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Europe :: Kosovo Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Kosovo
  • Background field listing

    The central Balkans were part of the Roman and Byzantine Empires before ethnic Serbs migrated to the territories of modern Kosovo in the 7th century. During the medieval period, Kosovo became the center of a Serbian Empire and saw the construction of many important Serb religious sites, including many architecturally significant Serbian Orthodox monasteries. The defeat of Serbian forces at the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 led to five centuries of Ottoman rule during which large numbers of Turks and Albanians moved to Kosovo. By the end of the 19th century, Albanians replaced Serbs as the dominant ethnic group in Kosovo. Serbia reacquired control over the region from the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War of 1912. After World War II, Kosovo's present-day boundaries were established when Kosovo became an autonomous province of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (S.F.R.Y.). Despite legislative concessions, Albanian nationalism increased in the 1980s, which led to riots and calls for Kosovo's independence. The Serbs - many of whom viewed Kosovo as their cultural heartland - instituted a new constitution in 1989 revoking Kosovo's autonomous status. Kosovo's Albanian leaders responded in 1991 by organizing a referendum declaring Kosovo independent. Serbia undertook repressive measures against the Kosovar Albanians in the 1990s, provoking a Kosovar Albanian insurgency.

    Beginning in 1998, Serbia conducted a brutal counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians (some 800,000 ethnic Albanians were forced from their homes in Kosovo). After international attempts to mediate the conflict failed, a three-month NATO military operation against Serbia beginning in March 1999 forced the Serbs to agree to withdraw their military and police forces from Kosovo. UN Security Council Resolution 1244 (1999) placed Kosovo under a transitional administration, the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. A UN-led process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's final status. The 2006-07 negotiations ended without agreement between Belgrade and Pristina, though the UN issued a comprehensive report on Kosovo's final status that endorsed independence. On 17 February 2008, the Kosovo Assembly declared Kosovo independent. Since then, over 100 countries have recognized Kosovo, and it has joined numerous international organizations. In October 2008, Serbia sought an advisory opinion from the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on the legality under international law of Kosovo's declaration of independence. The ICJ released the advisory opinion in July 2010 affirming that Kosovo's declaration of independence did not violate general principles of international law, UN Security Council Resolution 1244, or the Constitutive Framework. The opinion was closely tailored to Kosovo's unique history and circumstances.

    Demonstrating Kosovo’s development into a sovereign, multi-ethnic, democratic country the international community ended the period of Supervised Independence in 2012. Kosovo held its most recent national and municipal elections in 2017. Serbia continues to reject Kosovo's independence, but the two countries agreed in April 2013 to normalize their relations through EU-facilitated talks, which produced several subsequent agreements the parties are engaged in implementing, though they have not yet reached a comprehensive normalization of relations. Kosovo seeks full integration into the international community, and has pursued bilateral recognitions and memberships in international organizations. Kosovo signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU in 2015, and was named by a 2018 EU report as one of six Western Balkan countries that will be able to join the organization once it meets the criteria to accede. Kosovo also seeks memberships in the UN and in NATO.

  • Geography :: Kosovo
  • Location field listing
    Southeast Europe, between Serbia and Macedonia
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    42 35 N, 21 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 10,887 sq km
    land: 10,887 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Delaware
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 714 km
    border countries (4): Albania 112 km, Macedonia 160 km, Montenegro 76 km, Serbia 366 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    influenced by continental air masses resulting in relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns; Mediterranean and alpine influences create regional variation; maximum rainfall between October and December
    Terrain field listing
    flat fluvial basin at an elevation of 400-700 m above sea level surrounded by several high mountain ranges with elevations of 2,000 to 2,500 m
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 450 m
    lowest point: Drini i Bardhe/Beli Drim (located on the border with Albania) 297 m
    highest point: Gjeravica/Deravica 2,656 m
    Natural resources field listing
    nickel, lead, zinc, magnesium, lignite, kaolin, chrome, bauxite
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 52.8% (2001 est.)
    arable land: 27.4% (2001 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2001 est.) / permanent pasture: 23.5% (2001 est.)
    forest: 41.7% (2001 est.)
    other: 5.5% (2001 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    Population distribution field listing
    population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution (pollution from power plants and nearby lignite mines take a toll on people's health); water scarcity and pollution; land degradation
    Geography - note field listing
    the 41-km long Nerodimka River divides into two branches each of which flows into a different sea: the northern branch flows into the Sitnica River, which via the Ibar, Morava, and Danube Rivers ultimately flows into the Black Sea; the southern branch flows via the Lepenac and Vardar Rivers into the Aegean Sea
  • People and Society :: Kosovo
  • Population field listing
    1,932,774 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Kosovar (Albanian)
    adjective: Kosovo

    note: Kosovo, a neutral term, is sometimes also used as a noun or adjective as in Kosovo Albanian, Kosovo Serb, Kosovo minority, or Kosovo citizen

    Ethnic groups field listing
    Albanians 92.9%, Bosniaks 1.6%, Serbs 1.5%, Turk 1.1%, Ashkali 0.9%, Egyptian 0.7%, Gorani 0.6%, Romani 0.5%, other/unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

    note: these estimates may under-represent Serb, Romani, and some other ethnic minorities because they are based on the 2011 Kosovo national census, which excluded northern Kosovo (a largely Serb-inhabited region) and was partially boycotted by Serb and Romani communities in southern Kosovo

    Languages field listing
    Albanian (official) 94.5%, Bosnian 1.7%, Serbian (official) 1.6%, Turkish 1.1%, other 0.9% (includes Romani), unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)

    note: in municipalities where a community's mother tongue is not one of Kosovo's official languages, the language of that community may be given official status according to the 2006 Law on the Use of Languages

    Religions field listing
    Muslim 95.6%, Roman Catholic 2.2%, Orthodox 1.5%, other 0.1%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.6% (2011 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 24.07% (male 241,563/female 223,568)
    15-24 years: 16.95% (male 170,566/female 157,063)
    25-54 years: 42.56% (male 433,914/female 388,595)
    55-64 years: 8.67% (male 85,840/female 81,782)
    65 years and over: 7.75% (male 63,943/female 85,940) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age field listing
    total: 30.5 years
    male: 30.2 years
    female: 30.8 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.66% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Birth rate field listing
    15.4 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Death rate field listing
    7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Population distribution field listing
    population clusters exist throughout the country, the largest being in the east in and around the capital of Pristina
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    214,688 PRISTINA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 30.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 31.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 72.7 years
    male: 70.5 years
    female: 75.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.95 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    Education expenditures field listing
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 55.4%
    male: 51.5%
    female: 64.8% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
  • Government :: Kosovo
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Kosovo
    conventional short form: Kosovo
    local long form: Republika e Kosoves (Republika Kosovo)
    local short form: Kosove (Kosovo)
    etymology: name derives from the Serbian "kos" meaning "blackbird," an ellipsis (linguistic omission) for "kosove polje" or "field of the blackbirds"
    Government type field listing
    parliamentary republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Pristina (Prishtine, Prishtina)
    geographic coordinates: 42 40 N, 21 10 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name may derive from a Proto-Slavic word reconstructed as "pryshchina," meaning "spring (of water)"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    38 municipalities (komunat, singular - komuna (Albanian); opstine, singular - opstina (Serbian)); Decan (Decani), Dragash (Dragas), Ferizaj (Urosevac), Fushe Kosove (Kosovo Polje), Gjakove (Dakovica), Gjilan (Gnjilane), Gllogovc (Glogovac), Gracanice (Gracanica), Hani i Elezit (Deneral Jankovic), Istog (Istok), Junik, Kacanik, Kamenice (Kamenica), Kline (Klina), Kllokot (Klokot), Leposaviq (Leposavic), Lipjan (Lipljan), Malisheve (Malisevo), Mamushe (Mamusa), Mitrovice e Jugut (Juzna Mitrovica) [South Mitrovica], Mitrovice e Veriut (Severna Mitrovica) [North Mitrovica], Novoberde (Novo Brdo), Obiliq (Obilic), Partesh (Partes), Peje (Pec), Podujeve (Podujevo), Prishtine (Pristina), Prizren, Rahovec (Orahovac), Ranillug (Ranilug), Shterpce (Strpce), Shtime (Stimlje), Skenderaj (Srbica), Suhareke (Suva Reka), Viti (Vitina), Vushtrri (Vucitrn), Zubin Potok, Zvecan
    Independence field listing
    17 February 2008 (from Serbia)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 17 February (2008)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1974, 1990; latest (postindependence) draft finalized 2 April 2008, signed 7 April 2008, ratified 9 April 2008, entered into force 15 June 2008; note - amendment 24, passed by the Assembly in August 2015, established the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Institution, referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chamber or "Specialist Court," to try war crimes allegedly committed by members of the Kosovo Liberation Army in the late 1990s
    amendments: proposed by the government, by the president of the republic, or by one fourth of Assembly deputies; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly, including two-thirds majority vote of deputies representing non-majority communities, followed by a favorable Constitutional Court assessment; amended several times, last in 2016
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kosovo
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: Acting President Vjosa OSMANI (since 5 November 2020); note: President Hashim THACI (since 7 April 2016) resigned 5 November 2020
    head of government: Prime Minister Avdullah HOTI (since 3 June 2020)
    cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Assembly
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by at least two-thirds majority vote of the Assembly for a 5-year term; if a candidate does not attain a two-thirds threshold in the first two ballots, the candidate winning a simple majority vote in the third ballot is elected (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister indirectly elected by the Assembly
    election results: Hashim THACI elected president in the third ballot; Assembly vote - Hashim THACI (PDK) 71, Rafet RAMA (PDK) 0, invalid 10; Avdullah HOTI (LDK) elected prime minister; Assembly vote - 61 of 85
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi i Kosoves/Skupstina Kosova (120 seats; 100 members directly elected by open-list proportional representation vote with 20 seats reserved for ethnic minorities - 10 for Serbs and 10 for other ethnic minorities; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 6 October 2019 (next to be held in 2023); note - early elections were held on 6 October 2019 following the dissolution of parliament on 22 August 2019, as a result of political deadlock since the resignation of Prime Minister HARADINAJ on 19 July 2019
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - VV 25.5%, LDK 24.8%, PDK 21.2%, AAK-PSD 11.6%, Serb List 6.6%, other 10.3%; seats by party/coalition - VV 31, LDK 30, PDK 25, AAK-PSD 14, Serb List 10, Vakat 2, KDTP 2, other 6; composition - men NA, women NA, percent of women NA%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president and 18 judges and organized into Appeals Panel of the Kosovo Property Agency and Special Chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Judicial Council, a 13-member independent body staffed by judges and lay members, and also responsible for overall administration of Kosovo's judicial system; judges appointed by the president of the Republic of Kosovo; judges appointed until mandatory retirement age; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the Kosovo Assembly and appointed by the president of the republic to serve single, 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (organized into 4 departments: General, Serious Crime, Commercial Matters, and Administrative Matters); Basic Court (located in 7 municipalities, each with several branches)

    note: in August 2015, the Kosovo Assembly approved a constitutional amendment that establishes the Kosovo Relocated Specialist Judicial Institution, also referred to as the Kosovo Specialist Chambers or "Special Court"; the court, located at the Hague in the Netherlands, began operating in late 2016 and has jurisdiction to try crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other crimes under Kosovo law that occurred in the 1998-2000 period

    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Ramush HARADINAJ]
    Alternativa [Mimoza KUSARI-LILA]
    Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Isa MUSTAFA]
    Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Kadri VESELI]
    Independent Liberal Party or SLS [Slobodan PETROVIC]
    Initiative for Kosovo or NISMA [Fatmir LIMAJ]
    Movement for Self-Determination (Vetevendosje) or VV [Albin KURTI]
    New Kosovo Alliance or AKR [Behgjet PACOLLI]
    Serb List [Goran RAKIC]
    Social Democratic Party of Kosovo or PSD [Shpend AHMETI]
    Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo or KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]
    Vakat Coalition or VAKAT [Rasim DEMIRI]
    International organization participation field listing
    IBRD, IDA, IFC, IMF, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Vlora CITAKU (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 2175 K Street NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 450-2130
    FAX: [1] (202) 735-0609
    consulate(s) general: New York
    consulate(s): Des Moines (IA)
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Philip KOSNETT (since 3 December 2018)
    telephone: [383] 38 59 59 3000
    embassy: Arberia/Dragodan, Nazim Hikmet 30, Pristina
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [383] 38 549 890
    Flag description field listing
    centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc; each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks

    note: one of only two national flags that uses a map as a design element; the flag of Cyprus is the other

    National symbol(s) field listing
    six, five-pointed, white stars; national colors: blue, gold, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: Europe
    lyrics/music: no lyrics/Mendi MENGJIQI

    note: adopted 2008; Kosovo chose to exclude lyrics in its anthem so as not to offend the country's minority ethnic groups

  • Economy :: Kosovo
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Kosovo's economy has shown progress in transitioning to a market-based system and maintaining macroeconomic stability, but it is still highly dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. Remittances from the diaspora - located mainly in Germany, Switzerland, and the Nordic countries - are estimated to account for about 17% of GDP and international donor assistance accounts for approximately 10% of GDP. With international assistance, Kosovo has been able to privatize a majority of its state-owned enterprises.

    Kosovo's citizens are the second poorest in Europe, after Moldova, with a per capita GDP (PPP) of $10,400 in 2017. An unemployment rate of 33%, and a youth unemployment rate near 60%, in a country where the average age is 26, encourages emigration and fuels a significant informal, unreported economy. Most of Kosovo's population lives in rural towns outside of the capital, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common - the result of small plots, limited mechanization, and a lack of technical expertise. Kosovo enjoys lower labor costs than the rest of the region. However, high levels of corruption, little contract enforcement, and unreliable electricity supply have discouraged potential investors. The official currency of Kosovo is the euro, but the Serbian dinar is also used illegally in Serb majority communities. Kosovo's tie to the euro has helped keep core inflation low.

    Minerals and metals production - including lignite, lead, zinc, nickel, chrome, aluminum, magnesium, and a wide variety of construction materials - once the backbone of industry, has declined because of aging equipment and insufficient investment, problems exacerbated by competing and unresolved ownership claims of Kosovo’s largest mines. A limited and unreliable electricity supply is a major impediment to economic development. The US Government is cooperating with the Ministry of Economic Development (MED) and the World Bank to conclude a commercial tender for the construction of Kosovo C, a new lignite-fired power plant that would leverage Kosovo’s large lignite reserves. MED also has plans for the rehabilitation of an older bituminous-fired power plant, Kosovo B, and the development of a coal mine that could supply both plants.

    In June 2009, Kosovo joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, the Central Europe Free Trade Area (CEFTA) in 2006, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in 2012, and the Council of Europe Development Bank in 2013. In 2016, Kosovo implemented the Stabilization and Association Agreement (SAA) negotiations with the EU, focused on trade liberalization. In 2014, nearly 60% of customs duty-eligible imports into Kosovo were EU goods. In August 2015, as part of its EU-facilitated normalization process with Serbia, Kosovo signed agreements on telecommunications and energy distribution, but disagreements over who owns economic assets, such as the Trepca mining conglomerate, within Kosovo continue.

    Kosovo experienced its first federal budget deficit in 2012, when government expenditures climbed sharply. In May 2014, the government introduced a 25% salary increase for public sector employees and an equal increase in certain social benefits. Central revenues could not sustain these increases, and the government was forced to reduce its planned capital investments. The government, led by Prime Minister MUSTAFA - a trained economist - recently made several changes to its fiscal policy, expanding the list of duty-free imports, decreasing the Value Added Tax (VAT) for basic food items and public utilities, and increasing the VAT for all other goods.

    While Kosovo’s economy continued to make progress, unemployment has not been reduced, nor living standards raised, due to lack of economic reforms and investment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $19.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $18.89 billion (2016 est.)
    $18.16 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 151
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $7.094 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    3.7% (2017 est.)
    4.1% (2016 est.)
    4.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $10,900 (2017 est.)
    $10,600 (2016 est.)
    $10,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2016 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 137
    Gross national saving field listing
    17.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    13.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    15.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 84.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 13.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2016 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -53.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 11.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 17.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    wheat, corn, berries, potatoes, peppers, fruit; dairy, livestock; fish
    Industries field listing
    mineral mining, construction materials, base metals, leather, machinery, appliances, foodstuffs and beverages, textiles
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    1.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Labor force field listing
    500,300 (2017 est.)

    note: includes those estimated to be employed in the gray economy

    country comparison to the world: 155
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 4.4%
    industry: 17.4%
    services: 78.2% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    30.5% (2017 est.)
    27.5% (2016 est.)

    note: Kosovo has a large informal sector that may not be reflected in these data

    country comparison to the world: 207
    Population below poverty line field listing
    17.6% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 3.8%
    highest 10%: 22% (2015 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 2.054 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.203 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    29% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Public debt field listing
    21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    19.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    1.5% (2017 est.)
    0.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Current account balance field listing
    -$467 million (2017 est.)
    -$533 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Exports field listing
    $428 million (2017 est.)
    $340 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Exports - partners field listing
    Albania 16%, India 14%, North Macedonia 12.1%, Serbia 10.6%, Switzerland 5.6%, Germany 5.4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    mining and processed metal products, scrap metals, leather products, machinery, appliances, prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco, vegetable products, textiles and apparel
    Imports field listing
    $3.223 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.876 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Imports - commodities field listing
    foodstuffs, livestock, wood, petroleum, chemicals, machinery, minerals, textiles, stone, ceramic and glass products, electrical equipment
    Imports - partners field listing
    Germany 12.4%, Serbia 12.3%, Turkey 9.6%, China 9.1%, Italy 6.4%, North Macedonia 5.1%, Albania 5%, Greece 4.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $683.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $708.7 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Debt - external field listing
    $506 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $448 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Exchange rates field listing
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Kosovo
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    5.638 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    3.957 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Electricity - exports field listing
    885.7 million kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Electricity - imports field listing
    557 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    1.573 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    97% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    3% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    1% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl NA (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    14,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    192 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    14,040 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m NA (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    10.05 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
  • Communications :: Kosovo
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 117,317
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6.11 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 620,186
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 32.3 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: Kosovo being part of the EU pre-accession process has helped with their progress in the telecom industry, following a regulatory framework, European standards, and a market of new players encourages development in its telecommunications; 2 MNOs dominate the sector; poor telecom infrastructure means low fixed-line penetration; little expansion of fiber networks for broadband; expansion of LTE services (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line stands at 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 32 per 100 persons (2019)
    international: country code - 383
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Internet country code field listing

    note: assigned as a temporary code under UN Security Council resolution 1244/99

    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,706,150
    percent of population: 89.44% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
  • Transportation :: Kosovo
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 0 (2020)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    Z6 (2016)
    Airports field listing
    6 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 3 (2019)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    under 914 m: 1
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    2 (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 333 km (2015)
    standard gauge: 333 km 1.435-m gauge (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Roadways field listing
    total: 2,012 km (2015)
    paved: 1,921 km (includes 78 km of expressways) (2015)
    unpaved: 91 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 172
  • Military and Security :: Kosovo
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Kosovo Security Force (KSF): Land Force Command; National Guard Command; Logistic Command and Doctrine and Training Command (2020)
    Military expenditures field listing
    0.8% of GDP (2019)
    0.8% of GDP (2018)
    0.8% of GDP (2017)
    0.8% of GDP (2016)
    0.8% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Kosovo Security Force (KSF) has approximately 3-4,000 personnel; note: Kosovo plans for the KSF to eventually number around 5,000 troops (2019)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Kosovo Security Force is equipped with small arms and light vehicles only; its only recorded delivery since 2010 was light-armored patrol vehicles from Turkey (2019 est.)
  • Transnational Issues :: Kosovo
  • Disputes - international field listing

    Serbia with several other states protest the US and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaration of its status as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; NATO-led Kosovo Force peacekeepers under UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo authority continue to ensure a safe and secure environment and freedom of movement for all Kosovo citizens; Kosovo and North Macedonia completed demarcation of their boundary in September 2008; Kosovo ratified the border demarcation agreement with Montenegro in March 2018, but the actual demarcation has not been completed

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    IDPs: 16,000 (primarily ethnic Serbs displaced during the 1998-1999 war fearing reprisals from the majority ethnic-Albanian population; a smaller number of ethnic Serbs, Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptians fled their homes in 2,004 as a result of violence) (2019)
    note: 5,639 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals (January 2015-October 2020)