Europe :: Sweden
  • Introduction :: Sweden
  • Background:

    A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Since then, Sweden has pursued a successful economic formula consisting of a capitalist system intermixed with substantial welfare elements. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum. The share of Sweden’s population born abroad increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 19.1% in 2018.

     

  • Geography :: Sweden
  • Location:
    Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
    Geographic coordinates:
    62 00 N, 15 00 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 450,295 sq km
    land: 410,335 sq km
    water: 39,960 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Area - comparative:
    almost three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,211 km
    border countries (2): Finland 545 km, Norway 1666 km
    Coastline:
    3,218 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
    exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
    Terrain:
    mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 320 m
    lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
    highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
    Natural resources:
    iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 1.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 68.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 23.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,640 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
    Environment - current issues:

    marine pollution (Baltic Sea and North Sea); acid rain damage to soils and lakes; air pollution; inappropriate timber harvesting practices

    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas; Sweden has almost 100,000 lakes, the largest of which, Vanern, is the third largest in Europe
  • People and Society :: Sweden
  • Population:
    10,040,995 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Nationality:
    noun: Swede(s)
    adjective: Swedish
    Ethnic groups:

    Swedish 80.9%, Syrian 1.8%, Finnish 1.4%, Iraqi 1.4%, other 14.5%

    (2018 est.)
    note: data represent the population by country of birth; the indigenous Sami people are estimated to number between 20,000 and 40,000
    Languages:
    Swedish (official)

    note: Finnish, Sami, Romani, Yiddish, and Meankieli are official minority languages

    Religions:
    Church of Sweden (Lutheran) 60.2%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 8.5%, none or unspecified 31.3% (2017 est.)

    note: estimates reflect registered members of faith communities eligible for state funding (not all religions are state-funded and not all people who identify with a particular religion are registered members); an estimated 57.7% of Sweden's population were members of the Church of Sweden in 2018

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 17.54% (male 904,957 /female 855,946)
    15-24 years: 11.06% (male 573,595 /female 537,358)
    25-54 years: 39.37% (male 2,005,422 /female 1,947,245)
    55-64 years: 11.67% (male 588,314 /female 583,002)
    65 years and over: 20.37% (male 946,170 /female 1,098,986) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 58.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 27.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 31.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.2 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 41.1 years
    male: 40.1 years
    female: 42.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Population growth rate:
    0.8% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Birth rate:
    12.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Death rate:
    9.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Net migration rate:
    5.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Population distribution:
    most Swedes live in the south where the climate is milder and there is better connectivity to mainland Europe; population clusters are found all along the Baltic coast in the east; the interior areas of the north remain sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 87.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.583 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    29.1 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 82.2 years
    male: 80.3 years
    female: 84.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Total fertility rate:
    1.87 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    11% (2015)
    Physicians density:
    5.4 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.4 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    11,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Education expenditures:
    7.6% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 19 years
    male: 18 years
    female: 20 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 17.9%
    male: 18.8%
    female: 17% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
  • Government :: Sweden
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
    conventional short form: Sweden
    local long form: Konungariket Sverige
    local short form: Sverige
    etymology: name ultimately derives from the North Germanic Svear tribe, which inhabited central Sweden and is first mentioned in the first centuries A.D.
    Government type:
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Stockholm
    geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
    Independence:
    6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king of Sweden, marking the abolishment of the Kalmar Union between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden)
    National holiday:
    National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage requires simple majority vote in two consecutive parliamentary terms with an intervening general election; passage also requires approval by simple majority vote in a referendum if Parliament approves a motion for a referendum by one-third of its members; amended several times, last in 2014 (changes to the "Instrument of Government") (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Sweden; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen of Sweden and the father unknown
    dual citizenship recognized: no, unless the other citizenship was acquired involuntarily
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 15 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree (daughter of the monarch, born 14 July 1977)
    head of government: Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN (since 3 October 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Isabella LOVIN (since 25 May 2016); note - Prime Minister Stefan LOFVEN was ousted in a no-confidence vote on 25 September 2018 and headed a caretaker government until the next government was formed; LOFVEN was reelected as Prime Minister and took office on 21 January 2019
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; 310 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed, party-list proportional representation vote and 39 members in "at-large" seats directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 9 September 2018 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 28.3%, M 19.8%, SD 17.5%, C 8.6%, V 8%, KD 6.3%, L 5.5%, MP 4.4%, other 1.6%; seats by party - SAP 100, M 70, SD 62, C 31, V 28, KD 22, L 20, MP 16; composition - men 188, women 161, percent of women 46.1%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices, including the court chairman); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices, including the court president)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Judges Proposal Board, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent
    subordinate courts: first instance, appellate, general, and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
    Political parties and leaders:
    Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF]
    Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Ebba Busch THOR]
    Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [Isabella LOVIN and Per BOLUND]
    Left Party (Vansterpartiet) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT]
    Liberal Party (Liberalerna) or L [Jan BJORKLUND]
    Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Ulf KRISTERSSON]
    Swedish Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN]
    Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
    International organization participation:
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UN Security Council (temporary), UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Karin Ulrika OLOFSDOTTER (since 17 September 2017)
    chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 536-1500
    FAX: [1] (202) 536-1501
    consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Pamela TREMONT (since April 2019)
    embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
    Flag description:
    blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms - three gold crowns on a blue field
    National symbol(s):
    three crowns, lion; national colors: blue, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
    lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

    note: in use since 1844; also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies

  • Economy :: Sweden
  • Economy - overview:

    Sweden’s small, open, and competitive economy has been thriving and Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living with its combination of free-market capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. Sweden remains outside the euro zone largely out of concern that joining the European Economic and Monetary Union would diminish the country’s sovereignty over its welfare system.

     

    Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of a manufacturing economy that relies heavily on foreign trade. Exports, including engines and other machines, motor vehicles, and telecommunications equipment, account for more than 44% of GDP. Sweden enjoys a current account surplus of about 5% of GDP, which is one of the highest margins in Europe.

     

    GDP grew an estimated 3.3% in 2016 and 2017 driven largely by investment in the construction sector. Swedish economists expect economic growth to ease slightly in the coming years as this investment subsides. Global economic growth boosted exports of Swedish manufactures further, helping drive domestic economic growth in 2017. The Central Bank is keeping an eye on deflationary pressures and bank observers expect it to maintain an expansionary monetary policy in 2018. Swedish prices and wages have grown only slightly over the past few years, helping to support the country’s competitiveness.

     

    In the short and medium term, Sweden’s economic challenges include providing affordable housing and successfully integrating migrants into the labor market.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $518 billion (2017 est.)
    $507.3 billion (2016 est.)
    $494 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 40
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $535.6 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    2.7% (2016 est.)
    4.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $51,200 (2017 est.)
    $50,800 (2016 est.)
    $50,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 26
    Gross national saving:
    28.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    28.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 44.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 26% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 45.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -41.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33% (2017 est.)
    services: 65.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
    Industries:
    iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Labor force:
    5.361 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 2%
    industry: 12%
    services: 86% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Population below poverty line:
    15% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 3.4%
    highest 10%: 24% (2012)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    24.9 (2013)
    25 (1992)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Budget:
    revenues: 271.2 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 264.4 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    50.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    1.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Public debt:
    40.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42.3% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 124
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Central bank discount rate:
    -0.5% (31 December 2017)
    -0.5% (31 December 2016)

    note: the Discount rate was abolished in 2002, and replaced by a "Reference rate" with no bearing on monetary policy; the rate quoted here is the Reference rate

    country comparison to the world: 163
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    1.93% (31 December 2017 est.)
    2% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Stock of narrow money:
    $329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Stock of broad money:
    $329.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $273.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $929.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $749.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $560.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
    $470.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
    $581.2 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Current account balance:
    $17.79 billion (2017 est.)
    $21.84 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Exports:
    $165.6 billion (2017 est.)
    $151.4 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 11%, Norway 10.2%, Finland 6.9%, US 6.9%, Denmark 6.9%, UK 6.2%, Netherlands 5.5%, China 4.5%, Belgium 4.4%, France 4.2% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    machinery (26%), motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals (2016 est.)
    Imports:
    $153.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $140.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 18.7%, Netherlands 8.9%, Norway 7.7%, Denmark 7.2%, China 5.5%, UK 5.1%, Finland 4.7%, Belgium 4.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $62.22 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $59.39 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Debt - external:
    $939.9 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $929.4 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $458.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $390.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $523.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $479.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Exchange rates:
    Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar -
    8.442 (2017 est.)
    8.5605 (2016 est.)
    8.5605 (2015 est.)
    8.4335 (2014 est.)
    6.8612 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Sweden
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    152.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - consumption:
    133.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Electricity - exports:
    26.02 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - imports:
    14.29 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    40.29 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    5% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    22% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    42% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Crude oil - exports:
    14,570 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Crude oil - imports:
    400,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    413,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    323,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    371,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    229,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Natural gas - consumption:
    764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Natural gas - imports:
    764.5 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    52.31 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Communications :: Sweden
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 2,794,418
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 28 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 12,435,709
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 125 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services (2018)
    domestic: fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2018)
    international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently
    Internet country code:
    .se
    Internet users:
    total: 9,041,427
    percent of population: 91.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,735,884
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 38 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
  • Transportation :: Sweden
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 8 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 219 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 11,623,930 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    SE (2016)
    Airports:
    231 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 149 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 75 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
    under 914 m: 37 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 82 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
    under 914 m: 77 (2013)
    Heliports:
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    1626 km gas (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 14,127 km (2016)
    standard gauge: 14,062 km 1.435-m gauge (12,322 km electrified) (2016)
    narrow gauge: 65 km 0.891-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Roadways:
    total: 573,134 km (includes 2,050 km of expressways) (2016)
    paved: 140,100 km (2016)
    unpaved: 433,034 km (2016)

    note: includes 98,500 km of state roads, 433,034 km of private roads, and 41,600 km of municipal roads

    country comparison to the world: 13
    Waterways:
    2,052 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Merchant marine:
    total: 359
    by type: general cargo 66, oil tanker 22, other 271 (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Brunnsviksholme, Lysekil
  • Military and Security :: Sweden
  • Military expenditures:
    1.04% of GDP (2018)
    1.03% of GDP (2017)
    1.06% of GDP (2016)
    1.08% of GDP (2015)
    1.14% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Military branches:
    Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2018)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47; compulsory military service, abolished in 2010, was reinstated in 2018 (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Sweden
  • Disputes - international:

    none

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 109,343 (Syria), 27,653 (Eritrea), 28,204 (Afghanistan), 21,032 (Somalia), 12,693 (Iraq), 6,485 (Iran) (2018)
    stateless persons: 31,819 (2018); note - the majority of stateless people are from the Middle East and Somalia