Central America :: Anguilla
  • Introduction :: Anguilla
  • Background:
    Colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650, Anguilla was administered by Great Britain until the early 19th century, when the island - against the wishes of the inhabitants - was incorporated into a single British dependency along with Saint Kitts and Nevis. Several attempts at separation failed. In 1971, two years after a revolt, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede; this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency. On 7 September 2017, the island suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Irma, particularly to communications and residential and business infrastructure.
  • Geography :: Anguilla
  • Location:
    Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, east of Puerto Rico
    Geographic coordinates:
    18 15 N, 63 10 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    total: 91 sq km
    land: 91 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 227
    Area - comparative:
    about one-half the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    61 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 3 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds
    flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone
    lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Crocus Hill 73 m
    Natural resources:
    salt, fish, lobster
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 0% (2016 est.)
    arable land: 0% (2016 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2016 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2016 est.)
    forest: 61.1% (2016 est.)
    other: 38.9% (2016 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast
    Natural hazards:
    frequent hurricanes and other tropical storms (July to October)
    Environment - current issues:
    supplies of potable water sometimes cannot meet increasing demand largely because of poor distribution system
    Geography - note:
    the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles
  • People and Society :: Anguilla
  • Population:
    18,090 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    noun: Anguillan(s)
    adjective: Anguillan
    Ethnic groups:
    African/black 85.3%, hispanic 4.9%, mixed 3.8%, white 3.2%, East Indian/Indian 1%, other 1.6%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
    note: data represent population by ethnic origin
    English (official)
    Protestant 73.2% (includes Anglican 22.7%, Methodist 19.4%, Pentecostal 10.5%, Seventh Day Adventist 8.3%, Baptist 7.1%, Church of God 4.9%, Presbytarian 0.2%, Brethren 0.1%), Roman Catholic 6.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.1%, other Christian 10.9%, other 3.2%, unspecified 0.3%, none 4.5% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 21.63% (male 1,991/female 1,922)
    15-24 years: 13.9% (male 1,269/female 1,246)
    25-54 years: 42.27% (male 3,428/female 4,218)
    55-64 years: 12.42% (male 993/female 1,254)
    65 years and over: 9.78% (male 874/female 895) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age:
    total: 35.7 years
    male: 33.7 years
    female: 37.6 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Population growth rate:
    1.86% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Birth rate:
    12.2 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Death rate:
    4.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Net migration rate:
    11.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is concentrated in The Valley in the center of the island; settlmement is fairly uniform in the southwest, but rather sparce in the northeast
    urban population: 100% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    total population growth rate v. urban population growth rate, 2000-2030: PDF
    Major urban areas - population:
    1,000 THE VALLEY (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.81 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.98 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.8 years
    male: 79.2 years
    female: 84.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Total fertility rate:
    1.74 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 97.5% of population
    total: 97.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population
    total: 2.5% of population (2017 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.1% of population
    total: 99.1% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0.9% of population
    total: 0.9% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    Education expenditures:
  • Government :: Anguilla
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Anguilla
    etymology: the name Anguilla means "eel" in various Romance languages (Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French) and likely derives from the island's lengthy shape
    Dependency status:
    overseas territory of the UK
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
    name: The Valley
    geographic coordinates: 18 13 N, 63 03 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name derives from the capital's location between several hills
    Administrative divisions:
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    National holiday:
    Anguilla Day, 30 May (1967)
    history: several previous; latest 1 April 1982
    amendments: amended 1990
    see United Kingdom
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Tim FOY (since August 2017)
    head of government: Premier Dr. Ellis WEBSTER (since 30 June 2020); note -  starting in 2019, the title of head of government was changed to premier from chief minister of Anguilla
    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor from among elected members of the House of Assembly
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed premier by the governor
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral House of Assembly (11 seats; 7 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 2 appointed by the governor, and 2 ex officio members - the attorney general and deputy governor; members serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held on 29 June 2020 (next to be held in 2025)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APM 7, AUF 4; composition - NA
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the superior court of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - consists of the Court of Appeal - headed by the chief justice and 4 judges - and the High Court with 18 judges; the Court of Appeal is itinerant, travelling to member states on a schedule to hear appeals from the High Court and subordinate courts; High Court judges reside in the member states, though none on Anguilla
    judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
    subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Juvenile Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Anguilla Democratic Party or ADP
    Anguilla National Alliance or ANA
    Anguilla Progressive Movement or APM [Dr. Ellis WEBSTER]; prior to 2019, it was known as the Anguilla United Movement or AUM
    Anguilla United Front or AUF [Victor BANKS] (alliance includes ADP, ANA)
    Democracy, Opportunity, Vision, and Empowerment Party or DOVE [Sutcliffe HODGE]
    International organization participation:
    Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UNESCO (associate), UPU
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    none (overseas territory of the UK)
    Flag description:
    blue, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Anguillan coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of arms depicts three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design on a white background with a turquoise-blue field below; the white in the background represents peace; the blue base symbolizes the surrounding sea, as well as faith, youth, and hope; the three dolphins stand for endurance, unity, and strength
    National symbol(s):
    National anthem:
    name: God Bless Anguilla
    lyrics/music: Alex RICHARDSON

    note: local anthem adopted 1981; as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Anguilla
  • Economy - overview:
    Anguilla has few natural resources, is unsuited for agriculture, and the economy depends heavily on luxury tourism, offshore banking, lobster fishing, and remittances from emigrants. Increased activity in the tourism industry has spurred the growth of the construction sector contributing to economic growth. Anguillan officials have put substantial effort into developing the offshore financial sector, which is small but growing. In the medium term, prospects for the economy will depend largely on the recovery of the tourism sector and, therefore, on revived income growth in the industrialized nations as well as on favorable weather conditions.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $175.4 million (2009 est.)
    $191.7 million (2008 est.)
    $108.9 million (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $175.4 million (2009 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    -8.5% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $12,200 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 74.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 26.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 48.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -67.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 10.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 86.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    small quantities of tobacco, vegetables; cattle raising
    tourism, boat building, offshore financial services
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Labor force:
    6,049 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 74.1%
    industry: 3%
    services: 18%
    agriculture/fishing/forestry/mining: 4% (2000 est.)
    manufacturing: 3% (2000 est.)
    construction: 18% (2000 est.)
    transportation and utilities: 10% (2000 est.)
    commerce: 36% (2000 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    8% (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Population below poverty line:
    23% (2002 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 81.92 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 80.32 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    46.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    0.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Public debt:
    20.1% of GDP (2015 est.)
    20.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    -0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Current account balance:
    -$23.2 million (2017 est.)
    -$25.3 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    $7.9 million (2017 est.)
    $3.9 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Exports - commodities:
    lobster, fish, livestock, salt, concrete blocks, rum
    $186.2 million (2017 est.)
    $170.1 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Imports - commodities:
    fuels, foodstuffs, manufactures, chemicals, trucks, textiles
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $76.38 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $48.14 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Debt - external:
    $41.04 million (31 December 2013)
    $8.8 million (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Exchange rates:
    East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
    2.7 (2017 est.)
    2.7 (2016 est.)
    2.7 (2015 est.)
    2.7 (2014 est.)
    2.7 (2013 est.)
  • Communications :: Anguilla
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 6,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 26,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 158 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: modern internal telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized; major growth sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 37 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 158 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 1-264; landing points for the SSCS, ECFS, GCN and Southern Caribbean Fiber with submarine cable links to Caribbean islands and to the US; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    1 private TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; about 10 radio stations, one of which is government-owned
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 14,211
    percent of population: 81.57% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
  • Military and Security :: Anguilla
  • Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transportation :: Anguilla
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 3 (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    VP-A (2016)
    1 (2020)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2020)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
    total: 175 km (2004)
    paved: 82 km (2004)
    unpaved: 93 km (2004)
    country comparison to the world: 209
    Merchant marine:
    total: 2
    by type: other 2 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Blowing Point, Road Bay
  • Transnational Issues :: Anguilla
  • Disputes - international:


    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe