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East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Timor-Leste Print
Page last updated on November 23, 2020
  • Introduction :: Timor-Leste
  • Background field listing

    Timor was actively involved in Southeast Asian trading networks for centuries and by the 14th century exported aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey, and wax. A number of local chiefdoms ruled the island in the early 16th century when Portuguese traders arrived, chiefly attracted by the relative abundance of sandalwood on Timor; by mid century, the Portuguese had colonized the island. Skirmishing with the Dutch in the region eventually resulted in an 1859 treaty in which Portugal ceded the western portion of the island. Imperial Japan occupied Portuguese Timor from 1942 to 1945, but Portugal resumed colonial authority after the Japanese defeat in World War II. East Timor declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975 and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later. It was incorporated into Indonesia in July 1976 as the province of Timor Timur (East Timor). An unsuccessful campaign of pacification followed over the next two decades, during which an estimated 100,000 to 250,000 people died. In an August 1999 UN-supervised popular referendum, an overwhelming majority of the people of Timor-Leste voted for independence from Indonesia. However, in the next three weeks, anti-independence Timorese militias - organized and supported by the Indonesian military - commenced a large-scale, scorched-earth campaign of retribution. The militias killed approximately 1,400 Timorese and forced 300,000 people into western Timor as refugees. Most of the country's infrastructure, including homes, irrigation systems, water supply systems, and schools, and nearly all of the country's electrical grid were destroyed. On 20 September 1999, Australian-led peacekeeping troops deployed to the country and brought the violence to an end. On 20 May 2002, Timor-Leste was internationally recognized as an independent state.

    In 2006, internal tensions threatened the new nation's security when a military strike led to violence and a breakdown of law and order. At Dili's request, an Australian-led International Stabilization Force (ISF) deployed to Timor-Leste, and the UN Security Council established the UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT), which included an authorized police presence of over 1,600 personnel. The ISF and UNMIT restored stability, allowing for presidential and parliamentary elections in 2007 in a largely peaceful atmosphere. In February 2008, a rebel group staged an unsuccessful attack against the president and prime minister. The ringleader was killed in the attack, and most of the rebels surrendered in April 2008. Since the attack, the government has enjoyed one of its longest periods of post-independence stability, including successful 2012 elections for both the parliament and president and a successful transition of power in February 2015. In late 2012, the UN Security Council ended its peacekeeping mission in Timor-Leste and both the ISF and UNMIT departed the country. Early parliamentary elections in the spring of 2017 finally produced a majority government after months of impasse. Currently, the government is a coalition of three parties and the president is a member of the opposition party. In 2018 and 2019, this configuration stymied nominations for key ministerial positions and slowed progress on certain policy issues.

  • Geography :: Timor-Leste
  • Location field listing
    Southeastern Asia, northwest of Australia in the Lesser Sunda Islands at the eastern end of the Indonesian archipelago; note - Timor-Leste includes the eastern half of the island of Timor, the Oecussi (Ambeno) region on the northwest portion of the island of Timor, and the islands of Pulau Atauro and Pulau Jaco
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    8 50 S, 125 55 E
    Map references field listing
    Southeast Asia
    Area field listing
    total: 14,874 sq km
    land: 14,874 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Area - comparative field listing
    slightly larger than Connecticut; almost half the size of Maryland
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 253 km
    border countries (1): Indonesia 253 km
    Coastline field listing
    706 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    Climate field listing
    tropical; hot, humid; distinct rainy and dry seasons
    Terrain field listing
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: Timor Sea, Savu Sea, and Banda Sea 0 m
    highest point: Foho Tatamailau 2,963 m
    Natural resources field listing
    gold, petroleum, natural gas, manganese, marble
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 25.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 4.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 10.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 49.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    350 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
    Natural hazards field listing
    floods and landslides are common; earthquakes; tsunamis; tropical cyclones
    Environment - current issues field listing
    air pollution and deterioration of air quality; greenhouse gas emissions; water quality, scarcity, and access; land and soil degradation; forest depletion; widespread use of slash and burn agriculture has led to deforestation and soil erosion; loss of biodiversity
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    Timor comes from the Malay word for "east"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands; the district of Oecussi is an exclave separated from Timor-Leste proper by Indonesia; Timor-Leste has the unique distinction of being the only Asian country located completely in the Southern Hemisphere
  • People and Society :: Timor-Leste
  • Population field listing
    1,383,723 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Timorese
    adjective: Timorese
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Austronesian (Malayo-Polynesian) (includes Tetun, Mambai, Tokodede, Galoli, Kemak, Baikeno), Melanesian-Papuan (includes Bunak, Fataluku, Bakasai), small Chinese minority
    Languages field listing
    Tetun Prasa 30.6%, Mambai 16.6%, Makasai 10.5%, Tetun Terik 6.1%, Baikenu 5.9%, Kemak 5.8%, Bunak 5.5%, Tokodede 4%, Fataluku 3.5%, Waima'a 1.8%, Galoli 1.4%, Naueti 1.4%, Idate 1.2%, Midiki 1.2%, other 4.5%

    note: data represent population by mother tongue; Tetun and Portuguese are official languages; Indonesian and English are working languages; there are about 32 indigenous languages

    Religions field listing
    Roman Catholic 97.6%, Protestant/Evangelical 2%, Muslim 0.2%, other 0.2% (2015 est.)
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 39.96% (male 284,353/female 268,562)
    15-24 years: 20.32% (male 142,693/female 138,508)
    25-54 years: 30.44% (male 202,331/female 218,914)
    55-64 years: 5.22% (male 34,956/female 37,229)
    65 years and over: 4.06% (male 27,153/female 29,024) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 90.3
    youth dependency ratio: 83.7
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.6
    potential support ratio: 15.2 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 19.6 years
    male: 18.9 years
    female: 20.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.27% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Birth rate field listing
    32 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Death rate field listing
    5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Net migration rate field listing
    -3.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population concentrated in the western third of the country, particularly around Dili
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 31.3% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 3.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    281,000 DILI (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    22.1 years (2009/10 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    142 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 34.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 69.3 years
    male: 67.6 years
    female: 71.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Total fertility rate field listing
    4.44 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    26.1% (2016)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 72.3% of population
    total: 80.7% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 27.7% of population
    total: 19.3% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    3.9% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.75 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 90.9% of population
    rural: 50.3% of population
    total: 62.6% of population
    unimproved: urban: 9.1% of population
    rural: 49.7% of population
    total: 57.4% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    1,500 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <100 (2019)
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    3.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    37.5% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Education expenditures field listing
    3.8% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 68.1%
    male: 71.9%
    female: 64.2% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 13 years
    male: 14 years
    female: 13 years (2010)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 13.2%
    male: 10.9%
    female: 15.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    People - note field listing
    one of only two predominantly Christian nations in Southeast Asia, the other being the Philippines
  • Government :: Timor-Leste
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
    conventional short form: Timor-Leste
    local long form: Republika Demokratika Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
    local short form: Timor Lorosa'e [Tetum]; Timor-Leste [Portuguese]
    former: East Timor, Portuguese Timor
    etymology: timor" derives from the Indonesian and Malay word "timur" meaning "east"; "leste" is the Portuguese word for "east", so "Timor-Leste" literally means "Eastern-East"; the local [Tetum] name "Timor Lorosa'e" translates as "East Rising Sun"

    note: pronounced TEE-mor LESS-tay

    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Dili
    geographic coordinates: 8 35 S, 125 36 E
    time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions field listing
    12 municipalities (municipios, singular municipio) and 1 special adminstrative region* (regiao administrativa especial); Aileu, Ainaro, Baucau, Bobonaro (Maliana), Covalima (Suai), Dili, Ermera (Gleno), Lautem (Lospalos), Liquica, Manatuto, Manufahi (Same), Oe-Cusse Ambeno* (Pante Macassar), Viqueque

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    Independence field listing
    20 May 2002 (from Indonesia); note - 28 November 1975 was the date independence was proclaimed from Portugal; 20 May 2002 was the date of international recognition of Timor-Leste's independence from Indonesia
    National holiday field listing
    Restoration of Independence Day, 20 May (2002); Proclamation of Independence Day, 28 November (1975)
    Constitution field listing
    history: drafted 2001, approved 22 March 2002, entered into force 20 May 2002
    amendments: proposed by Parliament and parliamentary groups; consideration of amendments requires at least four-fifths majority approval by Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by Parliament and promulgation by the president of the republic; passage of amendments to the republican form of government and the flag requires approval in a referendum
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Timor-Leste
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage field listing
    17 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Francisco GUTERRES (since 20 May 2017); note - the president is commander in chief of the military and is able to veto legislation, dissolve parliament, and call national elections
    head of government: Prime Minister Taur Matan RUAK (since 22 June 2018); note - President GUTERRES dissolved parliament because of an impasse over passing the country's budget on 26 January 2018, with then Prime Minister Mari ALKATIRI assuming the role of caretaker prime minister until a new prime minister was appointed; note - on 25 February 2020, Prime Minister RUAK offered his resignation due to inability to pass 2020 budget in parliament, but the president refused his offer; on 8 April, RUAK withdrew his resignation
    cabinet: the governing coalition in the Parliament proposes cabinet member candidates to the Prime Minister, who presents these recommendations to the President of the Republic for swearing in
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 20 March 2017 (next to be held in 2022); following parliamentary elections, the president appoints the leader of the majority party or majority coalition as the prime minister
    election results: Francisco GUTERRES elected president; percent of vote - Francisco GUTERRES (FRETILIN) 57.1%, Antonio DA CONCEICAO (PD) 32.5%, Jose Luis GUTERRES (Frenti-Mudanca) 2.6%, Jose NEVES (independent) 2.3%, Luis Alves TILMAN (independent) 2.2%, other 3.4%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: unicameral National Parliament (65 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 12 May 2018 (next to be held in July 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - AMP - 49.6%, FRETILIN 34.2%, PD 8.1%, DDF 5.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party - AMP 34, FRETILIN 23, PD 5, DDF 3; composition - men 39, women 26, percent of women 40%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Court of Appeals (consists of the court president and NA judges)
    judge selection and term of office: court president appointed by the president of the republic from among the other court judges to serve a 4-year term; other court judges appointed - 1 by the Parliament and the others by the Supreme Council for the Judiciary, a body chaired by the court president and that includes mostly presidential and parliamentary appointees; other judges serve for life
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Administrative, Tax, and Audit Court; district courts; magistrates' courts; military courts

    note: the UN Justice System Programme, launched in 2003 and being rolled out in 4 phases through 2018, is helping strengthen the country's justice system; the Programme is aligned with the country's long-range Justice Sector Strategic Plan, which includes legal reforms

    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Alliance for Change and Progress or AMP [Xanana GUSMAO] (alliance includes CNRT, KHUNTO, PLP)
    Democratic Development Forum or DDF
    Democratic Party or PD
    Frenti-Mudanca [Jose Luis GUTERRES]
    Kmanek Haburas Unidade Nasional Timor Oan or KHUNTO
    National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction or CNRT [Kay Rala Xanana GUSMAO]
    People's Liberation Party or PLP [Taur Matan RUAK]
    Revolutionary Front of Independent Timor-Leste or FRETILIN [Mari ALKATIRI]
    International organization participation field listing
    ACP, ADB, AOSIS, ARF, ASEAN (observer), CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WMO
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Isilio Antonio De Fatima COELHO DA SILVA (since 6 January 2020)
    chancery: 4201 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 504, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 966-3202
    FAX: [1] (202) 966-3205
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kathleen FITZPATRICK (since 19 January 2018)
    telephone: (670) 332-4684, EMER: +(670) 7723-1328
    embassy: Avenida de Portugal, Praia dos Coqueiros, Dili
    mailing address: US Department of State, 8250 Dili Place, Washington, DC 20521-8250
    FAX: (670) 331-3206
    Flag description field listing
    red with a black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) superimposed on a slightly longer yellow arrowhead that extends to the center of the flag; a white star - pointing to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag - is in the center of the black triangle; yellow denotes the colonialism in Timor-Leste's past, black represents the obscurantism that needs to be overcome, red stands for the national liberation struggle; the white star symbolizes peace and serves as a guiding light
    National symbol(s) field listing
    Mount Ramelau; national colors: red, yellow, black, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Patria" (Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Fransisco Borja DA COSTA/Afonso DE ARAUJO

    note: adopted 2002; the song was first used as an anthem when Timor-Leste declared its independence from Portugal in 1975; the lyricist, Francisco Borja DA COSTA, was killed in the Indonesian invasion just days after independence was declared

  • Economy :: Timor-Leste
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Since independence in 1999, Timor-Leste has faced great challenges in rebuilding its infrastructure, strengthening the civil administration, and generating jobs for young people entering the work force. The development of offshore oil and gas resources has greatly supplemented government revenues. This technology-intensive industry, however, has done little to create jobs in part because there are no production facilities in Timor-Leste. Gas is currently piped to Australia for processing, but Timor-Leste has expressed interest in developing a domestic processing capability.

    In June 2005, the National Parliament unanimously approved the creation of the Timor-Leste Petroleum Fund to serve as a repository for all petroleum revenues and to preserve the value of Timor-Leste's petroleum wealth for future generations. The Fund held assets of $16 billion, as of mid-2016. Oil accounts for over 90% of government revenues, and the drop in the price of oil in 2014-16 has led to concerns about the long-term sustainability of government spending. Timor-Leste compensated for the decline in price by exporting more oil. The Ministry of Finance maintains that the Petroleum Fund is sufficient to sustain government operations for the foreseeable future.

    Annual government budget expenditures increased markedly between 2009 and 2012 but dropped significantly through 2016. Historically, the government failed to spend as much as its budget allowed. The government has focused significant resources on basic infrastructure, including electricity and roads, but limited experience in procurement and infrastructure building has hampered these projects. The underlying economic policy challenge the country faces remains how best to use oil-and-gas wealth to lift the non-oil economy onto a higher growth path and to reduce poverty.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $7.426 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.784 billion (2016 est.)
    $7.391 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 166
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $2.775 billion (2017 est.)

    note: non-oil GDP

    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    -4.6% (2017 est.)
    5.3% (2016 est.)
    4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $6,000 (2017 est.)
    $6,400 (2016 est.)
    $6,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 164
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 33% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 30% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 10.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 78.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -52% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 9.1% (2017 est.)
    industry: 56.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 34.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    coffee, rice, corn, cassava (manioc, tapioca), sweet potatoes, soybeans, cabbage, mangoes, bananas, vanilla
    Industries field listing
    printing, soap manufacturing, handicrafts, woven cloth
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Labor force field listing
    286,700 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 41%
    industry: 13%
    services: 45.1% (2013)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    4.4% (2014 est.)
    3.9% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Population below poverty line field listing
    41.8% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 4%
    highest 10%: 27% (2007)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 300 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    10.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -75.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Public debt field listing
    3.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    3.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    -1.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Current account balance field listing
    -$284 million (2017 est.)
    -$544 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Exports field listing
    $16.7 million (2017 est.)
    $18 million (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Exports - commodities field listing
    oil, coffee, sandalwood, marble

    note: potential for vanilla exports

    Imports field listing
    $681.2 million (2017 est.)
    $558.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Imports - commodities field listing
    food, gasoline, kerosene, machinery
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $544.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $437.8 million (31 December 2015 est.)

    note: excludes assets of approximately $9.7 billion in the Petroleum Fund (31 December 2010)

    country comparison to the world: 150
    Debt - external field listing
    $311.5 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    $687 million (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Exchange rates field listing

    the US dollar is used

  • Energy :: Timor-Leste
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 63.4% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 91.7% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 49.2% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    0 kWh NA (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    600 kW NA (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    100% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Crude oil - production field listing
    33,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    62,060 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    3,500 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    3,481 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Natural gas - production field listing
    5.776 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    5.776 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    200 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    533,400 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
  • Communications :: Timor-Leste
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 2,164
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 1,490,966
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 110.22 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors; 4G LTE service, with about 97% of population having access, among 3 mobile operators; increase in mobile broadband penetration; govt. aims to boost e-govt. services with new national terrestrial optical fiber network; the launch in 2019 of the Kacific-1 satellite is important to the telecom sector for the entire region (2020)
    domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services, less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas with teledensity of 110 per 100 (2019)
    international: country code - 670;  international service is available; partnership with Australia telecom companies for potential deployment of a submarine fiber-optic link (NWCS); geostationary earth orbit satellite
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    7 TV stations (3 nationwide satellite coverage; 2 terrestrial coverage, mostly in Dili; 2 cable) and 21 radio stations (3 nationwide coverage) (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 363,398
    percent of population: 27.49% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 603
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
  • Transportation :: Timor-Leste
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    4W (2016)
    Airports field listing
    6 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 4 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports field listing
    8 (2013)
    Roadways field listing
    total: 6,040 km (2008)
    paved: 2,600 km (2008)
    unpaved: 3,440 km (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 1
    by type: other 1 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Dili
  • Military and Security :: Timor-Leste
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Timor-Leste Defense Force (Falintil-Forcas de Defesa de Timor-L'este, Falintil (F-FDTL)): Headquarters with Land and Naval components (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    1% of GDP (2019)
    0.7% of GDP (2018)
    0.9% of GDP (2017)
    1% of GDP (2016)
    1.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    the Timor-Leste Defense Force (F-FDLT) is comprised of approximately 2,000 troops (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    Timor-Leste Defense Force's limited inventory consists of equipment donated by other countries; the only known deliveries of major arms to Timor-Leste since 2010 are naval patrol craft from China and South Korea (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 18-month service obligation (2019)
  • Transnational Issues :: Timor-Leste
  • Disputes - international field listing

    three stretches of land borders with Indonesia have yet to be delimited, two of which are in the Oecussi exclave area, and no maritime or Economic Exclusion Zone boundaries have been established between the countries; maritime boundaries with Indonesia remain unresolved; Timor-Leste and Australia reached agreement on a treaty delimiting a permanent maritime boundary in March 2018; the treaty will enter into force once ratified by the two countries' parliaments

    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Timor-Leste is a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Timorese women and girls from rural areas are lured to the capital with promises of legitimate jobs or education prospects and are then forced into prostitution or domestic servitude, and other women and girls may be sent to Indonesia for domestic servitude; Timorese family members force children into bonded domestic or agricultural labor to repay debts; foreign migrant women are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Timor-Leste, while men and boys from Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand are forced to work on fishing boats in Timorese waters under inhumane conditions
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Timor-Leste does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, legislation was drafted but not finalized or implemented that outlines procedures for screening potential trafficking victims; law enforcement made modest progress, including one conviction for sex trafficking, but efforts are hindered by prosecutors’ and judges’ lack of expertise in applying anti-trafficking laws effectively; the government rescued two child victims with support from an NGO but did not provide protective services (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing