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East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Indonesia Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Indonesia
  • Background field listing
    The archipelago gradually adopted Islam between the 13th and 16th centuries. The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; Japan occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence shortly before Japan's surrender, but it required four years of sometimes brutal fighting, intermittent negotiations, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to transfer sovereignty in 1949. A period of sometimes unruly parliamentary democracy ended in 1957 when President SOEKARNO declared martial law and instituted "Guided Democracy." After an abortive coup in 1965 by alleged communist sympathizers, SOEKARNO was gradually eased from power. From 1967 until 1998, President SUHARTO ruled Indonesia with his "New Order" government. After street protests toppled SUHARTO in 1998, free and fair legislative elections took place in 1999. Indonesia is now the world's third most populous democracy, the world's largest archipelagic state, and the world's largest Muslim-majority nation. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, improving education, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing economic and financial reforms, stemming corruption, reforming the criminal justice system, addressing climate change, and controlling infectious diseases, particularly those of global and regional importance. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in Aceh in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face low intensity armed resistance in Papua by the separatist Free Papua Movement.
  • Geography :: Indonesia
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    5 00 S, 120 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Southeast Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 1,904,569 sq km
    land: 1,811,569 sq km
    water: 93,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly less than three times the size of Texas
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 2,958 km
    border countries (3): Malaysia 1881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km, Timor-Leste 253 km
    Coastline field listing
    54,716 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
    Terrain field listing
    mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 367 m
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
    Natural resources field listing
    petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 31.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 13% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 12.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 51.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    67,220 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
    Natural hazards field listing

    occasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires

    volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

    Environment - current issues field listing
    large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires cause heavy smog; over-exploitation of marine resources; environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note field listing

    note 1: according to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

    note 2: Indonesia is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

    note 3: despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

  • People and Society :: Indonesia
  • Population field listing
    267,026,366 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Indonesian(s)
    adjective: Indonesian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese)

    note: more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

    Religions field listing
    Muslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 23.87% (male 32,473,246/female 31,264,034)
    15-24 years: 16.76% (male 22,786,920/female 21,960,130)
    25-54 years: 42.56% (male 58,249,570/female 55,409,579)
    55-64 years: 8.99% (male 11,033,838/female 12,968,005)
    65 years and over: 7.82% (male 9,099,773/female 11,781,271) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 47.5
    youth dependency ratio: 38.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 9.2
    potential support ratio: 10.8 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 31.1 years
    male: 30.5 years
    female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.79% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Birth rate field listing
    15.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Death rate field listing
    6.6 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Population distribution field listing
    major concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 56.6% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    10.770 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.394 million Bekasi, 2.944 million Surabaya, 2.580 million Bandung, 2.339 million Tangerang, 2.338 million Medan (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.8 years (2012 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    177 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 20.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 24 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 16.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 73.7 years
    male: 71.1 years
    female: 76.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Total fertility rate field listing
    2.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    55.5% (2018)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 96.6% of population
    rural: 83.7% of population
    total: 90.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population
    rural: 16.3% of population
    total: 9.2% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    3% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 92.5% of population
    rural: 76.8% of population
    total: 85.4% of population
    unimproved: urban: 7.5% of population
    rural: 23.2% of population
    total: 14.6% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.4% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    640,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    38,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    6.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    17.7% (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.6% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 95.7%
    male: 97.3%
    female: 94% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 14 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 14 years (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 16.5%
    male: 16.5%
    female: 16.5% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
  • Government :: Indonesia
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
    conventional short form: Indonesia
    local long form: Republik Indonesia
    local short form: Indonesia
    former: Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies
    etymology: the name is an 18th-century construct of two Greek words, "Indos" (India) and "nesoi" (islands), meaning "Indian islands"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Jakarta
    geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

    note: Indonesia has three time zones

    etymology: "Jakarta" derives from the Sanscrit "Jayakarta" meaning "victorious city" and refers to a successful defeat and expulsion of the Portuguese in 1527; previously the port had been named "Sunda Kelapa"

    Administrative divisions field listing
    31 provinces (provinsi-provinsi, singular - provinsi), 1 autonomous province*, 1 special region** (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 national capital district*** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta***, Jambi, Jawa Barat (West Java), Jawa Tengah (Central Java), Jawa Timur (East Java), Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan), Kalimantan Selatan (South Kalimantan), Kalimantan Tengah (Central Kalimantan), Kalimantan Timur (East Kalimantan), Kalimantan Utara (North Kalimantan), Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (Bangka Belitung Islands), Kepulauan Riau (Riau Islands), Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara (North Maluku), Nusa Tenggara Barat (West Nusa Tenggara), Nusa Tenggara Timur (East Nusa Tenggara), Papua, Papua Barat (West Papua), Riau, Sulawesi Barat (West Sulawesi), Sulawesi Selatan (South Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tengah (Central Sulawesi), Sulawesi Tenggara (Southeast Sulawesi), Sulawesi Utara (North Sulawesi), Sumatera Barat (West Sumatra), Sumatera Selatan (South Sumatra), Sumatera Utara (North Sumatra), Yogyakarta**

    note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and municipalities have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

    Independence field listing
    17 August 1945 (declared independence from the Netherlands)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
    Constitution field listing
    history: drafted July to August 1945, effective 18 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions; 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959
    amendments: proposed by the People’s Consultative Assembly, with at least two thirds of its members present; passage requires simple majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the unitary form of the state cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2002
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Indonesia
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 continuous years
    Suffrage field listing
    17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014, reelected 17 April 2019, inauguration 19 October 2019); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government (2019)
    head of government: President Joko WIDODO (since 20 October 2014); Vice President Ma'ruf AMIN (since 20 October 2019) (2019)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 17 April 2019 (next election 2024)
    election results: Joko WIDODO elected president; percent of vote - Joko WIDODO (PDI-P) 55.5%, PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo (GERINDRA) 44.5%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral People's Consultative Assembly or Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat consists of:
    Regional Representative Council or Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (136 seats; non-partisan members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies - 4 each from the country's 34 electoral districts - by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms); note - the Regional Representative Council has no legislative authority
    House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (575 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by single non-transferable vote to serve 5-year terms) (2019)
    elections: Regional Representative Council - last held 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024)
    House of Representatives - last held on 17 April 2019 (next to be held 2024) (2019)
    election results: Regional Representative Council - all seats elected on a non-partisan basis; compostion - NA
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDI-P 19.3%, Gerindra 12.6%, Golkar 12.3%,  PKB 9.7%, Nasdem 9.1%, PKS 8.2%, PD 7.8%, PAN 6.8%, PPP 4.5%, other 9.6%; seats by party - PDI-P 128, Golkar 85, Gerindra 78, Nasdem 59, PKB 58, PD 54, PKS 50, PAN 44, PPP 19; composition - men 475, women 100, percent of women 17.9%; total People's Consultative Assembly percent of women NA (2019)
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (51 judges divided into 8 chambers); Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by Judicial Commission, appointed by president with concurrence of parliament; judges serve until retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by president, 3 by Supreme Court, and 3 by parliament; judges appointed by the president; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: High Courts of Appeal, district courts, religious courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Democrat Party or PD [Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO]
    Functional Groups Party or GOLKAR [Airlangga HARTARTO]
    Great Indonesia Movement Party or GERINDRA [PRABOWO Subianto Djojohadikusumo]
    Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]
    National Awakening Party or PKB [Muhaiman ISKANDAR]
    National Democratic Party or NasDem [Surya PALOH]
    National Mandate Party or PAN [Zulkifli HASAN]
    Party of the Functional Groups or Golkar [Airlangga HARTARTO]
    People's Conscience Party or HANURA [Oesman Sapta ODANG]
    Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Muhammad Sohibul IMAN]
    United Development Party or PPP [Muhammad ROMAHURMUZIY] (2019)
    International organization participation field listing
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, EAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-11, G-15, G-20, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IORA, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, MSG (associate member), NAM, OECD (enhanced engagement), OIC, OPCW, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammad LUTFI (since 17 September 2020)
    chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
    FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission:

    Charge d'Affaires Heather VARIAVA (14 February 2020)

    telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000 (2020)
    embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 3-5, Jakarta 10110
    mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
    FAX: [62] (21) 2395-1697 (2018)
    consulate(s) general: Surabaya
    consulate(s): Medan
    Flag description field listing
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; the colors derive from the banner of the Majapahit Empire of the 13th-15th centuries; red symbolizes courage, white represents purity

    note: similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

    National symbol(s) field listing
    garuda (mythical bird); national colors: red, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Indonesia Raya" (Great Indonesia)
    lyrics/music: Wage Rudolf SOEPRATMAN

    note: adopted 1945

  • Economy :: Indonesia
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Indonesia, the largest economy in Southeast Asia, has seen a slowdown in growth since 2012, mostly due to the end of the commodities export boom. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth. Indonesia’s annual budget deficit is capped at 3% of GDP, and the Government of Indonesia lowered its debt-to-GDP ratio from a peak of 100% shortly after the Asian financial crisis in 1999 to 34% today. In May 2017 Standard & Poor’s became the last major ratings agency to upgrade Indonesia’s sovereign credit rating to investment grade.

    Poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among its regions are still part of Indonesia’s economic landscape. President Joko WIDODO - elected in July 2014 – seeks to develop Indonesia’s maritime resources and pursue other infrastructure development, including significantly increasing its electrical power generation capacity. Fuel subsidies were significantly reduced in early 2015, a move which has helped the government redirect its spending to development priorities. Indonesia, with the nine other ASEAN members, will continue to move towards participation in the ASEAN Economic Community, though full implementation of economic integration has not yet materialized.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $3.25 trillion (2017 est.)
    $3.093 trillion (2016 est.)
    $2.945 trillion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 7
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $1.015 trillion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    5.03% (2019 est.)
    5.17% (2018 est.)
    5.07% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $12,400 (2017 est.)
    $12,000 (2016 est.)
    $11,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 127
    Gross national saving field listing
    31.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    32% of GDP (2016 est.)
    32% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 57.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 9.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 32.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 20.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -19.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 13.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 41% (2017 est.)
    services: 45.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    rubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
    Industries field listing
    petroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instruments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Labor force field listing
    129.366 million (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 32%
    industry: 21%
    services: 47% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    5.31% (2018 est.)
    5.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Population below poverty line field listing
    10.9% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 28.2% (2010)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 131.7 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 159.6 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    13% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Public debt field listing
    28.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.8% (2017 est.)
    3.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Current account balance field listing
    -$30.359 billion (2019 est.)
    -$30.633 billion (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Exports field listing
    $168.9 billion (2017 est.)
    $144.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Exports - partners field listing
    China 13.6%, US 10.6%, Japan 10.5%, India 8.4%, Singapore 7.6%, Malaysia 5.1%, South Korea 4.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    mineral fuels, animal or vegetable fats (includes palm oil), electrical machinery, rubber, machinery and mechanical appliance parts
    Imports field listing
    $150.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $129.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Imports - commodities field listing
    mineral fuels, boilers, machinery, and mechanical parts, electric machinery, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 23.2%, Singapore 10.9%, Japan 10%, Thailand 6%, Malaysia 5.6%, South Korea 5.3%, US 5.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $130.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Debt - external field listing
    $344.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Exchange rates field listing
    Indonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
    13,385 (2017 est.)
    13,308.3 (2016 est.)
    13,308.3 (2015 est.)
    13,389.4 (2014 est.)
    11,865.2 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Indonesia
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 2 million (2019)
    electrification - total population: 99% (2019)
    electrification - urban areas: 100% (2019)
    electrification - rural areas: 99% (2019)
    Electricity - production field listing
    235.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    213.4 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Electricity - imports field listing
    693 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    61.43 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    85% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    6% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Crude oil - production field listing
    772,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    302,300 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    498,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    3.31 billion bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    950,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    1.601 million bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    79,930 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    591,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - production field listing
    72.09 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    42.32 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    29.78 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    2.866 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    540.7 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
  • Communications :: Indonesia
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 9,272,754
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.5 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 337,766,682
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127.49 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: international service good; Indonesia has very low fixed line and fixed broadband penetration, high mobile penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; 4G mobile services are relatively advanced, 7 operators compete for revenue in the Indonesian market; Chinese company Huawei working on the development of 5G technology in the country; mobile broadband market still in early stages of development; data center market has experienced significant growth; Kacific-1 satellite launched in 2019 to significantly improve telecommunications (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 127 per 100 persons; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly (2019)
    international: country code - 62; landing points for the SEA-ME-WE-3 & 5, DAMAI, JASUKA, BDM, Dumai-Melaka Cable System, IGG, JIBA, Link 1, 3, 4,  & 5, PGASCOM, B3J2, Tanjung Pandam-Sungai Kakap Cable System, JAKABARE, JAYABAYA, INDIGO-West, Matrix Cable System, ASC, SJJK, Jaka2LaDeMa, S-U-B Cable System, JBCS, MKCS, BALOK, Palapa Ring East, West and Middle, SMPCS Packet-1 and 2, LTCS, TSCS, SEA-US and Kamal Domestic Submarine Cable System, 35 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Southeast Asia, Africa and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    mixture of about a dozen national TV networks - 1 public broadcaster, the remainder private broadcasters - each with multiple transmitters; more than 100 local TV stations; widespread use of satellite and cable TV systems; public radio broadcaster operates 6 national networks, as well as regional and local stations; overall, more than 700 radio stations with more than 650 privately operated (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 104,563,108
    percent of population: 39.79% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 8,874,116
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
  • Transportation :: Indonesia
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 25 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 611
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,154,100 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,131,910,000 mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    PK (2016)
    Airports field listing
    673 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 186 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 21 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 51 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 72 (2017)
    under 914 m: 37 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 487 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 23 (2013)
    under 914 m: 460 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    76 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    1064 km condensate, 150 km condensate/gas, 11702 km gas, 119 km liquid petroleum gas, 7767 km oil, 77 km oil/gas/water, 728 km refined products, 53 km unknown, 44 km water (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 8,159 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 8,159 km 1.067-m gauge (565 km electrified) (2014)

    note: 4,816 km operational

    country comparison to the world: 27
    Roadways field listing
    total: 496,607 km (2011)
    paved: 283,102 km (2011)
    unpaved: 213,505 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Waterways field listing
    21,579 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 9,879
    by type: bulk carrier 109, container ship 217, general cargo 2,198, oil tanker 622, other 6,733 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Banjarmasin, Belawan, Kotabaru, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok
    container port(s) (TEUs): Tanjung Perak (3,553,370), Tanjung Priok (6,090,000) (2017)
    LNG terminal(s) (export): Bontang, Tangguh
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Arun, Lampung, West Java
  • Military and Security :: Indonesia
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD)), Navy (TNI-Angkatan Laut (TNI-AL), includes marines (Korps Marinir, KorMar), naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-Angkatan Udara (TNI-AU)), National Air Defense Command (Komando Pertahanan Udara Nasional (Kohanudnas)), Armed Forces Special Operations Command (Koopssus), Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad)

    Indonesian Sea and Coast Guard (Kesatuan Penjagaan Laut dan Pantai, KPLP) is under the Ministry of Transportation (2019)
    note:  the Indonesian National Police includes a paramilitary Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB)
    Military expenditures field listing
    0.7% of GDP (2019)
    0.7% of GDP (2018)
    0.9% of GDP (2017)
    0.8% of GDP (2016)
    0.9% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Indonesian National Armed Forces have an estimated 395,000 active duty troops (300,000 Army; 65,000 Navy; 30,000 Air Force); the Police Mobile Brigade Corps (BRIMOB) has an estimated 14,000 personnel (2019)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Indonesian military inventory is comprised of equipment from a wide variety of sources; since 2010, the top suppliers are China, Germany, the Netherlands, Russia, South Korea, the UK, and the US (2019)
    Military deployments field listing
    200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA); 1,025 Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO); 1,250 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (2020)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-45 years of age for voluntary military service, with selective conscription authorized; 2-year service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (officers); Indonesian citizens only (2013)
    Maritime threats field listing
    The International Maritime Bureau continues to report the territorial and offshore waters in the Strait of Malacca and South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; attacks declined for the third year in a row from 43 incidents in 2016 to 36 in 2018 due to aggressive maritime patrolling by regional authorities; in 2018, 29 commercial vessels were boarded and three crew members were taken hostage; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia (2018)
  • Terrorism :: Indonesia
  • Terrorist group(s) field listing
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (aka Jemaah Anshorut Daulah); Jemaah Islamiyah (2019)
    note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
  • Transnational Issues :: Indonesia
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; three stretches of land borders with Timor-Leste have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundaries have been established between the countries; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and EEZ boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches; land and maritime negotiations with Malaysia are ongoing, and disputed areas include the controversial Tanjung Datu and Camar Wulan border area in Borneo and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalizing their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; EEZ negotiations with Vietnam are ongoing, and the two countries in Fall 2011 agreed to work together to reduce illegal fishing along their maritime boundary

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 6,098 (Afghanistan) (2018)
    IDPs: 40,000 (inter-communal, inter-faith, and separatist violence between 1998 and 2004 in Aceh and Papua; religious attacks and land conflicts in 2007 and 2013; most IDPs in Aceh, Maluku, East Nusa Tengarra) (2019)
    stateless persons: 582 (2019)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; producer of methamphetamine and ecstasy; President WIDODO's war on drugs has led to an increase in death sentences and executions, particularly of foreign drug traffickers