Africa :: CHAD
  • Introduction :: CHAD

  • Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.
  • Geography :: CHAD

  • Central Africa, south of Libya
    15 00 N, 19 00 E
    Africa
    total: 1.284 million sq km
    land: 1,259,200 sq km
    water: 24,800 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 22
    almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California
    total: 6,406 km
    border countries (6): Cameroon 1,116 km, Central African Republic 1,556 km, Libya 1,050 km, Niger 1,196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1,403 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    none (landlocked)
    tropical in south, desert in north
    broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
    mean elevation: 543 m
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Djourab 160 m
    highest point: Emi Koussi 3,445 m
    petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
    agricultural land: 39.6%
    arable land 3.9%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 35.7%
    forest: 9.1%
    other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
    300 sq km (2012)
    the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
    inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas contributes to soil and water pollution; desertification
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
    note 1: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries
    note 2: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site
    note 3: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea
  • People and Society :: CHAD

  • 12,075,985 (July 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    noun: Chadian(s)
    adjective: Chadian
    Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 29.9%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.7%, Arab 9.6%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7.5%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.7%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.6%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.6%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.5%, Mundang 2.5%, Tupuri/Kera 2.1%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.9%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.2%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.4%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
    French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
    Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
    Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.
    More than 300,000 refugees from Sudan and almost 70,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.
    0-14 years: 43.02% (male 2,634,817/female 2,560,790)
    15-24 years: 21.46% (male 1,267,944/female 1,324,115)
    25-54 years: 28.62% (male 1,574,782/female 1,881,183)
    55-64 years: 3.88% (male 206,627/female 261,586)
    65 years and over: 3.02% (male 150,364/female 213,777) (2017 est.)
    total dependency ratio: 100.2
    youth dependency ratio: 95.2
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
    potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)
    total: 17.6 years
    male: 16.6 years
    female: 18.6 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    35.6 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    13.8 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    -3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
    urban population: 22.8% of total population (2017)
    rate of urbanization: 3.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    N'DJAMENA (capital) 1.26 million (2015)
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
    17.9 years
    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2014/15 est.)
    856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    total: 87 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 92.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 81.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    total population: 50.2 years
    male: 49 years
    female: 51.5 years (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    4.34 children born/woman (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    5.7% (2014)
    3.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    improved:
    urban: 71.8% of population
    rural: 44.8% of population
    total: 50.8% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 28.2% of population
    rural: 55.2% of population
    total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
    improved:
    urban: 31.4% of population
    rural: 6.5% of population
    total: 12.1% of population
    unimproved:
    urban: 68.6% of population
    rural: 93.5% of population
    total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
    1.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    110,000 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    2,800 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    degree of risk: very high
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
    water contact disease: schistosomiasis
    respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
    animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
    6.6% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    28.8% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    2.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic
    total population: 22.3%
    male: 31.3%
    female: 14% (2016 est.)
    total: 7 years
    male: 9 years
    female: 6 years (2011)
    total number: 1,475,960
    percentage: 48% (2010 est.)
  • Government :: CHAD

  • conventional long form: Republic of Chad
    conventional short form: Chad
    local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
    local short form: Tchad/Tshad
    etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages
    presidential republic
    name: N'Djamena
    geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
    11 August 1960 (from France)
    Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
    history: several previous; latest approved by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996
    amendments: proposed as a revision by the president of the republic after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National Assembly; approval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended 2005, 2013 (2017)
    mixed legal system of civil and customary law
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
    dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
    head of government: Prime Minister Albert Pahimi PADACKE (since 15 February 2016)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in 1 round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%
    description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 118 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 70 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, URD 8, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, PUR 2, UDR 2, PDSA 2, CTPD 2, other minor parties 19
    note: the National Assembly mandate was extended, reportedly due to a lack of funding for the scheduled 2015 election
    highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
    Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDAR]
    Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
    Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
    National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
    National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
    Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
    Party for Unity and Reconciliation
    Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]
    RNDT/Le Reveil
    Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA
    Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
    NA
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mahamat Nasser HASSANE (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
    FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
    chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
    embassy: Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
    mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
    telephone: [235] 2251-70-09
    FAX: [235] 2251-56-54
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice
    note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France
    goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
    lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD
    note: adopted 1960
  • Economy :: CHAD

  • Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes about one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.
    Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.
    Although high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.
    In 2017, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2017, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.
    $28.99 billion (2016 est.)
    $30.96 billion (2015 est.)
    $30.42 billion (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 132
    $10.1 billion (2016 est.)
    -6.4% (2016 est.)
    1.8% (2015 est.)
    6.9% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    $2,400 (2016 est.)
    $2,700 (2015 est.)
    $2,700 (2014 est.)
    note: data are in 2016 dollars
    country comparison to the world: 199
    11.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    21.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    household consumption: 71.4%
    government consumption: 4.4%
    investment in fixed capital: 30.8%
    investment in inventories: 0.4%
    exports of goods and services: 25.3%
    imports of goods and services: -32.3% (2016 est.)
    agriculture: 53%
    industry: 12.8%
    services: 34.2% (2016 est.)
    cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
    oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
    -5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    5.457 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    agriculture: 80%
    industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
    NA%
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
    43.3 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    revenues: $1.626 billion
    expenditures: $2.163 billion (2016 est.)
    15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    -5.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    35.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    33.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    calendar year
    -1.1% (2016 est.)
    6.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    15.5% (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    $1.741 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.604 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    $1.976 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $1.751 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    $1.324 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $1.034 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    $NA
    -$885 million (2016 est.)
    -$1.347 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    $4.053 billion (2016 est.)
    $3.965 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
    US 57%, India 8.9%, China 6.7%, France 6.4%, UAE 4.3%, Japan 4.1% (2016)
    $3.075 billion (2016 est.)
    $3.071 billion (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
    France 19.8%, China 15.7%, Cameroon 15.1%, India 6.1%, US 5.4%, Belgium 4.4% (2016)
    $627.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    $382.9 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    $1.875 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $2.802 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    $NA
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    605.7 (2016 est.)
    591.45 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
    510.53 (2012 est.)
  • Energy :: CHAD

  • population without electricity: 10,477,071
    electrification - total population: 4%
    electrification - urban areas: 14%
    electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)
    200 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    200 million kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    0 kWh (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    41,000 kW (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    120,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    105,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    2,200 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    2,215 bbl/day (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
  • Communications :: CHAD

  • total subscriptions: 14,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    total: 6,231,009
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    general assessment: inadequate system of radiotelephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density
    domestic: fixed-line connections for less than 1 per 100 persons coupled with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 40 per 100 persons
    international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)
    .td
    total: 592,623
    percent of population: 5.0% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
  • Transportation :: CHAD

  • number of registered air carriers: 1
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 28,332
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: mt-km (2015)
    59 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    total: 9
    over 3,047 m: 2
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 50
    over 3,047 m: 1
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
    914 to 1,523 m: 22
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    oil 582 km (2013)
    total: 40,000 km
    note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    (Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
  • Military and Security :: CHAD

  • 2.79% of GDP (2016)
    2.03% of GDP (2015)
    2.82% of GDP (2014)
    5.61% of GDP (2013)
    Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
    20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)
  • Transnational Issues :: CHAD

  • since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into Chad; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
    refugees (country of origin): 322,260 (Sudan); 75,117 (Central African Republic); 9,148 (Nigeria) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2017)
    IDPs: 118,804 (majority are in the east) (2017)