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Field Listing :: Military - note
This entry includes miscellaneous military information of significance not included elsewhere.
By Country Listing of the values for the Military - note field
Country Military - note
Afghanistan
since early 2015, the NATO-led mission in Afghanistan known as Resolute Support Mission (RSM) has focused on training, advising, and assisting Afghan government forces; as of mid-2020, RSM includes about 16,000 troops from 38 countries (June 2020)
Akrotiri
defense is the responsibility of the UK; Akrotiri has a full RAF base, headquarters for British Forces Cyprus, and Episkopi Support Unit
American Samoa
defense is the responsibility of the US
Andorra
defense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Anguilla
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Antarctica
the Antarctic Treaty prohibits any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon; it permits the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes
Argentina
The Argentine military is a well-organized force constrained by the country's prolonged economic hardship; the military is implementing a modernization plan aimed at making the ground forces lighter and more responsive.

President Mauricio Macri in July of 2019 said he would remove a 2006 decree that limited the armed forces to defending against external attacks and banned military involvement in internal security issues.  Macri said he wanted the military to be able to collaborate in internal security, primarily by providing logistic support in the border areas. (2018)
Aruba
defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands; the Aruba security services focus on organized crime and terrorism
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
Benin
Benin participates in the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram along with Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria; the Benin military contingent is in charge of MNJTF garrison duties (2020)
Bermuda
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Bouvet Island
defense is the responsibility of Norway
British Indian Ocean Territory
defense is the responsibility of the UK; in November 2016, the UK extended the US lease on Diego Garcia for 20 years; the lease now expires in December 2036 (2016)
British Virgin Islands
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Brunei
Brunei has a long-standing defense relationship with the United Kingdom and hosts a British Army garrison, which includes a Gurkha battalion and a jungle warfare school; there is also a long-term Singaporean military presence (2019)
Burkina Faso
since at least 2016, the Armed Forces of Burkina Faso have been actively engaged in combat operations with terrorist groups linked to al-Qa'ida and ISIS; military operations have occurred in the Centre‐Est, Centre‐Nord, Est, Nord, and Sahel administrative regions

Burkina Faso is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Chad, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries (2020)
Burma
since the country's founding, the armed forces have been heavily involved in domestic politics and ran the country for five decades following a military coup in 1962; the military controls three key security ministries, one of two vice presidential appointments, and 25% of the parliamentary seats; its primary operational focus is internal security, particularly counterinsurgency operations against several insurgent groups in Kachin, Rakhine, and Shan states, such as the Arakan Army, the Kachin Independence Army, the Shan State Army, and the Tang National Liberation Army; these operations have resulted in numerous civilian casualties, human rights abuses, and internal displacement; the military is also engaged in small-scale operations against Naga insurgents along the northwestern border with India (2020)
Burundi
in addition to its foreign deployments, the FDN is focused on internal security missions, particularly against rebel groups opposed to the regime such as the Resistance for the Rule of Law-Tabara (aka RED Tabara) and Popular Forces of Burundi (FPB or FOREBU); both groups are based in the neighboring Democratic Republic of Congo and have carried out sporadic attacks in Burundi (2020)
Cameroon
the FAC is largely focused on the threat from the terror group Boko Haram along its frontiers with Nigeria and Chad (Far North region) and an insurgency from armed Anglophone separatist groups in the North-West and South-West regions (as of Feb 2020, this internal conflict has left an estimated 3,000 civilians dead and over 700,000 people displaced since fighting started in 2016); in addition, the FAC has occasionally deployed units to the border region with the Central African Republic to counter intrusions from armed militias and bandits (2020)
Cayman Islands
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Central African Republic
the FACA is currently assessed as unable to provide adequate internal security for the country; the military was dissolved following the 2013 rebel seizure of the government and has struggled to rebuild in the years of instability since; France, Russia, the UN, and the European Union are providing various levels of security assistance

the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) has operated in the country since 2014; its peacekeeping mission includes providing security, protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, disarming and demobilizing armed groups, and supporting the country’s fragile transitional government; in November 2019, the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the MINUSCA peacekeeping mission another year; as of March 2020, MINUSCA had approximately 13,200 total personnel, including about 10,700 troops and 2,000 police

the European Union Training Mission in the Central African Republic (EUTM-RCA) has operated in the country since 2016; the EUTM-RCA contributes to the restructuring of the country's military and defense sector through advice, training, and educational programs (2020)
Chad
the ANT is chiefly focused on counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against Boko Haram (BH) and the Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) in the Lake Chad Basin area (primarily the Lac Province) and countering the terrorist threat in the Sahel; in 2020, it conducted a large military operation against BH in the Lake Chad region; also in 2020, Chad sent troops to the tri-border area with Burkina Faso, Mali, and Niger to combat ISWA militants

Chad is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Niger; Chad has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane; Chad hosts the headquarters of Operation Barkhane in N’Djamena

Chad has committed approximately 1,000-1,500 troops to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically; in 2019, Chad sent more than 1,000 troops to Nigeria’s Borno State to fight BH as part of the MNJTF mission (2020)
Christmas Island
defense is the responsibility of Australia
Clipperton Island
defense is the responsibility of France
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
defense is the responsibility of Australia; the territory has a five-person police force
Colombia
the Colombian Armed Forces are primarily focused on internal security, particularly counter-narcotics, counter-terrorism, and counterinsurgency operations against drug traffickers, militants from the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and National Liberation Army (ELN) terrorist/guerrilla groups, and other illegal armed groups; the Colombian Government signed a peace agreement with the FARC in 2016, but some former members (known as dissidents) have returned to fighting; the Colombian military resumed operations against FARC dissidents and their successor paramilitary groups in late 2019; in 2017, the Colombian Government initiated formal peace talks with the ELN, but in January 2019, the government ended the peace talks shortly after the ELN exploded a car bomb at the National Police Academy in Bogotá; the military is also focused on the security challenges posed by its neighbor, Venezuela (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the

the modern FARDC was created out of the armed factions of the two Congo wars of 1996-1997 and 1998-2003; as part of the peace accords that ended the last war, the largest rebel groups were incorporated into the FARDC; many armed groups (at least 70 and by some recent estimates more than 100), however, continue to fight; as of September 2020, the FARDC is actively engaged in combat operations against numerous armed groups inside the country, particularly in the eastern provinces of Ituri, North Kivu, and South Kivu, although violence also continues in Maniema, Kasai, Kasai Central, and Tanganyika provinces; the military is widely assessed as being unable to provide adequate security throughout the country due to insufficient training, poor morale and leadership, ill-discipline and corruption, low equipment readiness, a fractious ethnic makeup, and the sheer size of the country and diversity of armed rebel groups

MONUSCO, the United Nations peacekeeping and stabilization force in the Democratic Republic of Congo, has operated in the central and eastern parts of the country since 1999; as of March 2020, MONUSCO comprised around 18,500 personnel, including nearly 14,000 military troops; in December 2019, the UN extended MONUSCO's s mandate until 20 December 2020; MONUSCO includes a Force Intervention Brigade (FIB; 3 infantry battalions), the first ever UN peacekeeping force specifically tasked to carry out targeted offensive operations to neutralize and disarm groups considered a threat to state authority and civilian security (2020)
Cook Islands
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand in consultation with the Cook Islands and at its request
Coral Sea Islands
defense is the responsibility of Australia
Cote d'Ivoire
the military has mutinied several times since the late 1990s, most recently in 2017, and has had a large role in the country’s political turmoil; currently, the FACI is focused on internal security and the growing threat posed by Islamic militants associated with the al-Qa’ida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) terrorist group operating across the border in southern Burkina Faso; AQIM militants conducted significant attacks in the country in 2016 and 2020; Côte d’Ivoire since 2016 has stepped up border security and built a joint terrorism training center with France near Abidjan in 2018

the UN maintained a 9,000-strong peacekeeping force in Cote d’Ivoire (UNOCI) from 2004 until 2017 (2020)
Cuba
the collapse of the Soviet Union deprived the Cuban military of its major economic and logistic support and had a significant impact on the state of Cuban equipment; the army remains well trained and professional in nature; the lack of replacement parts for its existing equipment has increasingly affected operational capabilities (2019)
Curacao
defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2019)
Cyprus
the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNICYP) was set up in 1964 to prevent further fighting between the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities on the island and bring about a return to normal conditions; as of March 2020, the UNICYP mission consisted of about 830 personnel (2020)
Dhekelia
defense is the responsibility of the UK; includes Dhekelia Garrison and Ayios Nikolaos Station connected by a roadway
Dominica
Dominica participates in the Regional Security System (RSS) an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region (2019)
Egypt

since 2011, the Egyptian Armed Forces, police, and other security forces have been actively engaged in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations in the North Sinai governorate against several militant groups, particularly the Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham – Sinai Province; as of early 2020, Egypt reportedly had over 40,000 troops plus thousands of police and other security personnel deployed to the Sinai for internal security duties where more than 1,000 have been killed

the military has a large stake in the civilian economy, including running businesses, producing consumer and industrial goods, importing commodities, and building and managing infrastructure projects, such as bridges, roads, hospitals, and housing developments

the Multinational Force & Observers (MFO) has operated in the Sinai since 1982 as a peacekeeping and monitoring force to supervise the implementation of the security provisions of the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli Treaty of Peace; the MFO is an independent international organization, created by agreement between the Arab Republic of Egypt and the State of Israel; it is composed of about 1,150 troops from 13 countries (2020)
European Union
the current five-nation Eurocorps, formally established in 1992 and activated the following year, began in 1987 as a French-German Brigade; Belgium (1993), Spain (1994), and Luxembourg (1996) joined over the next few years; five additional countries participate in Eurocorps as associated nations: Greece, Poland, and Turkey (since 2002), Italy and Romania (joined in 2009 and 2016 respectively); Eurocorps consists of approximately 1,000 troops at its headquarters in Strasbourg, France and the 5,000-man Franco-German Brigade; Eurocorps has deployed troops and police on NATO peacekeeping missions to Bosnia-Herzegovina (1998-2000), Kosovo (2000), and Afghanistan (2004-05 and 2012); Eurocorps has been involved in EU operations to Mali (2015) and the Central African Republic (2016-17) (2019)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Faroe Islands
defense is the responsibility of Denmark
French Polynesia
defense is the responsibility of France and France maintains forces in French Polynesia (2019)
French Southern and Antarctic Lands
defense is the responsibility of France
Georgia
Georgia does not have any military stationed in the separatist territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, but large numbers of Russian servicemen have been stationed in these regions since the 2008 Russia-Georgia War (2019)
Gibraltar
defense is the responsibility of the UK; the Royal Gibraltar Regiment replaced the last British regular infantry forces in 1991 (2019)
Greenland
The Danish military’s Joint Arctic Command in Nuuk is responsible for territorial defense of Greenland (2019)
Guam
defense is the responsibility of the US
Guernsey
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
defense is the responsibility of Australia; Australia conducts fisheries patrols
Holy See (Vatican City)
defense is the responsibility of Italy
Hong Kong
defense is the responsibility of China
Howland Island
defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the US Coast Guard (2019)
Iceland
Iceland is the only NATO member that has no standing military force; defense of Iceland remains a NATO commitment and NATO maintains an air policing presence in Icelandic airspace; Iceland participates in international peacekeeping missions with the civilian-manned Icelandic Crisis Response Unit (ICRU) (2019)
Isle of Man
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Israel
the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of March 2020, UNDOF consisted of about 1,000 personnel (2020)
Jan Mayen
defense is the responsibility of Norway
Jarvis Island
defense is the responsibility of the US; visited periodically by the US Coast Guard
Jersey
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Johnston Atoll
defense is the responsibility of the US
Kenya
The Kenya Coast Guard Service (established 2018) is separate from the Defence Forces, but led by a military officer and comprised of personnel from the military, as well as the National Police Service, intelligence services, and other government agencies. (2019)
Kingman Reef
defense is the responsibility of the US
Kiribati
Kiribati does not have military forces; defense assistance is provided by Australia and NZ
Lebanon
the United Nations Interim Force In Lebanon (UNIFIL) has operated in the country since 1978, originally under UNSCRs 425 and 426 to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and security and assist the Lebanese Government in restoring its effective authority in the area; following the July-August 2006 war, the UN Security Council adopted resolution 1701 enhancing UNIFIL and deciding that in addition to the original mandate, it would, among other things, monitor the cessation of hostilities; accompany and support the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) as they deploy throughout the south of Lebanon; and extend its assistance to help ensure humanitarian access to civilian populations and the voluntary and safe return of displaced persons; UNIFIL had about 10,200 personnel deployed in the country as of March 2020 (2020)
Lesotho
Lesotho's declared policy for its military is the maintenance of the country's sovereignty and the preservation of internal security; in practice, external security is guaranteed by South Africa
Macau
defense is the responsibility of China and the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) maintains a garrison in Macau
Mali
prior to the August 2020 coup, the Malian military had intervened in the political arena at least five times since the country gained independence in 1960; two attempts failed (1976 and 1978), while three succeeded (1968, 1991, and 2012); the military collapsed in 2012 during the fighting against Tuareg rebels and Islamic militants

since 2017, the FAMa, along with other government security and paramilitary forces, has conducted multiple major operations against militants in the eastern, central, and northern parts of the country; up to 4,000 troops reportedly have been deployed; the stated objectives for the most recent operation (Operation Maliko in early 2020) was to end terrorist activity and restore government authority in seven of the country’s 10 regions, including Mopti, Ségou, Gao, Kidal, Ménaka, Taoudénit, and Timbuktu

Mali is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mauritania, and Niger; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane 

the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) has operated in the country since 2013; the Mission's responsibilities include providing security, rebuilding Malian security forces, supporting national political dialogue, and assisting in the reestablishment of Malian government authority; as of March 2020, MINUSMA had around 15,500 military, police, and civilian personnel deployed

the European Union Training Mission in Mali (EUTM-M) also has operated in the country since 2013; the EUTM-M provides advice and training to the Malian Armed Forces and military assistance to the G5 Sahel Joint Force; as of August 2020, the mission included more than 600 personnel from 28 European countries (2020)
Marshall Islands
defense is the responsibility of the US
Mauritania
since a spate of terrorist attacks in the 2000s, including a 2008 attack on a military base in the country’s north that resulted in the deaths of 12 soldiers, the Mauritanian Government has increased the defense budget and military equipment acquisitions, enhanced military training, heightened security cooperation with its neighbors and the international community, and built up the military’s special operations and civil-military affairs forces

Mauritania is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, and Niger; it has committed 550 troops and 100 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane (2020)
Micronesia, Federated States of
defense is the responsibility of the US
Midway Islands
defense is the responsibility of the US
Monaco
defense is the responsibility of France
Montserrat
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Mozambique
the Mozambique Defense and Security Forces are facing a growing insurgency involving terrorist/militant groups with ties to the Islamic State in Central Africa in the northern province of Cabo Delgado, an area known for rich liquid natural gas deposits; attacks in the province began around 2017 and as of September 2020, the fighting had left an estimated 1,000 dead and over 200,000 displaced; Mozambique has brought in private military companies based in Russia and South Africa to provide assistance to its security forces (2020)
Nauru
Nauru maintains no defense forces; under an informal agreement, defense is the responsibility of Australia
Navassa Island
defense is the responsibility of the US
New Caledonia
defense is the responsibility of France
Niger
as of September 2020, the FAN was conducting counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations against Islamic militants on two fronts; in the Diffa region, the Nigeria-based Boko Haram terrorist group has conducted dozens of attacks on security forces, army bases, and civilians; on Niger’s western border with Mali, the Islamic State-West Africa (ISWA) has conducted numerous attacks on security personnel; a series of ISWA attacks on FAN forces near the Malian border in December of 2019 and January of 2020 resulted in the deaths of more than 170 soldiers

Niger is part of a five-nation anti-jihadist task force known as the G5 Sahel Group, set up in 2014 with Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, and Chad; it has committed 1,100 troops and 200 gendarmes to the force; in early 2020, G5 Sahel military chiefs of staff agreed to allow defense forces from each of the states to pursue terrorist fighters up to 100 km into neighboring countries; the G5 force is backed by the UN, US, and France; G5 troops periodically conduct joint operations with French forces deployed to the Sahel under Operation Barkhane

Niger also has about 1,000 troops committed to the Multinational Joint Task Force (MNJTF) against Boko Haram; national MNJTF troop contingents are deployed within their own country territories, although cross‐border operations are conducted periodically (2020)
Nigeria
the Nigerian Armed Forces are used primarily for internal security operations; in the northeast, the military is conducting counterinsurgency/counter-terrorist operations against the Boko Haram (BH) and Islamic State in West Africa (ISWA) terrorist groups, while in the northwest, it faces threats from criminal gangs, bandits, and militants associated with ongoing herder-farmer violence, as well as BH and ISWA terrorists; the military also focuses on the Niger Delta region to protect the oil industry against militants and criminal activity, although the levels of violence there have decreased in recent years (2020)
Niue
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Norfolk Island
defense is the responsibility of Australia
Northern Mariana Islands
defense is the responsibility of the US
Palau
Under a 1994 Compact of Free Association between Palau and the US, the US until 2044 is responsible for the defense of Palaus and the US military is granted access to the islands, but it has not stationed any military forces there. (2020)
Palmyra Atoll
defense is the responsibility of the US
Paracel Islands
occupied by China, which is assessed to maintain 20 outposts in the Paracels (Antelope, Bombay, and North reefs; Drummond, Duncan, Lincoln, Middle, Money, North, Pattle, Quanfu, Robert, South, Tree, Triton, Woody, and Yagong islands; South Sand and West Sand; Observation Bank); the outposts range in size from one or two buildings to bases with significant military infrastructure; Woody Island is the main base in the Paracels and includes an airstrip with fighter aircraft hangers, naval facilities, surveillance radars, and defenses such as surface-to-air missiles and anti-ship cruise missiles; fighter aircraft have deployed to the island (2020)
Philippines
the AFP's primary operational focus is on internal security duties, particularly in the south, where several insurgent and terrorist groups operate and an estimated 60% of the armed forces were deployed as of 2019; the Philippines National Police (PNP) also has an active role in counterinsurgency and counter-terrorism operations alongside the AFP (2019)
Pitcairn Islands
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Puerto Rico
defense is the responsibility of the US
Romania
Ministry of Internal Affairs:  Gendarmerie
Saint Barthelemy
defense is the responsibility of France
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
defense is the responsibility of the UK
Saint Lucia
St. Lucia is a member of the Regional Security System (RSS), an international agreement for the defense and security of the eastern Caribbean region.
Saint Martin
defense is the responsibility of France
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
defense is the responsibility of France
Samoa
Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship
San Marino
defense is the responsibility of Italy
Sint Maarten

defense is the responsibility of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Somalia
Somali military forces are heavily engaged in operations against the al-Shabaab terrorist organization, including joint operations with the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM); AMISOM has operated in the country with the approval of the United Nations (UN) since 2007; AMISOM's peacekeeping mission includes assisting Somali forces in providing security for a stable political process, enabling the gradual handing over of security responsibilities from AMISOM to the Somali security forces, and reducing the threat posed by Al-Shabaab and other armed opposition groups; as of early 2020, AMISOM had about 19,000 military troops and about 1,000 police personnel from six African countries deployed in Somalia 

UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) is mandated by the Security Council to work with the Federal Government of Somalia to support national reconciliation, provide advice on peace-building and state-building, monitor the human rights situation, and help coordinate the efforts of the international community

the UN Support Office in Somalia (UNSOS) is responsible for providing logistical field support to AMISOM, UNSOM, the Somali National Army, and the Somali Police Force on joint operations with AMISOM

the European Union Training Mission in Somalia (EUTM-S) has operated in the country since 2010; the EUTM provides advice and training to the Somali military

the US and Turkey maintain separate unilateral military training missions in Somalia (2020)
South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands
defense is the responsibility of the UK
South Sudan
under the September 2018 peace agreement, all armed groups in South Sudan were to assemble at designated sites where fighters could be either disarmed and demobilized, or integrated into unified military and police forces; the unified forces were then to be retrained and deployed prior to the formation of a national unity government; all fighters were ordered to these sites in July 2019; some progress toward merging the various armed forces into a national army has been made; for example, in May 2020, South Sudan announced that it was graduating some unified forces at various training centers across the country, and in June the SSPDF incorporated some senior officers from the main opposition force, the Sudan People's Liberation Movement Army - in Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) into its rank structure; nevertheless, progress has been slow, and as of August 2020 armed clashes continued to occur between government forces and armed militant groups

the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) has operated in the country since 2011 with the objectives of consolidating peace and security and helping establish conditions for the successful economic and political development of South Sudan; UNMISS had more than 18,000 personnel deployed in the country as of May 2020

United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 4,000 personnel deployed as of March 2020 (2020)
Spratly Islands
Spratly Islands consist of more than 100 small islands or reefs of which about 45 are claimed and occupied by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam

China: assessed to have 7 outposts (Fiery Cross, Mischief, Subi, Cuarteron, Gavin, Hughes, and Johnson reefs); the outposts on Fiery Cross, Mischief, and Subi include air bases with helipads and dozens of fighter jet hangers, naval port facilities, surveillance radars, air defense sites, anti-ship cruise missiles, and other military infrastructure such as communications, barracks, maintenance facilities, and ammunition and fuel bunkers

Malaysia:  assessed to have 5 outposts in the southern portion of the archipelago, closest to the Malaysian state of Sabah (Ardasier Reef, Eric Reef, Mariveles Reef, Shallow Reef, and Investigator Shoal); all the outposts have helicopter landing pads, while Shallow Reef also has an airstrip

Philippines: assessed to occupy 9 features (Commodore Reef, Second Thomas Shoal, Flat Island, Loaita Cay, Loaita Island, Nanshan Island, Northeast Cay, Thitu Island, and West York Island); Thitu Island has the only Philippine airstrip in the Spratlys

Taiwan: maintains an outpost with an airstrip on Itu Aba Island

Vietnam: assessed to occupy about 49 outposts spread across 27 features, including facilities on 21 rocks and reefs in the Spratlys, plus 14 platforms known as “economic, scientific, and technological service stations,” or Dịch vụ-Khoa (DK1), on six underwater banks to the southeast that Vietnam does not consider part of the disputed island chain, although China and Taiwan disagree; Spratly Islands outposts are on Alison Reef, Amboyna Cay, Barque Canada Reef, Central Reef, Collins Reef, Cornwallis South Reef, Discovery Great Reef, East Reef, Grierson Reef, Ladd Reef, Landsdowne Reef, Namyit Island, Pearson Reef, Petley Reef, Sand Cay, Sin Cowe Island, South Reef, Southwest Cay, Spratly Island, Tennent Reef, West Reef; Spratly Island includes an airstrip with aircraft hangers; the six underwater banks with outposts include Vanguard, Rifleman, Prince of Wales, Prince Consort, Grainger, and Alexandra

(2020)
Sudan
United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) has operated in the disputed Abyei region along the border between Sudan and South Sudan since 2011; UNISFA's mission includes ensuring security, protecting civilians, strengthening the capacity of the Abyei Police Service, de-mining, monitoring/verifying the redeployment of armed forces from the area, and facilitating the flow of humanitarian aid; UNISFA had about 4,000 personnel deployed as of January 2020

in addition, the United Nations African Union Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) has operated in the war-torn Darfur region since 2007; UNAMID is a joint African Union-UN peacekeeping force with the mission of bringing stability to Darfur, including protecting civilians, facilitating humanitarian assistance, and promoting mediation efforts, while peace talks on a final settlement continue; as of March 2020, UNAMID had about 6,500 personnel deployed (2020)
Svalbard
Svalbard is a territory of Norway, demilitarized by treaty on 9 February 1920; Norwegian military activity is limited to fisheries surveillance by the Norwegian Coast Guard
Syria
the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force (UNDOF) has operated in the Golan between Israel and Syria since 1974 to monitor the ceasefire following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War and supervise the areas of separation between the two countries; as of October 2019, UNDOF consisted of about 1,140 personnel
Tanzania
the TPDF has deployed additional troops to its border with Mozambique to prevent a spillover of the growing violence in the northern Mozambican province of Cabo Delgado (2020)
Thailand

including the most recent in 2014, the military has conducted 12 successful coups and attempted an additional seven since the fall of absolute monarchy in 1932; since 2004, the military has fought against separatist insurgents in the southern provinces of  Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, as well as parts of Songkhla; as of 2019, approximately 60,000 security forces, including large numbers of paramilitary troops such as the Thai Rangers, were stationed in the south

(2019)
Tokelau
defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
Turkey
The ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) has actively pursued the goal of asserting civilian control over the military since first taking power in 2002; the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) role in internal security has been significantly reduced; the TSK leadership continues to be an influential institution within Turkey, but plays a much smaller role in politics; the Turkish military remains focused on the threats emanating from the Syrian civil war, Russia's actions in Ukraine, and the PKK insurgency; primary domestic threats are listed as fundamentalism (with the definition in some dispute with the civilian government), separatism (Kurdish discontent), and the extreme left wing; Ankara strongly opposed establishment of an autonomous Kurdish region in Iraq; an overhaul of the Turkish Land Forces Command (TLFC) taking place under the "Force 2014" program is to produce 20-30% smaller, more highly trained forces characterized by greater mobility and firepower and capable of joint and combined operations; the TLFC has taken on increasing international peacekeeping responsibilities including in Afghanistan; the Turkish Navy is a regional naval power that wants to develop the capability to project power beyond Turkey's coastal waters; the Navy is heavily involved in NATO, multinational, and UN operations; its roles include control of territorial waters and security for sea lines of communications; the Turkish Air Force adopted an "Aerospace and Missile Defense Concept" in 2002 and has initiated project work on an integrated missile defense system; in a controversial move, it recently (July 2019) purchased the Russian S-400 air defense system for an estimated $2.5 billion; Air Force priorities include attaining a modern deployable, survivable, and sustainable force structure, and establishing a sustainable command and control system; Turkey is a NATO ally and hosts NATO's Land Forces Command in Izmir, as well as the AN/TPY-2 radar as part of NATO Missile Defense (2019)
Turks and Caicos Islands
defense is the responsibility of the UK
United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges
defense is the responsibility of the US
Virgin Islands
defense is the responsibility of the US
Wake Island
defense is the responsibility of the US; the US Air Force is responsible for overall administration and operation of the island facilities; the launch support facility is administered by the US Missile Defense Agency (MDA)
Wallis and Futuna
defense is the responsibility of France
Western Sahara
the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) has operated in the Western Sahara since 1991 in accordance with settlement proposals accepted in 1988 by Morocco and the Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Río de Oro (Frente POLISARIO); the Mission's responsibilities include monitoring the ceasefire, reducing the threat of mines and unexploded ordnance, and providing logistic support to the UNHCR-led Confidence Building Measures pending an agreement to resume those activities, which were suspended in June 2014; as of November 2019, MINURSO had about 460 personnel deployed
 
Zimbabwe
the ZDF was formed after independence from the former Rhodesian Army and the two guerrilla forces that opposed it during the Rhodesian Bush War of the 1970s, the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA); internal security is a key current responsibility, and the military continues to play an active role in the country’s politics since the coup of 2017 (2020)