Europe :: Lithuania
  • Introduction :: Lithuania
  • Background:
    Lithuanian lands were united under MINDAUGAS in 1236; over the next century, through alliances and conquest, Lithuania extended its territory to include most of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. By the end of the 14th century Lithuania was the largest state in Europe. An alliance with Poland in 1386 led the two countries into a union through the person of a common ruler. In 1569, Lithuania and Poland formally united into a single dual state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This entity survived until 1795 when its remnants were partitioned by surrounding countries. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US and many other countries. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004. In 2015, Lithuania joined the euro zone, and it joined the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in 2018.
  • Geography :: Lithuania
  • Location:
    Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia, west of Belarus
    Geographic coordinates:
    56 00 N, 24 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 65,300 sq km
    land: 62,680 sq km
    water: 2,620 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than West Virginia
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,549 km
    border countries (4): Belarus 640 km, Latvia 544 km, Poland 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 261 km
    90 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
    lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
    mean elevation: 110 m
    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Aukstojas 294 m
    Natural resources:
    peat, arable land, amber
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 44.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 34.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.5% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 9.4% (2011 est.)
    forest: 34.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 20.6% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    44 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda
    Natural hazards:
    occasional floods, droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution; air pollution; deforestation; threatened animal and plant species; chemicals and waste materials released into the environment contaminate soil and groundwater; soil degradation and erosion
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
  • People and Society :: Lithuania
  • Population:
    2,731,464 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    noun: Lithuanian(s)
    adjective: Lithuanian
    Ethnic groups:
    Lithuanian 84.1%, Polish 6.6%, Russian 5.8%, Belarusian 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 1.2% (2011 est.)
    Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other 0.9%, unspecified 3.5% (2011 est.)
    Roman Catholic 77.2%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Old Believer 0.8%, Evangelical Lutheran 0.6%, Evangelical Reformist 0.2%, other (including Sunni Muslim, Jewish, Greek Catholic, and Karaite) 0.8%, none 6.1%, unspecified 10.1% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 15.26% (male 213,802/female 202,948)
    15-24 years: 10.23% (male 144,679/female 134,822)
    25-54 years: 38.96% (male 528,706/female 535,485)
    55-64 years: 15.1% (male 183,854/female 228,585)
    65 years and over: 20.45% (male 190,025/female 368,558) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 56.5
    youth dependency ratio: 24.2
    elderly dependency ratio: 32.3
    potential support ratio: 3.1 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 44.5 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 48.2 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Population growth rate:
    -1.13% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 232
    Birth rate:
    9.5 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Death rate:
    15 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Net migration rate:
    -5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Population distribution:
    fairly even population distribution throughout the country, but somewhat greater concentrations in the southern cities of Vilnius and Kaunas, and the western port of Klaipeda
    urban population: 68% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: -0.31% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    539,000 VILNIUS (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.8 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.52 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    27 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    5 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 75.5 years
    male: 70.3 years
    female: 81.1 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Total fertility rate:
    1.6 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 92.8% of population
    total: 97.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 7.2% of population
    total: 2.5% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    6.5% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    4.83 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density:
    6.6 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 87.5% of population
    total: 95.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population
    rural: 12.5% of population
    total: 4.5% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    2,800 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: intermediate (2020)
    vectorborne diseases: tickborne encephalitis
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    26.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Education expenditures:
    4.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.8% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 17 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.1%
    male: 12%
    female: 10.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Government :: Lithuania
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
    conventional short form: Lithuania
    local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
    local short form: Lietuva
    former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: meaning of the name "Lietuva" remains unclear; it may derive from the Lietava, a stream in east central Lithuania
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Vilnius
    geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: named after the Vilnia River, which flows into the Neris River at Vilnius; the river name derives from the Lithuanian word "vilnis" meaning "a surge"
    Administrative divisions:
    60 municipalities (savivaldybe, singular - savivaldybe); Akmene, Alytaus Miestas, Alytus, Anksciai, Birstono, Birzai, Druskininkai, Elektrenai, Ignalina, Jonava, Joniskis, Jurbarkas, Kaisiadorys, Kalvarijos, Kauno Miestas, Kaunas, Kazlu Rudos, Kedainiai, Kelme, Klaipedos Miestas, Klaipeda, Kretinga, Kupiskis, Lazdijai, Marijampole, Mazeikiai, Moletai, Neringa, Pagegiai, Pakruojis, Palangos Miestas, Panevezio Miestas, Panevezys, Pasvalys, Plunge, Prienai, Radviliskis, Raseiniai, Rietavo, Rokiskis, Sakiai, Salcininkai, Siauliu Miestas, Siauliai, Silale, Silute, Sirvintos, Skuodas, Svencionys, Taurage, Telsiai, Trakai, Ukmerge, Utena, Varena, Vilkaviskis, Vilniaus Miestas, Vilnius, Visaginas, Zarasai
    16 February 1918 (from Soviet Russia and Germany); 11 March 1990 (declared from the Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union); notable earlier dates: 6 July 1253 (coronation of MINDAUGAS, traditional founding date); 1 July 1569 (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day (or National Day), 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania established its statehood and its concomitant independence from Soviet Russia and Germany; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared the restoration of Lithuanian statehood and its concomitant independence from the Soviet Union
    history: several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992
    amendments: proposed by at least one fourth of all Parliament members or by petition of at least 300,000 voters; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament in each of two readings three months apart and a presidential signature; amendments to constitutional articles on national sovereignty and constitutional amendment procedure also require three-fourths voter approval in a referendum; amended 1996, 2003, 2006
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Lithuania
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Gitanas NAUSEDA (since 12 July 2019)
    head of government: Prime Minister Saulius SKVERNELIS (since 13 December 2016)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister, appointed by the president, and approved by Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 12 and 26 May 2019 (next to be held in May 2024); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by Parliament
    election results: Gitanas NAUSEDA elected president in second round; percent of vote - Gitanas NAUSEDA (independent) 66.7%, Ingrida SIMONYTE (independent) 33.3%; Saulius SKVERNELIS (LVZS) approved as prime minister by Parliament vote - 90 to 4
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote and 70 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 9 and 23 October 2016 (next to be held in October 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - TS-LKD 22.6%, LVLS 22.5%, LSDP 15%, LS 9.5%, LCP-LPP 6.3%, LLRA 5.7%, TT 5.6%, DP 4.9%, LZP 2%, Lithuanian List 1.8%, other 4.1%; seats by party - LVLS 54, TS-LKD 31, LSDP 17, LS 14, LLRA 8, TT 8, DP 2, LCP-LPP 1, LZP 1, Lithuanian List 1, independent 4; composition - men 111, women 30, percent of women 21.3%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 37 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Seimas; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Seimas from nominations - 3 each by the president of the republic, the Seimas chairperson, and the Supreme Court president; judges serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms; one-third of membership reconstituted every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; district and local courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI]
    Farmers and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS]
    Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Gabrielius LANDSBERGIS]
    Labor Party or LP [Viktor USPASKICH]
    Lithuanian Center Party or LCP [Naglis PUTEIKIS]
    Lithuanian Green Party or LZP [Linas BALSYS]
    Lithuanian Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS (Eugenijus GENTVILAS)
    Lithuanian List or LL [Darius KUOLYS]
    Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Gintautas PALUCKAS]
    Lithuanian Social Democratic Labor Party [Gediminas KIRKILAS]
    Order and Justice Party or TT [Remigijus ZEMAITAITIS]
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Rolandas KRISCIUNAS (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 2622 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. GILCHRIST (since 4 February 2010)
    telephone: [370] (5) 266-5500
    embassy: Akmenu gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
    mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
    FAX: [370] (5) 266-5510
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red; yellow symbolizes golden fields, as well as the sun, light, and goodness; green represents the forests of the countryside, in addition to nature, freedom, and hope; red stands for courage and the blood spilled in defense of the homeland
    National symbol(s):
    mounted knight known as Vytis (the Chaser), white stork; national colors: yellow, green, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Tautiska giesme" (The National Song)
    lyrics/music: Vincas KUDIRKA

    note: adopted 1918, restored 1990; written in 1898 while Lithuania was a part of Russia; banned during the Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1990

  • Economy :: Lithuania
  • Economy - overview:

    After the country declared independence from the Soviet Union in 1990, Lithuania faced an initial dislocation that is typical during transitions from a planned economy to a free-market economy. Macroeconomic stabilization policies, including privatization of most state-owned enterprises, and a strong commitment to a currency board arrangement led to an open and rapidly growing economy and rising consumer demand. Foreign investment and EU funding aided in the transition. Lithuania joined the WTO in May 2001, the EU in May 2004, and the euro zone in January 2015, and is now working to complete the OECD accession roadmap it received in July 2015. In 2017, joined the OECD Working Group on Bribery, an important step in the OECD accession process.

    The Lithuanian economy was severely hit by the 2008-09 global financial crisis, but it has rebounded and become one of the fastest growing in the EU. Increases in exports, investment, and wage growth that supported consumption helped the economy grow by 3.6% in 2017. In 2015, Russia was Lithuania’s largest trading partner, followed by Poland, Germany, and Latvia; goods and services trade between the US and Lithuania totaled $2.2 billion. Lithuania opened a self-financed liquefied natural gas terminal in January 2015, providing the first non-Russian supply of natural gas to the Baltic States and reducing Lithuania’s dependence on Russian gas from 100% to approximately 30% in 2016.

    Lithuania’s ongoing recovery hinges on improving the business environment, especially by liberalizing labor laws, and improving competitiveness and export growth, the latter hampered by economic slowdowns in the EU and Russia. In addition, a steady outflow of young and highly educated people is causing a shortage of skilled labor, which, combined with a rapidly aging population, could stress public finances and constrain long-term growth.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $91.47 billion (2017 est.)
    $88.07 billion (2016 est.)
    $86.05 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 87
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $47.26 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.9% (2017 est.)
    2.3% (2016 est.)
    2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $32,400 (2017 est.)
    $30,700 (2016 est.)
    $29,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 63
    Gross national saving:
    18% of GDP (2017 est.)
    16.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    17.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 63.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 18.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -1.3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 81.6% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -79.3% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 3.5% (2017 est.)
    industry: 29.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 67.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs, pork, cheese; fish
    metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, televisions, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture, textiles, food processing, fertilizer, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, lasers, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry, information technology, video game development, app/software development, biotechnology
    Industrial production growth rate:
    5.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Labor force:
    1.467 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 9.1%
    industry: 25.2%
    services: 65.8% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    7.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Population below poverty line:
    22.2% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 28.8% (2015)
    revenues: 15.92 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 15.7 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    33.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    0.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Public debt:
    39.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    40.1% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: official data; data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities, debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 129
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.7% (2017 est.)
    0.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Current account balance:
    $364 million (2017 est.)
    -$479 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    $29.12 billion (2017 est.)
    $24.23 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Exports - partners:
    Russia 15%, Latvia 9.9%, Poland 8.1%, Germany 7.3%, US 5.2%, Estonia 5%, Sweden 4.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    refined fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles, foodstuffs, plastics
    $31.56 billion (2017 est.)
    $26.21 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Imports - commodities:
    oil, natural gas, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
    Imports - partners:
    Russia 13%, Germany 12.3%, Poland 10.6%, Latvia 7.1%, Italy 5.2%, Netherlands 5.1%, Sweden 4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $4.45 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.697 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Debt - external:
    $34.48 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $31.6 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Exchange rates:
    litai (LTL) per US dollar -
    0.884 (2017 est.)
    0.9037 (2016 est.)
    0.9037 (2015 est.)
    0.9012 (2014 est.)
    0.7525 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Lithuania
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    3.131 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - consumption:
    10.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Electricity - exports:
    730 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Electricity - imports:
    11.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.71 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    73% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    4% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Crude oil - production:
    2,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Crude oil - exports:
    1,002 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Crude oil - imports:
    182,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    12 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    196,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    58,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    174,800 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    42,490 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Natural gas - consumption:
    2.492 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Natural gas - imports:
    2.492 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    13.49 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Communications :: Lithuania
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 427,066
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 4,590,441
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 164 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: adequate; improved international capability and better residential access; SIM card penetration is high for the region; prepaid sector accounts for most subscribers; postpaid subscribers is increasing; LTE networks available to more than 99% of the population; Lithuanian FttP (fiber to the home cable connections for Internet) penetration ranked third highest in Europe; govt. and telecoms invest in fiber, fiber accounts for most new broadband connections; effective competition with 3 network operators in mobile sector and all investing in LTE and mobile data services (2020)
    domestic: 15 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 164 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 370; landing points for the BCS East, BCS East-West Interlink and NordBalt connecting Lithuania to Sweden, and Latvia ; further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    public broadcaster operates 3 channels with the third channel - a satellite channel - introduced in 2007; various privately owned commercial TV broadcasters operate national and multiple regional channels; many privately owned local TV stations; multi-channel cable and satellite TV services available; publicly owned broadcaster operates 3 radio networks; many privately owned commercial broadcasters, with repeater stations in various regions throughout the country
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 2,226,806
    percent of population: 79.72% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 788,743
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
  • Military and Security :: Lithuania
  • Military and security forces:
    Lithuanian Armed Forces (Lietuvos Ginkluotosios Pajegos): Land Forces (Sausumos Pajegos), Naval Forces (Karines Juru Pajegos), Air Forces (Karines Oro Pajegos), Special Operations Forces (Specialiuju Operaciju Pajegos); National Defense Volunteer Forces (Savanoriu Pajegos); National Riflemen's Union (paramilitary force that acts as an additional reserve force) (2020)
    Military expenditures:
    2.03% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.98% of GDP (2018)
    1.72% of GDP (2017)
    1.48% of GDP (2016)
    1.14% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    estimates for the Lithuanian Armed Forces vary; approximately 17,000 active duty personnel (12,500 Army, including about 5,000 National Defense Voluntary Forces; 700 Navy; 1,000 Air Force; 3,000 other, including special operations forces, logistics support, training, etc); est. 11,000 Riflemen Union (2020)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the Lithuanian Armed Forces' inventory is mostly a mix of Western weapons systems and Soviet-era equipment (primarily aircraft and helicopters); Germany and the UK are the leading suppliers of armaments to Lithuania since 2010 (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    contributes about 350 troops to the Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine joint military brigade (LITPOLUKRBRIG), which was established in 2014; the brigade is headquartered in Warsaw and is comprised of an international staff, three battalions, and specialized units (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    19-26 years of age for conscripted military service (males); 9-month service obligation; in 2015, Lithuania reinstated conscription after having converted to a professional military in 2008; 18-38 for voluntary service (male and female) (2019)
  • Transportation :: Lithuania
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 52 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,363,950 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 565,642 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    LY (2016)
    61 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 22 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2017)
    under 914 m: 9 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 39 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 36 (2013)
    1921 km gas, 121 km refined products (2013)
    total: 1,768 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 1,746 km 1.520-m gauge (122 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    total: 84,166 km (2012)
    paved: 72,297 km (includes 312 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 11,869 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    441 km (navigable year-round) (2007)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Merchant marine:
    total: 58
    by type: bulk carrier 3, general cargo 21, oil tanker 2, other 32 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Klaipeda
    oil terminal(s): Butinge oil terminal
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Klaipeda
  • Transnational Issues :: Lithuania
  • Disputes - international:

    Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 3,039 (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment and destination point for cannabis, cocaine, ecstasy, and opiates from Southwest Asia, Latin America, Western Europe, and neighboring Baltic countries; growing production of high-quality amphetamines, but limited production of cannabis, methamphetamines; susceptible to money laundering despite changes to banking legislation