Europe :: San Marino
  • Introduction :: San Marino
  • Background:
    Geographically the third smallest state in Europe (after the Holy See and Monaco), San Marino also claims to be the world's oldest republic. According to tradition, it was founded by a Christian stonemason named MARINUS in A.D. 301. San Marino's foreign policy is aligned with that of the EU, although it is not a member; social and political trends in the republic track closely with those of its larger neighbor, Italy.
  • Geography :: San Marino
  • Location:
    Southern Europe, an enclave in central Italy
    Geographic coordinates:
    43 46 N, 12 25 E
    Map references:
    total: 61 sq km
    land: 61 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 229
    Area - comparative:
    about one-third the size of Washington, DC
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 37 km
    border countries (1): Italy 37 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers
    rugged mountains
    lowest point: Torrente Ausa 55 m
    highest point: Monte Titano 739 m
    Natural resources:
    building stone
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 16.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 16.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 83.3% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Natural hazards:
    occasional earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    air pollution; urbanization decreasing rural farmlands; water shortage
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; an enclave of (completely surrounded by) Italy; smallest independent state in Europe after the Holy See and Monaco; dominated by the Apennine Mountains
  • People and Society :: San Marino
  • Population:
    34,232 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Sammarinese
    Ethnic groups:
    Sammarinese, Italian
    Roman Catholic
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 14.73% (male 2,662/female 2,379)
    15-24 years: 11.64% (male 2,091/female 1,894)
    25-54 years: 39.12% (male 6,310/female 7,081)
    55-64 years: 14.28% (male 2,367/female 2,520)
    65 years and over: 20.24% (male 3,123/female 3,805) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age:
    total: 45.2 years
    male: 43.9 years
    female: 46.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Population growth rate:
    0.65% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Birth rate:
    8.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Death rate:
    9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Net migration rate:
    6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    urban population: 97.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.67% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    4,000 SAN MARINO (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.09 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 4.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 4.4 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 83.5 years
    male: 80.9 years
    female: 86.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Total fertility rate:
    1.52 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Drinking water source:
    improved: total: 100% of population
    unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    7.4% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    6.11 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.8 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: total: 100% of population
    unimproved: total: 0% of population (2017)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    Education expenditures:
    3% of GDP (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    total population: 99.9%
    male: 99.9%
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years
    male: 15 years
    female: 16 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 27.4%
    male: 21.4%
    female: 36% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
  • Government :: San Marino
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of San Marino
    conventional short form: San Marino
    local long form: Repubblica di San Marino
    local short form: San Marino
    etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded the monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: San Marino (city)
    geographic coordinates: 43 56 N, 12 25 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: named after Saint MARINUS, who in A.D. 301 founded a monastic settlement around which the city and later the state of San Marino coalesced
    Administrative divisions:
    9 municipalities (castelli, singular - castello); Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino, San Marino Citta, Serravalle
    3 September 301 (traditional founding date)
    National holiday:
    Founding of the Republic (or Feast of Saint Marinus), 3 September (A.D. 301)

    San Marino’s principal legislative instruments consist of old customs (antiche consuetudini), the Statutory Laws of San Marino (Leges Statutae Sancti Marini), old statutes (antichi statute) from the1600s, Brief Notes on the Constitutional Order and Institutional Organs of the Republic of San Marino (Brevi Cenni sull’Ordinamento Costituzionale e gli Organi Istituzionali della Repubblica di San Marino) and successive legislation, chief among them is the Declaration of the Rights of Citizens and Fundamental Principles of the San Marino Legal Order (Dichiarazione dei Diritti dei Cittadini e dei Principi Fondamentali dell’Ordinamento Sammarinese), approved 8 July 1974; Declaration last amended 2019

    amendments: proposed by the Great and General Council; passage requires two-thirds majority Council vote; Council passage by absolute majority vote also requires passage in a referendum; Declaration of Civil Rights amended several times, last in 2019
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of San Marino
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 30 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: co-chiefs of state Captain Regent Alessandro MANCINI and Captain Regent Grazia ZAFFERANI (for the period 1 April 2020 - 30 September 2020)

    Alessandro Mancini and Grazia Zafferani
    head of government: Secretary of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Luca BECCARI (since 8 January 2020)
    cabinet: Congress of State elected by the Grand and General Council
    elections/appointments: co-chiefs of state (captains regent) indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 6-month term; election last held in March 2020 (next to be held in September 2020); secretary of state for foreign and political affairs indirectly elected by the Grand and General Council for a single 5-year term; election last held on 28 December 2019 (next to be held by November 2024)
    election results: Alessandro MANCINI (PSD) and Grazia ZAFFERANI (RETE Movement) elected captains regent; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA; Luca BECCARI (PDCS) elected secretary of state for foreign and political affairs; percent of Grand and General Council vote - NA

    note: the captains regent preside over meetings of the Grand and General Council and its cabinet (Congress of State), which has 7 other members who are selected by the Grand and General Council; assisting the captains regent are 7 secretaries of state; the secretary of state for Foreign Affairs has some prime ministerial roles

    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Grand and General Council or Consiglio Grande e Generale (60 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 8 December 2019 (next to be held by December 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by coalition/party - PDCS 33.3%, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 24.7% (RETE Movement 18.2%, Domani Motus Liberi 6.2%, other 0.3%), Free San Marino 16.5%, We for the Republic 13.1%, Future Republic 10.3%, I Elect for a New Republic 2%; seats by coalition/party - PDCS 21, Tomorrow in Movement coalition 15 (RETE Movement 11, Domani Motus Liberi 4), Free San Marino 10, We for the Republic 8, Future Republic 6; composition - men 42, women 18, percent of women 30%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Council of Twelve or Consiglio dei XII (consists of 12 members); note - the College of Guarantors for the Constitutionality and General Norms functions as San Marino's constitutional court
    judge selection and term of office: judges elected by the Grand and General Council from among its own to serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: first instance and first appeal criminal, administrative, and civil courts; Court for the Trust and Trustee Relations; justices of the peace or conciliatory judges
    Political parties and leaders:
    DOMANI - Modus Liberi or DML
    Free San Marino (Libera)
    Future Republic or RF [Mario VENTURINI]
    I Elect for a New Republic
    Party of Socialists and Democrats or PSD [Paride ANDREOLI]
    RETE Movement
    Sammarinese Christian Democratic Party (PDCS) [Marco GATTI]
    Socialist Party or PS [Alessandro BEVITORI]
    Tomorrow in Movement coalition (includes RETE Movement, DML)
    We for the Republic
    International organization participation:
    CE, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Damiano BELEFFI (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 327 E 50th Street, New York, NY 10022

    Embassy address:

         1711 North Street, NW (2nd Floor)
          Washington, DC 22036

    telephone: [1] (212) 751-1234

    [1] (202) 223-24l8
    [1] (202) 751-1436
    FAX: [1] (212) 751-1436
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    the United States does not have an Embassy in San Marino; the US Ambassador to Italy is accredited to San Marino, and the US Consulate general in Florence maintains day-to-day ties
    Flag description:
    two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the main colors derive from the shield of the coat of arms, which features three white towers on three peaks on a blue field; the towers represent three castles built on San Marino's highest feature, Mount Titano: Guaita, Cesta, and Montale; the coat of arms is flanked by a wreath, below a crown and above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty); the white and blue colors are also said to stand for peace and liberty respectively
    National symbol(s):
    three peaks each displaying a tower; national colors: white, blue
    National anthem:
    name: "Inno Nazionale della Repubblica" (National Anthem of the Republic)
    lyrics/music: no lyrics/Federico CONSOLO

    note: adopted 1894; the music for the lyric-less anthem is based on a 10th century chorale piece

  • Economy :: San Marino
  • Economy - overview:

    San Marino's economy relies heavily on tourism, banking, and the manufacture and export of ceramics, clothing, fabrics, furniture, paints, spirits, tiles, and wine. The manufacturing and financial sectors account for more than half of San Marino's GDP. The per capita level of output and standard of living are comparable to those of the most prosperous regions of Italy.

    San Marino's economy contracted considerably in the years since 2008, largely due to weakened demand from Italy - which accounts for nearly 90% of its export market - and financial sector consolidation. Difficulties in the banking sector, the global economic downturn, and the sizable decline in tax revenues all contributed to negative real GDP growth. The government adopted measures to counter the downturn, including subsidized credit to businesses and is seeking to shift its growth model away from a reliance on bank and tax secrecy. San Marino does not issue public debt securities; when necessary, it finances deficits by drawing down central bank deposits.

    The economy benefits from foreign investment due to its relatively low corporate taxes and low taxes on interest earnings. The income tax rate is also very low, about one-third the average EU level. San Marino continues to work towards harmonizing its fiscal laws with EU and international standards. In September 2009, the OECD removed San Marino from its list of tax havens that have yet to fully adopt global tax standards, and in 2010 San Marino signed Tax Information Exchange Agreements with most major countries. In 2013, the San Marino Government signed a Double Taxation Agreement with Italy, but a referendum on EU membership failed to reach the quorum needed to bring it to a vote.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $2.064 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.026 billion (2016 est.)
    $1.983 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 195
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.643 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    2.2% (2016 est.)
    0.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $59,000 (2017 est.)
    $59,600 (2016 est.)
    $58,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 20
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: NA (2011 est.)
    government consumption: NA (2011 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: NA (2011 est.)
    investment in inventories: NA (2011 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 176.6% (2011)
    imports of goods and services: -153.3% (2011)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 0.1% (2009)
    industry: 39.2% (2009)
    services: 60.7% (2009)
    Agriculture - products:
    wheat, grapes, corn, olives; cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, hides
    tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, wine
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -1.1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Labor force:
    21,960 (September 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 0.2%
    industry: 33.5%
    services: 66.3% (September 2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    8.1% (2017 est.)
    8.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Population below poverty line:
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 667.7 million (2011 est.)
    expenditures: 715.3 million (2011 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    40.6% (of GDP) (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.9% (of GDP) (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Public debt:
    24.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    22.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1% (2017 est.)
    0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Current account balance:
    $0 (2017 est.)
    $0 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    $3.827 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.576 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Exports - commodities:
    building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics
    $2.551 billion (2011 est.)
    $2.132 billion (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Imports - commodities:
    wide variety of consumer manufactures, food, energy
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $392 million (2014 est.)
    $539.3 million (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Debt - external:


    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: San Marino
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
  • Communications :: San Marino
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 15,800
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 47 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 38,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 113 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2018)
    domestic: fixed-line 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 113 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned public broadcaster operates 1 TV station and 3 radio stations; receives radio and TV broadcasts from Italy (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 20,328
    percent of population: 60.18% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 12,500
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
  • Military and Security :: San Marino
  • Military and security forces:
    No regular military forces; Voluntary Military Corps (Corpi Militari), which includes a Uniformed Militia (performs ceremonial duties and limited police support functions) and Guard of the Great and General Council (defends the Captains Regent and the Great and General Council, participates in official ceremonies, cooperates with the maintenance of public order on special occasions, and performs guard duties during parliamentary sittings); the Police Corps includes the Gendarmerie, which is responsible for maintaining public order, protecting citizens and their property, and providing assistance during disasters (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; government has the authority to call up all San Marino citizens from 16-60 years of age to service in the military (2012)
    Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of Italy
  • Transportation :: San Marino
  • Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    T7 (2016)
    total: 292 km (2006)
    paved: 292 km (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 203
  • Transnational Issues :: San Marino
  • Disputes - international: