Central America :: Grenada
  • Introduction :: Grenada
  • Background:
    Carib Indians inhabited Grenada when Christopher COLUMBUS discovered the island in 1498, but it remained uncolonized for more than a century. The French settled Grenada in the 17th century, established sugar estates, and imported large numbers of African slaves. Britain took the island in 1762 and vigorously expanded sugar production. In the 19th century, cacao eventually surpassed sugar as the main export crop; in the 20th century, nutmeg became the leading export. In 1967, Britain gave Grenada autonomy over its internal affairs. Full independence was attained in 1974 making Grenada one of the smallest independent countries in the Western Hemisphere. In 1979, a leftist New Jewel Movement seized power under Maurice BISHOP ushering in the Grenada Revolution. On 19 October 1983, factions within the revolutionary government overthrew and killed BISHOP and members of his party. Six days later the island was invaded by US forces and those of six other Caribbean nations, which quickly captured the ringleaders and their hundreds of Cuban advisers. The rule of law was restored and democratic elections were reinstituted the following year and have continued since then.
  • Geography :: Grenada
  • Location:
    Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago
    Geographic coordinates:
    12 07 N, 61 40 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area:
    total: 344 sq km
    land: 344 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Area - comparative:
    twice the size of Washington, DC
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    121 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    tropical; tempered by northeast trade winds
    Terrain:
    volcanic in origin with central mountains
    Elevation:
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Saint Catherine 840 m
    Natural resources:
    timber, tropical fruit
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 32.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 8.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 20.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 2.9% (2011 est.)
    forest: 50% (2011 est.)
    other: 17.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    20 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast
    Natural hazards:

    lies on edge of hurricane belt; hurricane season lasts from June to November

    volcanism: Mount Saint Catherine (840 m) lies on the island of Grenada; Kick 'em Jenny, an active submarine volcano (seamount) on the Caribbean Sea floor, lies about 8 km north of the island of Grenada; these two volcanoes are at the southern end of the volcanic island arc of the Lesser Antilles that extends up to the Netherlands dependency of Saba in the north

    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation causing habitat destruction and species loss; coastal erosion and contamination; pollution and sedimentation; inadequate solid waste management
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the administration of the islands of the Grenadines group is divided between Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Grenada
  • People and Society :: Grenada
  • Population:
    113,094 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Nationality:
    noun: Grenadian(s)
    adjective: Grenadian
    Ethnic groups:
    African descent 82.4%, mixed 13.3%, East Indian 2.2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2011 est.)
    Languages:
    English (official), French patois
    Religions:
    Protestant 49.2% (includes Pentecostal 17.2%, Seventh Day Adventist 13.2%, Anglican 8.5%, Baptist 3.2%, Church of God 2.4%, Evangelical 1.9%, Methodist 1.6%, other 1.2%), Roman Catholic 36%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, Rastafarian 1.2%, other 5.5%, none 5.7%, unspecified 1.3% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 23.23% (male 13,709/female 12,564)
    15-24 years: 14.14% (male 8,034/female 7,959)
    25-54 years: 40.05% (male 23,104/female 22,187)
    55-64 years: 11.69% (male 6,734/female 6,490)
    65 years and over: 10.89% (male 5,774/female 6,539) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 50.5
    youth dependency ratio: 35.8
    elderly dependency ratio: 14.7
    potential support ratio: 6.8 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 33.3 years
    male: 33.1 years
    female: 33.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Population growth rate:
    0.38% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Birth rate:
    14.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Death rate:
    8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Net migration rate:
    -2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Population distribution:
    approximately one-third of the population is found in the capital of St. George's; the island's population is concentrated along the coast
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 36.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.76% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    39,000 SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    25 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 9.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 75.2 years
    male: 72.6 years
    female: 78.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Total fertility rate:
    1.96 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Drinking water source:
    improved: total: 96.8% of population
    unimproved: total: 3.2% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    4.8% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    1.41 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: total: 93.7% of population
    unimproved: total: 6.3% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.5% (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    <500 (2018)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    21.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Education expenditures:
    3.2% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 98.6%
    male: 98.6%
    female: 98.6% (2014 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 17 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2017)
  • Government :: Grenada
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Grenada
    etymology: derivation of the name remains obscure; some sources attribute the designation to Spanish influence (most likely named for the Spanish city of Granada), with subsequent French and English interpretations resulting in the present-day Grenada; in Spanish "granada" means "pomegranate"
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    Capital:
    name: Saint George's
    geographic coordinates: 12 03 N, 61 45 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the 1763 Treaty of Paris transferred possession of Grenada from France to Great Britain; the new administration renamed Ville de Fort Royal (Fort Royal Town) to Saint George's Town, after the patron saint of England; eventually the name became simply Saint George's
    Administrative divisions:
    6 parishes and 1 dependency*; Carriacou and Petite Martinique*, Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick
    Independence:
    7 February 1974 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 7 February (1974)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, effective 7 February 1974, suspended 1979 following a revolution but restored in 1983
    amendments: proposed by either house of Parliament; passage requires two-thirds majority vote by the membership in both houses and assent of the governor general; passage of amendments to constitutional sections, such as personal rights and freedoms, the structure, authorities, and procedures of the branches of government, the delimitation of electoral constituencies, or the procedure for amending the constitution, also requires two-thirds majority approval in a referendum; amended 1991, 1992
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years for persons from a non-Caribbean state and 4 years for a person from a Caribbean state
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Cecile LA GRENADE (since 7 May 2013)
    head of government: Prime Minister Keith MITCHELL (since 20 February 2013)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate (13 seats; members appointed by the governor general - 10 on the advice of the prime minister and 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition party; members serve 5-year terms)
    House of Representatives (15 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 April 2018 (next no later than2023)
    House of Representatives - last held on 13 March 2018 (next no later than 2023)
    election results: Senate - percent by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 11, women 2 percent of women 15.4%
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NNP 58.9%, NDC 40.5%; other 0.6% seats by party - NNP 15; composition - men 8, women 7, percent of women 46.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 32.1%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: regionally, the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, traveling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, with 2 in Grenada; appeals beyond the ECSC in civil and criminal matters are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
    judge selection and term of office: chief justice of Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, and independent body of judicial officials; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; Court of Magisterial Appeals
    Political parties and leaders:
    National Democratic Congress or NDC [Nazim BURKE]
    New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AOSIS, C, Caricom, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, Petrocaribe, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Yolande Yvonne SMITH (since 8 April 2019)
    chancery: 1701 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-2561
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-2468
    consulate(s) general: Miami
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: the US does not have an official embassy in Grenada; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Grenada
    telephone: [1] (473) 444-1173 through 1176
    embassy: Lance-aux-Epines Stretch, Saint George's, Grenada
    mailing address: P. O. Box 54, Saint George's
    FAX: [1] (473) 444-4820
    Flag description:
    a rectangle divided diagonally into yellow triangles (top and bottom) and green triangles (hoist side and outer side), with a red border around the flag; there are seven yellow, five-pointed stars with three centered in the top red border, three centered in the bottom red border, and one on a red disk superimposed at the center of the flag; there is also a symbolic nutmeg pod on the hoist-side triangle (Grenada is a leading nutmeg producer); the seven stars stand for the seven administrative divisions, with the central star denoting the capital, St. George's; yellow represents the sun and the warmth of the people, green stands for vegetation and agriculture, and red symbolizes harmony, unity, and courage
    National symbol(s):
    Grenada dove, bougainvillea flower; national colors: red, yellow, green
    National anthem:
    name: Hail Grenada
    lyrics/music: Irva Merle BAPTISTE/Louis Arnold MASANTO

    note: adopted 1974

  • Economy :: Grenada
  • Economy - overview:

    Grenada relies on tourism and revenue generated by St. George’s University - a private university offering degrees in medicine, veterinary medicine, public health, the health sciences, nursing, arts and sciences, and business - as its main source of foreign exchange. In the past two years the country expanded its sources of revenue, including from selling passports under its citizenship by investment program. These projects produced a resurgence in the construction and manufacturing sectors of the economy.

    In 2017, Grenada experienced its fifth consecutive year of growth and the government successfully marked the completion of its five-year structural adjustment program that included among other things austerity measures, increased tax revenue and debt restructuring. Public debt-to-GDP was reduced from 100% of GDP in 2013 to 71.8% in 2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $1.634 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.555 billion (2016 est.)
    $1.5 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 198
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.119 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5.1% (2017 est.)
    3.7% (2016 est.)
    6.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $15,100 (2017 est.)
    $14,500 (2016 est.)
    $14,000 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 110
    Gross national saving:
    11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    17% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 63% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 12% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 20% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 60% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -55% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 6.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 15.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 77.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    bananas, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, soursop, citrus, avocados, root crops, corn, vegetables, fish
    Industries:
    food and beverages, textiles, light assembly operations, tourism, construction, education, call-center operations
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Labor force:
    55,270 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 11%
    industry: 20%
    services: 69% (2008 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    24% (2017 est.)
    28.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Population below poverty line:
    38% (2008 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 288.4 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 252.3 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    25.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Public debt:
    70.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    82% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    1.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Current account balance:
    -$77 million (2017 est.)
    -$34 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Exports:
    $39.9 million (2017 est.)
    $44.2 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Exports - partners:
    US 25.3%, Japan 10.1%, Guyana 8.7%, Dominica 6.6%, St. Lucia 6.4%, Netherlands 4.7%, Barbados 4.1%, St. Kitts and Nevis 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    nutmeg, bananas, cocoa, fruit and vegetables, clothing, mace, chocolate, fish
    Imports:
    $316 million (2017 est.)
    $314.7 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Imports - commodities:
    food, manufactured goods, machinery, chemicals, fuel
    Imports - partners:
    US 31.7%, Trinidad and Tobago 24.9%, China 6.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $199.1 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $198 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Debt - external:
    $793.5 million (2017 est.)
    $682.3 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2017 est.)
    2.7 (2016 est.)
    2.7 (2015 est.)
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Grenada
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 92.3% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 92.3% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 92.3% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    202.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Electricity - consumption:
    185.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    51,100 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    96% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    2,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    1,886 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    283,600 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
  • Communications :: Grenada
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 32,491
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 113,177
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 101 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: adequate, island-wide telephone system; lack of local competition, but telecoms are a high contributors to overall GDP; growth sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments (2020)
    domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links; 29 per 100 for fixed-line and 101 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
    international: country code - 1-473; landing points for the ECFS, Southern Caribbean Fiber and CARCIP submarine cables with links to 13 Caribbean islands extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad & Tobago including Puerto Rico and Barbados; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    multiple publicly and privately owned television and radio stations; Grenada Information Service (GIS) is government-owned and provides television and radio services; the Grenada Broadcasting Network, jointly owned by the government and the Caribbean Communications Network of Trinidad and Tobago, operates a TV station and 2 radio stations; Meaningful Television (MTV) broadcasts island-wide and is part of a locally-owned media house, Moving Target Company, that also includes an FM radio station and a weekly newspaper; multi-channel cable TV subscription service is provided by Columbus Communications Grenada (FLOW GRENADA) and is available island wide; approximately 25 private radio stations also broadcast throughout the country (2019)
    Internet country code:
    .gd
    Internet users:
    total: 66,281
    percent of population: 59.07% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 22,235
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
  • Military and Security :: Grenada
  • Military and security forces:
    no regular military forces; Royal Grenada Police Force (includes Coast Guard) (2019)
  • Transportation :: Grenada
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 0 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 0 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 0 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    J3 (2016)
    Airports:
    3 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 1,127 km (2017)
    paved: 902 km (2017)
    unpaved: 225 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Merchant marine:
    total: 6
    by type: general cargo 3, other 3 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Saint George's
  • Transnational Issues :: Grenada
  • Disputes - international:

    none

    Illicit drugs:
    small-scale cannabis cultivation; lesser transshipment point for marijuana and cocaine to US