than South Carolina; slightly larger than West Virginia
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,814 km
    border countries (4): Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km
    Coastline field listing
    310 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
    Terrain field listing
    largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; fertile soils in river valley flood plains and foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 1,432 m
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,193 m
    Natural resources field listing
    timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 35.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 5.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 39.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    4,330 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest
    Natural hazards field listing
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy water pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals; land and forest degradation; biodiversity loss; waste management
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    note 1: strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

    note 2: the world's four deepest caves are all in Georgia, including two that are the only known caves on earth deeper than 2,000 m: Krubera Cave at -2,197 m (-7,208 ft; reached in 2012) and Veryovkina Cave at -2,212 (-7,257 ft; reached in 2018)
  • People and Society :: Georgia
  • Population field listing
    3.997 million (2019 est. est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Georgian(s)
    adjective: Georgian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Georgian 86.8%, Azeri 6.3%, Armenian 4.5%, other 2.3% (includes Russian, Ossetian, Yazidi, Ukrainian, Kist, Greek) (2014 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Georgian (official) 87.6%, Azeri 6.2%, Armenian 3.9%, Russian 1.2%, other 1% (2014 est.)

    note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia

    Religions field listing
    Orthodox (official) 83.4%, Muslim 10.7%, Armenian Apostolic 2.9%, other 1.2% (includes Catholic, Jehovah's Witness, Yazidi, Protestant, Jewish), none 0.5%, unspecified/no answer 1.2% (2014 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 18.42% (male 472,731/female 435,174)
    15-24 years: 10.9% (male 286,518/female 250,882)
    25-54 years: 40.59% (male 984,942/female 1,016,353)
    55-64 years: 13.24% (male 288,650/female 364,117)
    65 years and over: 16.85% (male 326,219/female 504,444) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 55
    youth dependency ratio: 31.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 23.6
    potential support ratio: 4.2 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 38.6 years
    male: 35.9 years
    female: 41.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.05% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Birth rate field listing
    11.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Death rate field listing
    11 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Net migration rate field listing
    0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Population distribution field listing
    settlement concentrated in the central valley, particularly in the capital city of Tbilisi in the east; smaller urban agglomerations dot the Black Sea coast, with Bat'umi being the largest
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 59.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data include Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    1.078 million TBILISI (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.65 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    25.4 years (2017 est.)

    note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 13.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 15.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 77 years
    male: 72.9 years
    female: 81.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.75 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    40.6% (2018)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 96.2% of population
    total: 98.4% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 3.8% of population
    total: 1.6% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    7.6% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    6.13 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    2.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 97% of population
    rural: 82.7% of population
    total: 91.1% of population
    unimproved: urban: 3% of population
    rural: 17.3% of population
    total: 8.9% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.3% (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    9,100 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2019 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    21.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    1.1% (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.8% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.4%
    male: 99.4%
    female: 99.3% (2017)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 16 years (2019)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 29.9%
    male: 26.7%
    female: 35.3% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Government :: Georgia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Georgia
    local long form: none
    local short form: Sak'art'velo
    former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the Western name may derive from the Persian designation "gurgan" meaning "Land of the Wolves"; the native name "Sak'art'velo" means "Land of the Kartvelians" and refers to the core central Georgian region of Kartli
    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Tbilisi
    geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
    time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the name in Georgian means "warm place," referring to the numerous sulfuric hot springs in the area
    Administrative divisions field listing

    9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)

    regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli; note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti

    city: Tbilisi

    autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)

    note 1: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses

    note 2: the United States recognizes the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia to be part of Georgia

    Independence field listing
    9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995
    amendments: proposed as a draft law supported by more than one half of the Parliament membership or by petition of at least 200,000 voters; passage requires support by at least three fourths of the Parliament membership in two successive sessions three months apart and the signature and promulgation by the president of Georgia; amended several times, last in 2020 (legislative electoral system revised)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Georgia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Salome ZOURABICHVILI (since 16 December 2018)
    head of government: Prime Minister Giorgi GAKHARIA (since 8 September 2019)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 November 2018 (next to be held in 2024); prime minister nominated by Parliament, appointed by the president

    note - 2017 constitutional amendments made the 2018 election the last where the president was directly elected; future presidents will be elected by a 300-member College of Electors; in light of these changes, ZOURABICHVILI was allowed a six-year term
    election results: Salome ZOURABICHVILI elected president in runoff; percent of vote - Salome ZOURABICHVILI (independent, backed by Georgian Dream) 59.5%, Grigol VASHADZE (UNM) 40.5%; Giorgi GAKHARIA approved as prime minister by Parliamentary vote 98-0
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Parliament or Sakartvelos Parlamenti (150 seats; 120 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 30 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by at least 50% majority vote, with a runoff if needed; no party earning less than 40% of total votes may claim a majority; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 31 October and 21 November 2020 (next to be held in October 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 48.2%, UNM 27.2%, European Georgia 3.8%, Lelo 3.2%, Strategy 3.2%, Alliance of Patriots 3.1%, Girchi 2.9%, Citizens 1.3%, Labor 1%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 90, UNM 36, European Georgia 5, Lelo 4, Strategy 4, Alliance of Patriots 4, Girchi 4, Citizens 2, Labor 1
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges); note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the High Council of Justice (a 14-member body consisting of the Supreme Court chairperson, common court judges, and appointees of the president of Georgia) and appointed by Parliament; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges appointed 3 each by the president, by Parliament, and by the Supreme Court judges; judges appointed for 10-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI]
    Democratic Movement-United Georgia [Nino BURJANADZE]
    Citizens Party
    Development Movement [Davit USPASHVILI]
    European Georgia-Movement for Liberty [Davit BAKRADZE]
    For Justice Party [Eka BESELIA]
    Free Democrats or FD [Shalva SHAVGULIDZE]
    Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Bidzina IVANISHVILI]
    Girchi (Pinecone) [Zurab JAPARIDZE]
    Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE]
    Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
    Lelo for Georgia [Mamuka KHAZARADZE]
    New Georgia [Giorgi VASHADZE]
    Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
    Strategy Aghmashenebeli [Giorgi VASHADZE]
    United National Movement or UNM [Grigol VASHADZE]
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, CPLP (associate), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador David BAKRADZE (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 1824 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
    FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kelly C. DEGNAN (since 31 January 2020)
    telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
    embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, Tbilisi, 0131
    mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
    FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10
    Flag description field listing
    white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Saint George, lion; national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Tavisupleba" (Liberty)
    lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)

    note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas "Abesalom da Eteri" and "Daisi" was adopted

  • Economy :: Georgia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all of its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its electricity needs.

    Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit hub for gas, oil, and other goods.

    Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment, remittances, and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sank to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in the period 2010-17, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment remains persistently high.

    The country is pinning its hopes for faster growth on a continued effort to build up infrastructure, enhance support for entrepreneurship, simplify regulations, and improve professional education, in order to attract foreign investment and boost employment, with a focus on transportation projects, tourism, hydropower, and agriculture. Georgia had historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for improvements in business transparency. Since 2012, the Georgian Dream-led government has continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. In mid-2014, Georgia concluded an association agreement with the EU, paving the way to free trade and visa-free travel. In 2017, Georgia signed Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with China as part of Tbilisi’s efforts to diversify its economic ties. Georgia is seeking to develop its Black Sea ports to further facilitate East-West trade.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $39.85 billion (2017 est.)
    $37.96 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.91 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 119
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $15.16 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    5% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $10,700 (2017 est.)
    $10,300 (2016 est.)
    $9,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 138
    Gross national saving field listing
    23% of GDP (2017 est.)
    19.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    19.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 62.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 50.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -62.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 8.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 23.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 67.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock
    Industries field listing
    steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Labor force field listing
    686,000 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 55.6%
    industry: 8.9%
    services: 35.5% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    NA% (2017 est.)
    11.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Population below poverty line field listing
    9.2% (2010 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2%
    highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 4.352 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.925 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -3.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Public debt field listing
    44.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    44.4% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intragovernmental debt or social funds

    country comparison to the world: 116
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    6% (2017 est.)
    2.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.348 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.84 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Exports field listing
    $3.566 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.831 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Exports - partners field listing
    Russia 14.5%, Azerbaijan 10%, Turkey 7.9%, Armenia 7.7%, China 7.6%, Bulgaria 6.6%, Ukraine 4.6%, US 4.5% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores
    Imports field listing
    $7.415 billion (2017 est.)
    $6.747 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Imports - commodities field listing
    fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
    Imports - partners field listing
    Turkey 17.2%, Russia 9.9%, China 9.2%, Azerbaijan 7.6%, Ukraine 5.6%, Germany 5.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $3.039 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.756 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Debt - external field listing
    $16.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Exchange rates field listing
    laris (GEL) per US dollar -
    2.535 (2017 est.)
    2.3668 (2016 est.)
    2.3668 (2015 est.)
    2.2694 (2014 est.)
    1.7657 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Georgia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    13.24 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    12.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Electricity - exports field listing
    560 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - imports field listing
    1.329 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    4.641 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    35% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    65% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Crude oil - production field listing
    400 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    3,006 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    2,660 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    35 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    247 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    27,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    2,052 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    28,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Natural gas - production field listing
    7.363 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    2.294 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    2.294 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    9.912 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
  • Communications :: Georgia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 638,092
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12.95 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 6,638,125
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134.72 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: telecommunications fastest growing area of Georgia's economy; LTE services now cover the vast majority of the population; fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country; broadband subscribers steadily increasing; with the recent investment in infrastructure customers are moving from copper to fiber networks (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 13 per 100, cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 135 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi (2019)
    international: country code - 995; landing points for the Georgia-Russia, Diamond Link Global, and Caucasus Cable System fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Russia, Romania and Bulgaria; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing

    The Tbilisi-based Georgian Public Broadcaster (GPB) includes Channel 1, Channel 2 as well as the Batumi-based Adjara TV, and the State Budget funds all three; there are also a number of independent commercial television broadcasters, such as Imedi, Rustavi 2, Pirveli TV, Maestro, Kavkasia, Georgian Dream Studios (GDS), Obiektivi, Mtavari Arkhi, and a small Russian language operator TOK TV; Tabula and Post TV are web-based television outlets; all of these broadcasters and web-based television outlets, except GDS, carry the news; the Georgian Orthodox Church also operates a satellite-based television station called Unanimity; there are 26 regional television broadcasters across Georgia that are members of the Georgian Association of Regional Broadcasters and/or the Alliance of Georgian Broadcasters; the broadcaster organizations seek to strengthen the regional media's capacities and distribution of regional products: a nationwide digital switchover occurred in 2015; there are several dozen private radio stations; GPB operates 2 radio stations

    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 3,151,218
    percent of population: 63.97% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 840,603
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
  • Transportation :: Georgia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 516,034 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 750,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    4L (2016)
    Airports field listing
    22 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 18 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    1596 km gas, 1175 km oil (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 1,363 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2014)
    broad gauge: 1,326 km 1.520-m gauge (1,251 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Roadways field listing
    total: 20,295 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 82
    by type: bulk carrier 3general cargo 22, oil tanker 2, other 55 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i
  • Military and Security :: Georgia
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Georgian Defense Forces: Land Forces (includes Aviation and Air Defense Forces); Special Operations Forces; National Guard; Ministry of the Interior: Border Police, Coast Guard (includes Georgian naval forces, which were merged with the Coast Guard in 2009) (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    2% of GDP (2019)
    2% of GDP (2018)
    2.1% of GDP (2017)
    2.2% of GDP (2016)
    2.1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    estimates for the size of the Georgian Defense Forces vary; approximately 25,000 active troops, including the National Guard (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Georgian Defense Forces are equipped mostly with older Russian and Soviet-era weapons; since 2010, it has received limited quantities of equipment from Bulgaria, France, and the US (2019 )
    Military deployments field listing
    860 Afghanistan (NATO) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    conscription reinstated in 2017; 18 to 27 years of age for compulsory and voluntary active duty military service; conscript service obligation is 12 months (2019)
    Military - note field listing
    Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War (2019)
  • Transnational Issues :: Georgia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Russia's military support and subsequent recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia independence in 2008 continue to sour relations with Georgia

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    IDPs: 301,000 (displaced in the 1990s as a result of armed conflict in the breakaway republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia; displaced in 2008 by fighting between Georgia and Russia over South Ossetia) (2019)
    stateless persons: 559 (2019)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia