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Central Asia :: Uzbekistan Print
Page last updated on November 24, 2020
  • Introduction :: Uzbekistan
  • Background field listing
    Uzbekistan is the geographic and population center of Central Asia. The country has a diverse economy and a relatively young population. Russia conquered and united the disparate territories of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to the overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, leaving the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half-dry. Independent since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, the country has diversified agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base, although cotton remains a major part of its economy. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islam KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. His successor, former Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic, judicial, and social reforms.
  • Geography :: Uzbekistan
  • Location field listing
    Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    41 00 N, 64 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 447,400 sq km
    land: 425,400 sq km
    water: 22,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Area - comparative field listing
    about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    total: 6,893 km
    border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1314 km, Tajikistan 1312 km, Turkmenistan 1793 km
    Coastline field listing
    0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
    Maritime claims field listing
    none (doubly landlocked)
    Climate field listing
    mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
    Terrain field listing
    mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
    Elevation field listing
    lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
    highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
    Natural resources field listing
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 62.6% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 51.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 7.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    42,150 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    Natural hazards field listing
    earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
    Environment - current issues field listing
    shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  • People and Society :: Uzbekistan
  • Population field listing
    30,565,411 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Uzbekistani
    adjective: Uzbekistani
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Uzbek 83.8%, Tajik 4.8%, Kazakh 2.5%, Russian 2.3%, Karakalpak 2.2%, Tatar 1.5%, other 4.4% (2017 est.)
    Languages field listing
    Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

    note: in the autonomous Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status


    Religions field listing
    Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 23.19% (male 3,631,693/female 3,456,750)
    15-24 years: 16.63% (male 2,601,803/female 2,481,826)
    25-54 years: 45.68% (male 6,955,260/female 7,006,172)
    55-64 years: 8.63% (male 1,245,035/female 1,392,263)
    65 years and over: 5.87% (male 768,769/female 1,025,840) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 50.6
    youth dependency ratio: 43.4
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.2
    potential support ratio: 13.9 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 30.1 years
    male: 29.4 years
    female: 30.7 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Population growth rate field listing
    0.88% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Birth rate field listing
    16.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Death rate field listing
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Net migration rate field listing
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Population distribution field listing
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 50.4% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    2.517 million TASHKENT (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    23.8 years (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    29 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 16.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 19.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 13.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 74.8 years
    male: 71.7 years
    female: 78 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Total fertility rate field listing
    1.74 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 96.1% of population
    total: 97.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 3.9% of population
    total: 2.2% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6.4% (2017)
    Physicians density field listing
    2.37 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.2% (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    50,000 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    <1000 (2019 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    16.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    2.9% (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Education expenditures field listing
    6.3% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 100%
    male: 100%
    female: 100% (2016)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 12 years (2019)
  • Government :: Uzbekistan
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
    conventional short form: Uzbekistan
    local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
    local short form: O'zbekiston
    former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"
    Government type field listing
    presidential republic; highly authoritarian
    Capital field listing
    name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: "tash" means "stone" and "kent" means "city" in Turkic languages, so the name simply denotes "stone city"
    Administrative divisions field listing
    12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati [Bukhara Province], Farg'ona Viloyati [Fergana Province], Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati [Samarkand Province], Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    Independence field listing
    1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
    Constitution field listing
    history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992
    amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation field listing
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister/Minister of Transport Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
    election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Hotamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURODOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
    Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    Senate - last held 13-14 January 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    Legislative Chamber - last held on 22 December 2019 and 5 January 2020 (next to be held in December 2024)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 83, women 17, percent of women 17%
    Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, National Revival Democratic Party 36, Adolat 24, PDP 22, Ecological Movement 15; composition - NA
    note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, and economic sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term and can be reappointed for subsequent 10-year and lifetime terms
    subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts
    Political parties and leaders field listing
    Ecological Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Partivasi) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Aktam HAITOV]
    National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or PDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Javlon VAHOBOV (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel ROSENBLUM (since 24 May 2019)
    telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
    embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
    Flag description field listing
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a vertical, white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white, five-pointed stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
    National symbol(s) field listing
    khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
    National anthem field listing
    name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
    lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

    note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

  • Economy :: Uzbekistan
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings.

    Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets.

    As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment. In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50% and announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the currency black market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $223 billion (2017 est.)
    $211.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $196.5 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 63
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $48.83 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    5.3% (2017 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    7.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $6,900 (2017 est.)
    $6,700 (2016 est.)
    $6,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 158
    Gross national saving field listing
    32.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 48.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
    Industries field listing
    textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Labor force field listing
    13.273 million (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Labor force - by occupation field listing
    agriculture: 25.9%
    industry: 13.2%
    services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    Unemployment rate field listing
    5% (2017 est.)
    5.1% (2016 est.)

    note: official data; another 20% are underemployed

    country comparison to the world: 79
    Population below poverty line field listing
    14% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.8%
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 15.22 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 15.08 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    31.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Public debt field listing
    24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    12.5% (2017 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)

    note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012

    country comparison to the world: 208
    Current account balance field listing
    $1.713 billion (2017 est.)
    $384 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Exports field listing
    $11.48 billion (2017 est.)
    $11.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Exports - partners field listing
    Switzerland 38.7%, China 15.5%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.7%, Afghanistan 4.7% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
    Imports field listing
    $11.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $10.92 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Imports - commodities field listing
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 23.7%, Russia 22.5%, Kazakhstan 10.7%, South Korea 9.8%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Debt - external field listing
    $16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Exchange rates field listing
    Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
    3,906.1 (2017 est.)
    2,966.6 (2016 est.)
    2,966.6 (2015 est.)
    2,569.6 (2014 est.)
    2,311.4 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Uzbekistan
  • Electricity access field listing
    electrification - total population: 100% (2020)
    Electricity - production field listing
    55.55 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    49.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - exports field listing
    13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - imports field listing
    10.84 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    12.96 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    86% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Crude oil - production field listing
    41,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    27,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    420 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    594 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    61,740 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    60,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    3,977 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Natural gas - production field listing
    52.1 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    43.07 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    9.401 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    95.58 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
  • Communications :: Uzbekistan
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 3,262,896
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 10.77 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 30,662,740
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101.21 (2019 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Telecommunication systems field listing
    general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; introduction of prepaid Internet has contributed to home Internet usage; increase in mobile broadband penetration yet still early stages; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 11 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 101 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2019)
    international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber-optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media field listing
    the government controls media; 17 state-owned broadcasters - 13 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2019, the Uzbek Agency for Press and Information was reorganized into the Agency of Information and Mass Communications and became part of the Uzbek Presidential Administration with recent appointment of the Uzbek President's elder daughter as it deputy director (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 15,705,402
    percent of population: 52.31% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 4,123,508
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 14 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
  • Transportation :: Uzbekistan
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 34
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,056,558 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 89.43 million mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    UK (2016)
    Airports field listing
    53 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 33 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 20 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    Pipelines field listing
    13,700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)
    Railways field listing
    total: 4,642 km (2018)
    broad gauge: 4,642 km 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified) (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Roadways field listing
    total: 86,496 km (2000)
    paved: 75,511 km (2000)
    unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Waterways field listing
    1,100 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Ports and terminals field listing
    river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
  • Military and Security :: Uzbekistan
  • Military and security forces field listing
    Armed Forces of Uzbekistan: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Security Troops (2019)
    Military expenditures field listing
    4% of GDP (2018)
    3.5% of GDP (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Military and security service personnel strengths field listing
    assessments for the size of the Armed Forces of Uzbekistan vary; approximately 55,000 total active troops (est. 45,000 Army; est. 10,000 Air and Air Defense Forces) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions field listing
    the Uzbek Armed Forces use mainly Soviet-era equipment, although since 2010 they have received weapons and aircraft from a variety of sources, including China, France, Russia, Spain, Turkey, and the US (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-year conscript service obligation for males (conscripts have the option of paying for a shorter service of one month while remaining in the reserves until the age of 27); Uzbek citizens who have completed their service terms in the armed forces have privileges in employment and admission to higher educational institutions (2016)
  • Terrorism :: Uzbekistan
  • Terrorist group(s) field listing
    Islamic Jihad Union; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (2019)
    note: details about the history, aims, leadership, organization, areas of operation, tactics, targets, weapons, size, and sources of support of the group(s) appear(s) in Appendix-T
  • Transnational Issues :: Uzbekistan
  • Disputes - international field listing

    prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

    Refugees and internally displaced persons field listing
    stateless persons: 97,346 (2019)
    Trafficking in persons field listing
    current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)
    Illicit drugs field listing
    transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan