Central Asia :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Introduction :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Background:
    A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Roza OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyzstani president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the country’s constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbay JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the country’s history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyzstani Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, and at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
  • Geography :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Location:
    Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
    Geographic coordinates:
    41 00 N, 75 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 199,951 sq km
    land: 191,801 sq km
    water: 8,150 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,573 km
    border countries (4): China 1063 km, Kazakhstan 1212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1314 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
    peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
    mean elevation: 2,988 m
    lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
    highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
    Natural resources:
    abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 55.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 48.3% (2011 est.)
    forest: 5.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    10,233 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
    Natural hazards:
    major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
  • People and Society :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Population:
    5,964,897 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
    adjective: Kyrgyzstani
    Ethnic groups:
    Kyrgyz 73.5%, Uzbek 14.7%, Russian 5.5%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.2% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2019 est.)
    Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
    Muslim 90% (majority Sunni), Christian 7% (Russian Orthodox 3%), other 3% (includes Jewish, Buddhist, Baha'i) (2017 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.39% (male 930,455/female 882,137)
    15-24 years: 15.7% (male 475,915/female 460,604)
    25-54 years: 40.02% (male 1,172,719/female 1,214,624)
    55-64 years: 8.09% (male 210,994/female 271,480)
    65 years and over: 5.8% (male 132,134/female 213,835) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 59.7
    youth dependency ratio: 52.1
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.5
    potential support ratio: 13.2 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 27.3 years
    male: 26.1 years
    female: 28.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Population growth rate:
    0.96% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Birth rate:
    20.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Death rate:
    6.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Net migration rate:
    -5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
    urban population: 36.9% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.03% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.038 million BISHKEK (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    23.2 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    60 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 27.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 19.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 71.8 years
    male: 67.7 years
    female: 76.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Total fertility rate:
    2.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    42% (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 97.1% of population
    rural: 84.4% of population
    total: 89.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 2.9% of population
    rural: 15.6% of population
    total: 10.7% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    6.2% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    2.21 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    4.4 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.6% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 99.3% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0.1% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    8,500 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <200 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    16.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    2.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Education expenditures:
    7.2% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.6%
    male: 99.7%
    female: 99.5% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 14 years (2017)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 14.2%
    male: 10.1%
    female: 22.3% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
  • Government :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
    conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
    local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
    local short form: Kyrgyzstan
    former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the 40 clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: Bishkek
    geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: founded in 1868 as a Russian settlement on the site of a previously destroyed fortress named "Pishpek"; the name was retained and overtime became "Bishkek"
    Administrative divisions:
    7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
    history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - constitutional amendments that bolstered some presidential powers and transferred others from the president to the prime minister passed in a referendum in December 2016, effective December 2017
    amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 24 November 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV (since 17 June 2020); First Deputy Prime Minister (vacant); Deputy Prime Ministers Jenish RAZAKOV (since 20 April 2018), Altynay OMURBEKOVA (since 20 April 2018), Zamirbek ASKAROV (since 20 April 2018); note - Prime Minister Mukhammedkalyy ABYLGAZIEV resigned on 15 June 2020 and was replaced by Deputy Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV on 17 June
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2023); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council
    election results: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (SDPK) 54.2%, Omurbek BABANOV (Respublika) 33.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (Butun Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, Temir SARIYEV (Akshumar) 2.5%, other 3.2%; Kubatbek BORONOV approved as interim prime minister 105-2
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kengesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held on 4 October 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.7%, other 14.1%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11; composition - men 97, women 23, percent of women 19.2%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
    subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Almambet SHYKMAMATOV]
    Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAYMANOV]
    Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
    Onuguu-Progress (Development-Progress) [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
    Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Jyrgalbek TURUSKULOV] (parliamentary faction)
    Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV, Isa OMURKULOV]
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Bolot I. OTUNBAEV (since 8 April 2018)
    chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
    FAX: [1] (202) 449-8275
    honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley (WA)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Donald LU (since 18 September 2018)
    telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
    embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
    Flag description:
    red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
    National symbol(s):
    white falcon; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
    lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV

    note: adopted 1992

  • Economy :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Economy - overview:

    Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

    Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

    Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $23.15 billion (2017 est.)
    $22.14 billion (2016 est.)
    $21.22 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 144
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $7.565 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.6% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $3,700 (2017 est.)
    $3,600 (2016 est.)
    $3,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 183
    Gross national saving:
    27.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 85.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 33.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 39.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -79% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 14.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 31.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 54.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
    small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Labor force:
    2.841 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 48%
    industry: 12.5%
    services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Population below poverty line:
    32.1% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 4.4%
    highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
    revenues: 2.169 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.409 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Public debt:
    56% of GDP (2017 est.)
    55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.2% (2017 est.)
    0.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Current account balance:
    -$306 million (2017 est.)
    -$792 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    $1.84 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.544 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 59.1%, Uzbekistan 9.4%, Kazakhstan 5.1%, Russia 4.9%, UK 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
    $4.187 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.709 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Imports - commodities:
    oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    China 32.6%, Russia 24.8%, Kazakhstan 16.4%, Turkey 4.8%, US 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.177 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Debt - external:
    $8.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Exchange rates:
    soms (KGS) per US dollar -
    68.35 (2017 est.)
    69.914 (2016 est.)
    69.914 (2015 est.)
    64.462 (2014 est.)
    53.654 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    13.04 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - consumption:
    10.52 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Electricity - exports:
    184 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Electricity - imports:
    331 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    4.046 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    24% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    76% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Crude oil - production:
    1,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Crude oil - imports:
    4,480 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    40 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    6,996 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    37,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    2,290 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    34,280 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Natural gas - production:
    28.32 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Natural gas - consumption:
    186.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Natural gas - imports:
    169.9 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    10.02 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
  • Communications :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 331,140
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 8,735,246
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 149 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: fixed-line phones declining quickly by roll-out of 4G LTE mobile networks; digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration; international connectivity continues to grow; 4 mobile networks in operation; 4G networks cover over 50% of the nation, eventually 5G networks will be available (2020 )
    domestic: fixed-line penetration 6 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 149 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States, 9 members post-Soviet Republics in EU) countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat) (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7 and 4 other educational, cultural, and sports channels; ELTR and Channel 5 are state-owned stations with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations are struggling to increase their own content up to 50% of airtime, as required by law, instead of rebroadcasting primarily programs from Russian channels or airing unlicensed movies and music; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; state-funded radio stations and about 10 significant private radio stations also exist (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 2,222,732
    percent of population: 38% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 355,640
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
  • Military and Security :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Military and security forces:
    Kyrgyz Armed Forces: Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard; State Border Service; Internal Troops (2019)
    Military expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2019)
    1.6% of GDP (2018)
    1.6% of GDP (2017)
    1.7% of GDP (2016)
    1.8% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the Kyrgyz Armed Forces have approximately 11,000 active duty troops (8,500 Land Forces; 2,500 Air Force/Air Defense) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the Kyrgyz Armed Forces' inventory is comprised of older Russian and Soviet-era equipment; outside of a small delivery by China in 2019, Russia continues to be the only supplier of weapons systems to Kyrgyzstan (2020)
    Military deployments:
    contributes a battalion-sized unit to CSTO's Rapid Reaction Force (2019 est.)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation (9 months for university graduates), with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2016)
  • Transportation :: Kyrgyzstan
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 625,294 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 69,290 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    EX (2016)
    28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 18 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)
    under 914 m: 3 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 10 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    3566 km gas (2018), 16 km oil (2013)
    total: 424 km (2018)
    broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    total: 34,000 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    600 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Ports and terminals:
    lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)
  • Transnational Issues :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Disputes - international:

    disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of approximately 15% or 200 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas

    Illicit drugs:
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates