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Europe :: Croatia Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Croatia
  • Background field listing

    The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent communist state consisting of six socialist republics under the strong hand of Marshal Josip Broz, aka TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Yugoslav forces, dominated by Serb officers, were mostly cleared from Croatian lands, along with a majority of Croatia's ethnic Serb population. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998. The country joined NATO in April 2009 and the EU in July 2013.

  • Geography :: Croatia
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    45 10 N, 15 30 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 56,594 sq km
    land: 55,974 sq km
    water: 620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly smaller than West Virginia
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,237 km
    border countries (5): Bosnia and Herzegovina 956 km, Hungary 348 km, Montenegro 19 km, Serbia 314 km, Slovenia 600 km
    Coastline field listing
    5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate field listing
    Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
    Terrain field listing
    geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 331 m
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Dinara 1,831 m
    Natural resources field listing
    oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 23.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 16% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 34.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 41.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    240 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
    Natural hazards field listing
    destructive earthquakes
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution improving but still a concern in urban settings and in emissions arriving from neighboring countries; surface water pollution in the Danube River Basin
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; most Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks
  • People and Society :: Croatia
  • Population field listing
    4,227,746 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
    adjective: Croatian

    note: the French designation of "Croate" to Croatian mercenaries in the 17th century eventually became "Cravate" and later came to be applied to the soldiers' scarves - the cravat; Croatia celebrates Cravat Day every 18 October

    Ethnic groups field listing
    Croat 90.4%, Serb 4.4%, other 4.4% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Romani), unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Croatian (official) 95.6%, Serbian 1.2%, other 3% (including Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and Albanian), unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 86.3%, Orthodox 4.4%, Muslim 1.5%, other 1.5%, unspecified 2.5%, not religious or atheist 3.8% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 14.16% (male 308,668/female 289,996)
    15-24 years: 10.76% (male 233,602/female 221,495)
    25-54 years: 39.77% (male 841,930/female 839,601)
    55-64 years: 14.24% (male 290,982/female 310,969)
    65 years and over: 21.06% (male 364,076/female 526,427) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 55.7
    youth dependency ratio: 22.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 33.1
    potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 43.9 years
    male: 42 years
    female: 45.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Population growth rate field listing
    -0.5% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Birth rate field listing
    8.7 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Death rate field listing
    12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Population distribution field listing
    more of the population lives in the northern half of the country, with approximately a quarter of the populace residing in and around the capital of Zagreb; many of the islands are sparsely populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 57.6% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: -0.08% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    685,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    28.9 years (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 76.7 years
    male: 73.6 years
    female: 80.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.42 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.8% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    3 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    5.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 99.5% of population
    rural: 98.4% of population
    total: 99% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0.5% of population
    rural: 1.6% of population
    total: 1% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2019 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    1,600 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2019 est.)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    24.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Education expenditures field listing
    4.6% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.3%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 98.9% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 23.7%
    male: 19.6%
    female: 29.4% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
  • Government :: Croatia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
    conventional short form: Croatia
    local long form: Republika Hrvatska
    local short form: Hrvatska
    former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
    etymology: name derives from the Croats, a Slavic tribe who migrated to the Balkans in the 7th century A.D.
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Zagreb
    geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name seems to be related to "digging"; archeologists suggest that the original settlement was established beyond a water-filled hole or "graba" and that the name derives from this; "za" in Slavic means "beyond"; the overall meaning may be "beyond the trench (fault, channel, ditch)"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular) with special county status; Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska (Bjelovar-Bilogora), Brodsko-Posavska (Brod-Posavina), Dubrovacko-Neretvanska (Dubrovnik-Neretva), Istarska (Istria), Karlovacka (Karlovac), Koprivnicko-Krizevacka (Koprivnica-Krizevci), Krapinsko-Zagorska (Krapina-Zagorje), Licko-Senjska (Lika-Senj), Medimurska (Medimurje), Osjecko-Baranjska (Osijek-Baranja), Pozesko-Slavonska (Pozega-Slavonia), Primorsko-Goranska (Primorje-Gorski Kotar), Sibensko-Kninska (Sibenik-Knin), Sisacko-Moslavacka (Sisak-Moslavina), Splitsko-Dalmatinska (Split-Dalmatia), Varazdinska (Varazdin), Viroviticko-Podravska (Virovitica-Podravina), Vukovarsko-Srijemska (Vukovar-Syrmia), Zadarska (Zadar), Zagreb*, Zagrebacka (Zagreb county)
    Independence field listing
    25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia); notable earlier dates: ca. 925 (Kingdom of Croatia established); 1 December 1918 (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) established)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 8 October (1991) and Statehood Day, 25 June (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990
    amendments: proposed by at least one fifth of the Assembly membership, by the president of the republic, by the Government of Croatia, or through petition by at least 10% of the total electorate; proceedings to amend require majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; passage by petition requires a majority vote in a referendum and promulgation by the Assembly; amended several times, last in 2014
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Croatia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Zoran MILANOVIC (since 18 February 2020)
    head of government: Prime Minister Andrej PLENKOVIC (since 19 October 2016); Deputy Prime Ministers Damir KRSTICEVIC (since 19 October 2016), Predrag STROMAR (since 9 June 2017), Marija Pejcinovic BURIC (since 19 June 2017), and Tomislav TOLUSIC (since 25 May 2018)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 December 2019 with a runoff on 5 January 2020 (next to be held in 2024); the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president and approved by the Assembly
    election results: Zoran MILANOVIC elected president in second round; percent of vote - Zoran MILANOVIC (SDP) 52.7%, Kolinda GRABAR-KITAROVIC (HDZ) 47.3%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly or Hrvatski Sabor (151 seats; 140 members in 10 multi-seat constituencies and 3 members in a single constituency for Croatian diaspora directly elected by proportional representation vote using the D'Hondt method with a 5% threshold; an additional 8 members elected from a nationwide constituency by simple majority by voters belonging to minorities recognized by Croatia; the Serb minority elects 3 Assembly members, the Hungarian and Italian minorities elect 1 each, the Czech and Slovak minorities elect 1 jointly, and all other minorities elect 2; all members serve 4-year terms
    elections: early election held on 5 July 2020 (next to be held by 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 37.3%, Restart coalition 24.9%, DPMS-led coalition 10.9%, MOST 7.4%, Green-Left coalition 7%, P-F-SSIP 4%, HNS-LD 1.3%, People's Party - Reformists 1%, other 6.2%; number of seats by coalition/party - HDZ-led coalition 66, Restart coalition 41, DPMS-led coalition 16, MOST 8, Green-Left coalition 7, P-F-SSIP 3, HNS-LD 1, People's Party - Reformists - 1, national minorities 8; composition - men 116, women 35, percent of women 23.2%

    note: seats by party as of June 2019 - HDZ 55, SDP 29, MOST-NL 10, HNS 4, HSS 4, GLAS 4, IDS 3, SDSS 3, BM365-SRS 3, Human Shield 2, HDS 2, NHR 2, other 8, independent 21

    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and vice president, 25 civil department justices, and 16 criminal department justices)
    judge selection and term of office: president of Supreme Court nominated by the president of Croatia and elected by the Sabor for a 4-year term; other Supreme Court justices appointed by the National Judicial Council; all judges serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court; county, municipal, and specialized courts; note - there is an 11-member Constitutional Court with jurisdiction limited to constitutional issues but is outside of the judicial system
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Bloc for Croatia or BZH [Zlatko HASANBEGOVIC]
    Bridge of Independent Lists or Most [Bozo PETROV]
    Civic Liberal Alliance or GLAS [Ankar Mrak TARITAS]
    Croatian Christian Democratic Party or HDS [Goran DODIG]
    Croatian Conservative Party or HKS [Marijan PAVLICEK]
    Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]
    Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Andrej PLENKOVIC]
    Croatian Democratic Union-led coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
    Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Kreso BELJAK]
    Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA]
    Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats or HNS-LD [Ivan VRDOLJAK]
    Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Dario HREBAK]
    Croatian Sovereignists coalition (includes HK, HRAST)
    FOKUS [Davor NADI]
    Green-Left coalition (includes MOZEMO!, RF, NL)
    Homeland Movement or DPMS [Miloslav SKORO]
    Homeland Movement-led coalition (includes DPMS, Croatian Sovereignists coalition, BZH)
    Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC]
    Movement for Successful Croatia or HRAST [Ladislav ILCIC]
    New Left or NL [Dragan MARKOVINA]
    Pametno [Marijana PULJAK]
    Pametno, FOKUS, SSIP coalition
    Party with a First and Last Name or SSIP [Ivan KOVACIC]
    People's Party - Reformists [Radimir CACIC]
    Restart Coalition (includes HSLS, HDS, HDSSB)
    Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zlatko KOMADINA, acting leader]
    We Can! or MOZEMO! [collective leadership]
    Workers' Front or RF [collective leadership]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pjer SIMUNOVIC (since 8 September 2017)
    chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
    FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador W. Robert KOHORST (since 12 January 2018)
    telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
    embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue - the Pan-Slav colors - superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms; the coat of arms consists of one main shield (a checkerboard of 13 red and 12 silver (white) fields) surmounted by five smaller shields that form a crown over the main shield; the five small shields represent five historic regions (from left to right): Croatia, Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria, and Slavonia

    note: the Pan-Slav colors were inspired by the 19th-century flag of Russia

    National symbol(s) field listing
    red-white checkerboard; national colors: red, white, blue
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Lijepa nasa domovino" (Our Beautiful Homeland)
    lyrics/music: Antun MIHANOVIC/Josip RUNJANIN

    note: adopted in 1972 while still part of Yugoslavia; "Lijepa nasa domovino," whose lyrics were written in 1835, served as an unofficial anthem beginning in 1891

  • Economy :: Croatia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Though still one of the wealthiest of the former Yugoslav republics, Croatia’s economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war. The country's output during that time collapsed, and Croatia missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Between 2000 and 2007, however, Croatia's economic fortunes began to improve with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 6%, led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable.

    Croatia experienced an abrupt slowdown in the economy in 2008; economic growth was stagnant or negative in each year between 2009 and 2014, but has picked up since the third quarter of 2014, ending 2017 with an average of 2.8% growth. Challenges remain including uneven regional development, a difficult investment climate, an inefficient judiciary, and loss of educated young professionals seeking higher salaries elsewhere in the EU. In 2016, Croatia revised its tax code to stimulate growth from domestic consumption and foreign investment. Income tax reduction began in 2017, and in 2018 various business costs were removed from income tax calculations. At the start of 2018, the government announced its economic reform plan, slated for implementation in 2019.

    Tourism is one of the main pillars of the Croatian economy, comprising 19.6% of Croatia’s GDP. Croatia is working to become a regional energy hub, and is undertaking plans to open a floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification terminal by the end of 2019 or early in 2020 to import LNG for re-distribution in southeast Europe.

    Croatia joined the EU on July 1, 2013, following a decade-long accession process. Croatia has developed a plan for Eurozone accession, and the government projects Croatia will adopt the Euro by 2024. In 2017, the Croatian government decreased public debt to 78% of GDP, from an all-time high of 84% in 2014, and realized a 0.8% budget surplus - the first surplus since independence in 1991. The government has also sought to accelerate privatization of non-strategic assets with mixed success. Croatia’s economic recovery is still somewhat fragile; Croatia’s largest private company narrowly avoided collapse in 2017, thanks to a capital infusion from an American investor. Restructuring is ongoing, and projected to finish by mid-July 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $102.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $99.37 billion (2016 est.)
    $95.97 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 85
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $54.76 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2.94% (2019 est.)
    2.7% (2018 est.)
    3.14% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $24,700 (2017 est.)
    $23,800 (2016 est.)
    $22,800 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 81
    Gross national saving field listing
    24.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    23.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    24.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 51.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -48.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 3.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 26.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.1% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    arable crops (wheat, corn, barley, sugar beet, sunflower, rapeseed, alfalfa, clover); vegetables (potatoes, cabbage, onion, tomato, pepper); fruits (apples, plum, mandarins, olives), grapes for wine; livestock (cattle, cows, pigs); dairy products
    Industries field listing
    chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    1.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Labor force field listing
    1.656 million (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 1.9%
    industry: 27.3%
    services: 70.8% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    8.07% (2019 est.)
    9.86% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Population below poverty line field listing
    19.5% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.7%
    highest 10%: 23% (2015 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 25.24 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 24.83 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    46.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    0.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Public debt field listing
    77.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    82.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.1% (2017 est.)
    -1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Current account balance field listing
    $1.597 billion (2019 est.)
    $1 billion (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Exports field listing
    $13.15 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.88 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Exports - partners field listing
    Italy 13.4%, Germany 12.2%, Slovenia 10.6%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 9.8%, Austria 6.2%, Serbia 4.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    transport equipment, machinery, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
    Imports field listing
    $22.34 billion (2017 est.)
    $19.76 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 15.7%, Italy 12.9%, Slovenia 10.7%, Hungary 7.5%, Austria 7.5% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $18.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.24 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Debt - external field listing
    $48.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $46.96 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Exchange rates field listing
    kuna (HRK) per US dollar -
    6.62 (2017 est.)
    6.8 (2016 est.)
    6.806 (2015 est.)
    6.8583 (2014 est.)
    5.7482 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Croatia
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    12.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    15.93 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - exports field listing
    3.2 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Electricity - imports field listing
    8.702 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    4.921 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    45% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    40% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Crude oil - production field listing
    14,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    55,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    71 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    74,620 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    73,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    40,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    35,530 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - production field listing
    1.048 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    2.577 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    172.7 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    1.841 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    17.96 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
  • Communications :: Croatia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,371,999
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32.29 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 4,531,122
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106.64 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: the mobile market has one of the highest penetration rates in the Balkans region; covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital; telecom market in Croatia has been shaped by Croatia becoming part of the European Union in 2013, a process which opened up the market and the creation of a regulatory environment leading to competition in mobile and broadband; investment among operators has led to a relatively high broadband penetration in the region; trials for 5G technologies underway (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 32 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 107 per 100 (2019)
    international: country code - 385;  the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    the national state-owned public broadcaster, Croatian Radiotelevision, operates 4 terrestrial TV networks, a satellite channel that rebroadcasts programs for Croatians living abroad, and 6 regional TV centers; 2 private broadcasters operate national terrestrial networks; 29 privately owned regional TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; state-owned public broadcaster operates 4 national radio networks and 23 regional radio stations; 2 privately owned national radio networks and 117 local radio stations (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 3,104,212
    percent of population: 72.69% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 1,127,591
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 26 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
  • Transportation :: Croatia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 18
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,093,577 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 530,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    9A (2016)
    Airports field listing
    69 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 24 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 6 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)
    under 914 m: 10 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 45 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
    under 914 m: 38 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    2410 km gas, 610 km oil (2011)
    Railways field listing
    total: 2,722 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 2,722 km 1.435-m gauge (980 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Roadways field listing
    total: 26,958 km (includes 1,416 km of expressways) (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Waterways field listing
    785 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 336
    by type: bulk carrier 15, general cargo 32, oil tanker 20, other 269 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split
    oil terminal(s): Omisalj
    river port(s): Vukovar (Danube)
  • Military and Security :: Croatia
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH) consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM, includes Coast Guard), Air Force and Air Defense Command (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo I Protuzracna Obrana), Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1.68% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.59% of GDP (2018)
    1.67% of GDP (2017)
    1.62% of GDP (2016)
    1.78% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia have approximately 15,000 active duty personnel (10,000 Army; 1,500 Navy; 1,500 Air force; 2,000 other) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the inventory of the Croatian Armed Forces consists mostly of Soviet-era equipment, although in recent years, it has attempted to acquire more modern weapon systems from Western suppliers; since 2010, the leading suppliers of military equipment to Croatia are Finland, Germany, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2008 (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: Croatia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; since the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s, Croatia and Slovenia have each claimed sovereignty over Piranski Bay and four villages, and Slovenia has objected to Croatia's claim of an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic Sea; in 2009, however Croatia and Slovenia signed a binding international arbitration agreement to define their disputed land and maritime borders, which led to Slovenia lifting its objections to Croatia joining the EU; Slovenia continues to impose a hard border Schengen regime with Croatia, which joined the EU in 2013 but has not yet fulfilled Schengen requirements

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 2,886 (2019)

    note: 713,772 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-October 2020); flows slowed considerably in 2017; Croatia is predominantly a transit country and hosts about 340 asylum seekers as of the end of June 2018

    Illicit drugs field listing
    primarily a transit country along the Balkan route for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe and other illicit drugs and chemical precursors to and from Western Europe; no significant domestic production of illicit drugs