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Middle East :: Jordan Print
Page last updated on November 25, 2020
  • Introduction :: Jordan
  • Background field listing
    Following World War I and the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the League of Nations awarded Britain the mandate to govern much of the Middle East. Britain demarcated a semi-autonomous region of Transjordan from Palestine in the early 1920s. The area gained its independence in 1946 and thereafter became The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The country's long-time ruler, King HUSSEIN (1953-99), successfully navigated competing pressures from the major powers (US, USSR, and UK), various Arab states, Israel, and a large internal Palestinian population. Jordan lost the West Bank to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War. King HUSSEIN in 1988 permanently relinquished Jordanian claims to the West Bank; in 1994 he signed a peace treaty with Israel. King ABDALLAH II, King HUSSEIN's eldest son, assumed the throne following his father's death in 1999. He has implemented modest political reforms, including the passage of a new electoral law in early 2016 and an effort to devolve some authority to governorate- and municipal-level councils following subnational elections in 2017. In 2016, the Islamic Action Front, which is the political arm of the Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood, returned to the National Assembly with 15 seats after boycotting the previous two elections in 2010 and 2013.
  • Geography :: Jordan
  • Location field listing
    Middle East, northwest of Saudi Arabia, between Israel (to the west) and Iraq
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    31 00 N, 36 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Middle East
    Area field listing
    total: 89,342 sq km
    land: 88,802 sq km
    water: 540 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Area - comparative field listing
    about three-quarters the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Indiana
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 1,744 km
    border countries (5): Iraq 179 km, Israel 307 km, Saudi Arabia 731 km, Syria 379 km, West Bank 148 km
    Coastline field listing
    26 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    Climate field listing
    mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)
    Terrain field listing
    mostly arid desert plateau; a great north-south geological rift along the west of the country is the dominant topographical feature and includes the Jordan River Valley, the Dead Sea, and the Jordanian Highlands
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 812 m
    lowest point: Dead Sea -431 m
    highest point: Jabal Umm ad Dami 1,854 m
    Natural resources field listing
    phosphates, potash, shale oil
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 11.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 8.4% (2011 est.)
    forest: 1.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 87.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    964 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
    Natural hazards field listing
    droughts; periodic earthquakes; flash floods
    Environment - current issues field listing
    limited natural freshwater resources; declining water table; salinity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; biodiversity and ecosystem damage/loss
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    strategic location at the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and as the Arab country that shares the longest border with Israel and the occupied West Bank; the Dead Sea, the lowest point in Asia and the second saltiest body of water in the world (after Lac Assal in Djibouti), lies on Jordan's western border with Israel and the West Bank; Jordan is almost landlocked but does have a 26 km southwestern coastline with a single port, Al 'Aqabah (Aqaba)
  • People and Society :: Jordan
  • Population field listing
    10,820,644 (July 2020 est.)

    note: increased estimate reflects revised assumptions about the net migration rate due to the increased flow of Syrian refugees

    country comparison to the world: 84
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Jordanian(s)
    adjective: Jordanian
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Jordanian 69.3%, Syrian 13.3%, Palestinian 6.7%, Egyptian 6.7%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 2.6% (includes Armenian, Circassian) (2015 est.)

    note: data represent population by self-identified nationality

    Languages field listing
    Arabic (official), English (widely understood among upper and middle classes)
    Religions field listing
    Muslim 97.2% (official; predominantly Sunni), Christian 2.2% (majority Greek Orthodox, but some Greek and Roman Catholics, Syrian Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Protestant denominations), Buddhist 0.4%, Hindu 0.1%, Jewish <0.1, folk <0.1, unaffiliated <0.1, other <0.1 (2010 est.)
    MENA religious affiliation: PDF
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 33.05% (male 1,837,696/female 1,738,935)
    15-24 years: 19.77% (male 1,126,567/female 1,012,812)
    25-54 years: 38.39% (male 2,250,328/female 1,903,996)
    55-64 years: 5.11% (male 290,633/female 262,827)
    65 years and over: 3.67% (male 194,464/female 202,386) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 58.2
    youth dependency ratio: 52
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.3
    potential support ratio: 16 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 23.5 years
    male: 23.9 years
    female: 22.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Population growth rate field listing
    1.4% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Birth rate field listing
    23 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Death rate field listing
    3.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    Net migration rate field listing
    -11.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Population distribution field listing
    population heavily concentrated in the west, and particularly the northwest, in and around the capital of Amman; a sizeable, but smaller population is located in the southwest along the shore of the Gulf of Aqaba
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 91.4% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.43% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    2.148 million AMMAN (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.11 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.11 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    24.8 years (2017/18 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 30-34

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    46 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 13.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 75.5 years
    male: 74 years
    female: 77.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Total fertility rate field listing
    3.04 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    51.8% (2017/18)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 97.7% of population
    total: 98.9% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 2.2% of population
    total: 1.1% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    8.1% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.32 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    1.5 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 98.6% of population
    rural: 96.6% of population
    total: 98.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population
    rural: 3.7% of population
    total: 1.5% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    <.1% (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    <500 (2018 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    35.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    3% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.6% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.2%
    male: 98.6%
    female: 97.8% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 11 years
    male: 11 years
    female: 11 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 35.6%
    male: 31.5%
    female: 57% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
  • Government :: Jordan
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
    conventional short form: Jordan
    local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah
    local short form: Al Urdun
    former: Transjordan
    etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital field listing
    name: Amman
    geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in March; ends last Friday in October
    etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba
    Independence field listing
    25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 25 May (1946)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952
    amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the regency period; amended several times, last in 2016
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Crown Prince HUSSEIN (born 28 June 1994), eldest son of King ABDALLAH II
    head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
    Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)
    election results:
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Ahrar al-Urdun (Free People of Jordan) Party [Samir al-ZU'BI]
    Al-Awn al-Watani (National Aid) Party [Faysal al-AWAR]
    Al-Balad al-Amin Party [Khalil al-SAYED]
    Al-Itijah al-Watani (National Trend Party) [Ahmad al-KAYED]
    Al-Mustaqbal (Future) Party [Salah al-QUDAH]
    Al-Nida’ Party [Abd-al-Majid ABU-KHALID]
    Al-Rayah Party (Flag Party) [Bilal DHEISAT]
    Al-Shahama Party [Mashhour ZREIQAT]
    Al-Shura Party [Firas al-ABBADI]
    Arab Socialist Ba’th Party [Zyad AL-HOMSI]
    Conservatives Party [Hasan RASHID]
    Democratic Popular Unity Party [Sa’eed DHIYAB]
    Democratic Sha’b Party (HASHD) [Abla ABU-OLBEH]
    Freedom and Equality Party [Hamad Abu ZEID]
    Islamic Action Front [Murad AL-ADAYLAH]
    Islamic Centrist Party [Madallah AL-TARAWNEH]
    Jordanian Al-Ansar Party [Awni al-RJOUB]
    Jordanian Al-Hayah Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-KILANI]
    Jordanian Communist Party [Faraj ITMIZYEH]
    Jordanian Democratic Socialist Party [Jamil al-NIMRI]
    Jordanian Democratic Tabiy’ah (Nature) Party [Ali ASFOUR]
    Jordanian Equality Party [Zuhair al-SHURAFA]
    Jordanian Fursan (Cavaliers Party) [Ali al-DHWEIB]
    Jordanian Justice and Development Party [Ali al-SHURAFA]
    Jordanian National Action Party [Abd-al-Hadi al-MAHARMAH]
    Jordanian National Constitutional Party [Ahmad al-SHUNNAQ]
    Jordanian National Democratic Grouping Party [Shakir al-ABBADI]
    Jordanian National Party [Muna ABU-BAKR]
    Jordanian National Union Party [Zeid ABU-ZEID]
    Jordanian Progressive Ba’th Party [Fu’ad DABBOUR]
    Jordanian Promise Party [Mahmoud al-KHALILI]
    Jordanian Reform Party [Eid DHAYYAT]
    Jordanian Social Justice Party [Abd-al-Fattah al-NSOUR]
    Jordanian Wafa’ (Loyalty) Party [Mazin al-QADI]
    Justice and Reform Party [Sa’eed Nathir ARABIYAT]
    Modernity and Change Party [Nayef al-HAMAYDEH]
    National Congress Party [Irhayil GHARAYBEH] (formerly the Zamzam party)
    National Renaissance Front Party [Isma’il KHATATBEH]
    National Unity Party [Muhammad al-ZBOUN]
    Pan Arab Movement Party [Dayfallah FARRAJ]
    Partnership and Salvation Party [Muhammad al-HAMMOURI]
    Reform and Renewal Party [Mazin RYAL]
    Risalah Party [Hazim QASHOU’]
    Stronger Jordan Party [Rula al-HROUB]
    Unified Jordanian Front Party [Farouq AL-ABBADI]
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dina Khalil Tawiq KAWAR (since 27 June 2016)
    chancery: 3504 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 966-2664
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-3110
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mike HANKEY (since 4 August 2019)
    telephone: [962] (6) 590-6000
    embassy: Abdoun, Al-Umawyeen St., Amman
    mailing address: P. O. Box 354, Amman 11118 Jordan; Unit 70200, Box 5, DPO AE 09892-0200
    FAX: [962] (6) 592-0163
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of black (top), representing the Abbassid Caliphate, white, representing the Ummayyad Caliphate, and green, representing the Fatimid Caliphate; a red isosceles triangle on the hoist side, representing the Great Arab Revolt of 1916, and bearing a small white seven-pointed star symbolizing the seven verses of the opening Sura (Al-Fatiha) of the Holy Koran; the seven points on the star represent faith in One God, humanity, national spirit, humility, social justice, virtue, and aspirations; design is based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I
    National symbol(s) field listing
    eagle; national colors: black, white, green, red
    National anthem field listing
    name: "As-salam al-malaki al-urdoni" (Long Live the King of Jordan)
    lyrics/music: Abdul-Mone'm al-RIFAI'/Abdul-Qader al-TANEER

    note: adopted 1946; the shortened version of the anthem is used most commonly, while the full version is reserved for special occasions

  • Economy :: Jordan
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Jordan's economy is among the smallest in the Middle East, with insufficient supplies of water, oil, and other natural resources, underlying the government's heavy reliance on foreign assistance. Other economic challenges for the government include chronic high rates of unemployment and underemployment, budget and current account deficits, and government debt.

    King ABDALLAH, during the first decade of the 2000s, implemented significant economic reforms, such as expanding foreign trade and privatizing state-owned companies that attracted foreign investment and contributed to average annual economic growth of 8% for 2004 through 2008. The global economic slowdown and regional turmoil contributed to slower growth from 2010 to 2017 - with growth averaging about 2.5% per year - and hurt export-oriented sectors, construction/real estate, and tourism. Since the onset of the civil war in Syria and resulting refugee crisis, one of Jordan’s most pressing socioeconomic challenges has been managing the influx of approximately 660,000 UN-registered refugees, more than 80% of whom live in Jordan’s urban areas. Jordan’s own official census estimated the refugee number at 1.3 million Syrians as of early 2016.

    Jordan is nearly completely dependent on imported energy—mostly natural gas—and energy consistently makes up 25-30% of Jordan’s imports. To diversify its energy mix, Jordan has secured several contracts for liquefied and pipeline natural gas, developed several major renewables projects, and is currently exploring nuclear power generation and exploitation of abundant oil shale reserves. In August 2016, Jordan and the IMF agreed to a $723 million Extended Fund Facility that aims to build on the three-year, $2.1 billion IMF program that ended in August 2015 with the goal of helping Jordan correct budgetary and balance of payments imbalances.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $89 billion (2017 est.)
    $87.28 billion (2016 est.)
    $85.56 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 90
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $40.13 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    2% (2019 est.)
    1.94% (2018 est.)
    2.12% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $9,200 (2017 est.)
    $9,200 (2016 est.)
    $9,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 144
    Gross national saving field listing
    9.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    9.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    10.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 80.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 22.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 34.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -58% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 4.5% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 66.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    citrus, tomatoes, cucumbers, olives, strawberries, stone fruits; sheep, poultry, dairy
    Industries field listing
    tourism, information technology, clothing, fertilizer, potash, phosphate mining, pharmaceuticals, petroleum refining, cement, inorganic chemicals, light manufacturing
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Labor force field listing
    731,000 (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 2%
    industry: 20%
    services: 78% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    19.1% (2019 est.)
    18.61% (2018 est.)

    note: official rate; unofficial rate is approximately 30%

    country comparison to the world: 186
    Population below poverty line field listing
    14.2% (2002 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 28.7% (2010 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 9.462 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 11.51 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    23.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -5.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Public debt field listing
    95.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    95.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover central government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 22
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    3.3% (2017 est.)
    -0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Current account balance field listing
    -$1.222 billion (2019 est.)
    -$2.964 billion (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Exports field listing
    $7.511 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.509 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Exports - partners field listing
    US 24.9%, Saudi Arabia 12.8%, India 8.2%, Iraq 8.2%, Kuwait 5.4%, UAE 4.6% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    textiles, fertilizers, potash, phosphates, vegetables, pharmaceuticals
    Imports field listing
    $18.21 billion (2017 est.)
    $17.14 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Imports - commodities field listing
    crude oil, refined petroleum products, machinery, transport equipment, iron, cereals
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 13.6%, Saudi Arabia 13.6%, US 9.9%, UAE 4.9%, Germany 4.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $15.56 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $15.54 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Debt - external field listing
    $29.34 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $26.38 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Exchange rates field listing
    Jordanian dinars (JOD) per US dollar -
    0.71 (2017 est.)
    0.71 (2016 est.)
    0.71 (2015 est.)
    0.71 (2014 est.)
    0.71 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Jordan
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    18.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    16.82 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - exports field listing
    50 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - imports field listing
    334 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    4.764 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    87% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    12% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Crude oil - production field listing
    22 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    67,980 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    1 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    67,240 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    139,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    68,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Natural gas - production field listing
    121.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    5.238 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    1.359 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    6.456 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    6.031 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    27.39 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
  • Communications :: Jordan
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 375,576
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3.52 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 8,215,735
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; recent influx of refugees putting burden on country's economy, infrastructure and society; mobile broadband is area of growth with 4G services; govt. recently launched Ministry of Digital Economy & Entrepreneurship; preparing for next wave of development with 5G and IoT/MsM services (2020)
    domestic: 1995 a telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, the monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently fixed-line 4 per 100 persons and multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 77 per 100 persons (2019)
    international: country code - 962; landing point for the FEA and Taba-Aqaba submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia and Asia; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    radio and TV dominated by the government-owned Jordan Radio and Television Corporation (JRTV) that operates a main network, a sports network, a film network, and a satellite channel; first independent TV broadcaster aired in 2007; international satellite TV and Israeli and Syrian TV broadcasts are available; roughly 30 radio stations with JRTV operating the main government-owned station; transmissions of multiple international radio broadcasters are available
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 6,985,174
    percent of population: 66.79% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 399,596
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
  • Transportation :: Jordan
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 54
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,383,805 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 175.84 million mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    JY (2016)
    Airports field listing
    18 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 16 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    1 (2012)
    Pipelines field listing
    473 km gas, 49 km oil (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 509 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 509 km 1.050-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Roadways field listing
    total: 7,203 km (2011)
    paved: 7,203 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 32
    by type: general cargo 7, oil tanker 1, other 24 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Al 'Aqabah
  • Military and Security :: Jordan
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF): Royal Jordanian Army (includes Special Operations Forces, Border Guards, Royal Guard), Royal Jordanian Navy, Royal Jordanian Air Force; Ministry of Interior: General Directorate of Gendarmerie Forces, Public Security Directorate (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    4.7% of GDP (2019)
    4.7% of GDP (2018)
    4.8% of GDP (2017)
    4.6% of GDP (2016)
    4.3% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF) have approximately 101,000 active personnel (87,000 Army; 500 Navy; 14,000 Air Force); est. 15,000 Gendarmerie Forces (2019)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the JAF inventory is comprised of a wide mix of imported weapons, mostly second-hand equipment from Europe and the US; some of the equipment is received from third-party suppliers such as the United Arab Emirates; since 2010, the Netherlands and the US are the leading suppliers of military hardware to Jordan (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    17 years of age for voluntary male military service; initial service term 2 years, with option to reenlist for 18 years; conscription at age 18 suspended in 1999; women are not conscripted, but can volunteer to serve in noncombat military positions in the Royal Jordanian Arab Army Women's Corps and RJAF (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Jordan
  • Disputes - international field listing

    2004 Agreement settles border dispute with Syria pending demarcation

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    refugees (country of origin): 2,272,411 (Palestinian refugees), 661,997 (Syria), 66,835 (Iraq), 14,640 (Yemen), 6,098 Sudan (2020)