Africa :: Senegal
  • Introduction :: Senegal
  • Background:
    The French colonies of Senegal and French Sudan were merged in 1959 and granted independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation. The union broke up after only a few months. Senegal joined with The Gambia to form the nominal confederation of Senegambia in 1982. The envisaged integration of the two countries was never implemented, and the union was dissolved in 1989. The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance has led a low-level separatist insurgency in southern Senegal since the 1980s. Several peace deals have failed to resolve the conflict, but an unofficial cease-fire has remained largely in effect since 2012. Senegal remains one of the most stable democracies in Africa and has a long history of participating in international peacekeeping and regional mediation. Senegal was ruled by a Socialist Party for 40 years until Abdoulaye WADE was elected president in 2000. He was reelected in 2007 and during his two terms amended Senegal's constitution over a dozen times to increase executive power and weaken the opposition. His decision to run for a third presidential term sparked a large public backlash that led to his defeat in a March 2012 runoff with Macky SALL, whose term runs until 2019. A 2016 constitutional referendum reduced the term to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms for future presidents.
  • Geography :: Senegal
  • Location:
    Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania
    Geographic coordinates:
    14 00 N, 14 00 W
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 196,722 sq km
    land: 192,530 sq km
    water: 4,192 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,684 km
    border countries (5): The Gambia 749 km, Guinea 363 km, Guinea-Bissau 341 km, Mali 489 km, Mauritania 742 km
    Coastline:
    531 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    Climate:
    tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind
    Terrain:
    generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 69 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    648 highest point: unnamed elevation 2.8 km southeast of Nepen Diaka
    Natural resources:
    fish, phosphates, iron ore
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 46.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 17.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 29.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 43.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 9.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,200 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural
    Natural hazards:
    lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; periodic droughts; seasonal flooding; overfishing; weak environmental protective laws; wildlife populations threatened by poaching
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal
  • People and Society :: Senegal
  • Population:
    15,020,945 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Nationality:
    noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Senegalese
    Ethnic groups:
    Wolof 37.1%, Pular 26.2%, Serer 17%, Mandinka 5.6%, Jola 4.5%, Soninke 1.4%, other 8.3% (includes Europeans and persons of Lebanese descent) (2017 est.)
    Languages:
    French (official), Wolof, Pular, Jola, Mandinka, Serer, Soninke
    Religions:
    Muslim 95.9% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 4.1% (mostly Roman Catholic) (2016 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Senegal has a large and growing youth population but has not been successful in developing its potential human capital. Senegal’s high total fertility rate of almost 4.5 children per woman continues to bolster the country’s large youth cohort – more than 60% of the population is under the age of 25. Fertility remains high because of the continued desire for large families, the low use of family planning, and early childbearing. Because of the country’s high illiteracy rate (more than 40%), high unemployment (even among university graduates), and widespread poverty, Senegalese youths face dim prospects; women are especially disadvantaged.

    Senegal historically was a destination country for economic migrants, but in recent years West African migrants more often use Senegal as a transit point to North Africa – and sometimes illegally onward to Europe. The country also has been host to several thousand black Mauritanian refugees since they were expelled from their homeland during its 1989 border conflict with Senegal. The country’s economic crisis in the 1970s stimulated emigration; departures accelerated in the 1990s. Destinations shifted from neighboring countries, which were experiencing economic decline, civil wars, and increasing xenophobia, to Libya and Mauritania because of their booming oil industries and to developed countries (most notably former colonial ruler France, as well as Italy and Spain). The latter became attractive in the 1990s because of job opportunities and their periodic regularization programs (legalizing the status of illegal migrants).

    Additionally, about 16,000 Senegalese refugees still remain in The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau as a result of more than 30 years of fighting between government forces and rebel separatists in southern Senegal’s Casamance region.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 41.15% (male 3,106,942 /female 3,074,740)
    15-24 years: 20.33% (male 1,521,868 /female 1,531,484)
    25-54 years: 31.45% (male 2,176,052 /female 2,547,566)
    55-64 years: 4.05% (male 261,682 /female 347,374)
    65 years and over: 3.02% (male 200,079 /female 253,158) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 85.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 79.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 18 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 19 years
    male: 18.1 years
    female: 19.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Population growth rate:
    2.36% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Birth rate:
    32.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Death rate:
    7.9 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Net migration rate:
    -1.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Population distribution:
    the population is concentrated in the west, with Dakar anchoring a well-defined core area; approximately 70% of the population is rural
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 47.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.73% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.978 million DAKAR (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    21.9 years (2017 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    315 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 53.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 42.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 62.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 60.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 64.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Total fertility rate:
    4.2 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    25.1% (2016)
    Health expenditures:
    4.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Physicians density:
    0.07 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 92.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 67.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 78.5% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 32.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 65.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 33.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 47.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 66.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 52.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    43,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    2,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    8.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    13.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Education expenditures:
    7.1% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 57.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 69.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 46.6% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 9 years (2015)
    male: 9 years (2015)
    female: 9 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 5.3% (2015 est.)
    male: 5.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 5.5% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
  • Government :: Senegal
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
    conventional short form: Senegal
    local long form: Republique du Senegal
    local short form: Senegal
    former: Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation
    etymology: named for the Senegal River that forms the northern border of the country; many theories exist for the origin of the river name; perhaps the most widely cited derives the name from "Azenegue," the Portuguese appellation for the Berber Zenaga people who lived north of the river
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Dakar
    geographic coordinates: 14 44 N, 17 38 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor
    Independence:
    4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 4 April (1960)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic, by the prime minister through the president, or by the National Assembly; passage requires Assembly approval and approval in a referendum; the president can bypass a referendum and submit an amendment directly to the Assembly, which requires at least three-fifths majority vote; the republican form of government is not amendable; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Senegal
    dual citizenship recognized: no, but Senegalese citizens do not automatically lose their citizenship if they acquire citizenship in another state
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohammed Abdallah Boun DIONNE (since 4 July 2014)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 7-year term (eligible for a second consecutive term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held on 24 February 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Macky SALL elected president in second round; percent of vote - Macky SALL (APR) 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE (PDS) 34.2%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (165 seats; 105 members including 15 representing Senegalese diaspora directly elected by plurality vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies and 60 members directly elected by proportional representation vote in single- and multi-seat constituencies)
    elections: National Assembly - last held on 2 July 2017 (next to be held in July 2022)
    election results: National Assembly results - percent of vote by party/coalition - BBK 49.5%, CGWS 16.7%, MTS 11.7%, PUR 4.7%, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2%, other 15.4%; seats by party/coalition - BBY 125, CGWS 19, MTS 7, PUR 3, CP-Kaddu Askan Wi 2, other 9
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of the president and 12 judges and organized into civil and commercial, criminal, administrative, and social chambers); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionel (consists of 7 members including the court president, vice president, and 5 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges' appointed by the president of the republic upon recommendation of the Higher Council of the Judiciary, a body chaired by the president; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed - 5 by the president and 2 by the National Assembly speaker to serve 6-year terms with the renewal of 2 members every 2 years
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (for crimes of high treason by the president); Courts of Appeal; Court of Auditors; assize courts; regional and district courts; Labor Court; note - in early 2013, the Extraordinary African Chambers were established by agreement of the African Union and the Government of Senegal to try cases of high-level officials involved in crimes committed in Chad during the period 1982-1990
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar or APR-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
    Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Mamadou DIOP Decriox]
    And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS-A [Landing SAVANE]
    Benno Bokk Yakaar or BBY (United in Hope) [Macky SALL] (coalition includes AFP, APR, LD-MPT, PIT, PS, UNP)
    Bokk Gis Gis coalition [Pape DIOP]
    Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk [Mansour Sy DJAMIL]
    Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Mamadou NDOYE]
    Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
    Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
    Grand Party or GP [Malick GAKOU]
    Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Magatte THIAM]
    Manko Taxawu Senegaal or MTS [Khalifa SALL] (coalition includes BGC, Du Nakk, FSD/BJ, GP, MCRN/Bes, Rewmi)
    National Union for the People or UNP [Souleymane Ndene NDIAYE]
    Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Cheikh Ahmadou Kara MBAKE]
    Party of Unity and Rally or PUR [El Hadji SALL]
    Patriotic Convergence Kaddu Askan Wi or CP-Kaddu Askan Wi [Abdoulaye BALDE]
    Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
    Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
    Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
    Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
    Tekki Movement [Mamadou Lamine DIALLO]
    Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]
    Winning Coalition Wattu Senegal or CGWS [Abdoulaye WADE] (includes AJ/PADS, AJ/PADS-A, Bokk Gis Gis, PDS, Tekki Movement)
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, CPLP (associate), ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), FAO, FZ, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Momar DIOP (since 22 June 2018)
    chancery: 2215 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 234-0540
    FAX: [1] (202) 629-2961
    consulate(s) general: Houston, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: ambassador Tulinabo S. MUSHINGI (since August 2017); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
    embassy: Route des Almadies, Dakar
    mailing address: B.P. 49, Dakar
    telephone: [221] 33-879-4000
    FAX: [221] 33-822-2991
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

    note: uses the popular Pan-African colors of Ethiopia; the colors from left to right are the same as those of neighboring Mali and the reverse of those on the flag of neighboring Guinea

    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: green, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons" (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)
    lyrics/music: Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER

    note: adopted 1960; lyrics written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title

  • Economy :: Senegal
  • Economy - overview:

    Senegal’s economy is driven by mining, construction, tourism, fisheries and agriculture, which are the primary sources of employment in rural areas. The country's key export industries include phosphate mining, fertilizer production, agricultural products and commercial fishing and Senegal is also working on oil exploration projects. It relies heavily on donor assistance, remittances and foreign direct investment. Senegal reached a growth rate of 7% in 2017, due in part to strong performance in agriculture despite erratic rainfall.

    President Macky SALL, who was elected in March 2012 under a reformist policy agenda, inherited an economy with high energy costs, a challenging business environment, and a culture of overspending. President SALL unveiled an ambitious economic plan, the Emerging Senegal Plan (ESP), which aims to implement priority economic reforms and investment projects to increase economic growth while preserving macroeconomic stability and debt sustainability. Bureaucratic bottlenecks and a challenging business climate are among the perennial challenges that may slow the implementation of this plan.

    Senegal receives technical support from the IMF under a Policy Support Instrument (PSI) to assist with implementation of the ESP. The PSI implementation continues to be satisfactory as concluded by the IMF’s fifth review in December 2017. Financial markets have signaled confidence in Senegal through successful Eurobond issuances in 2014, 2017, and 2018.

    The government is focusing on 19 projects under the ESP to continue The government’s goal under the ESP is structural transformation of the economy. Key projects include the Thiès-Touba Highway, the new international airport opened in December 2017, and upgrades to energy infrastructure. The cost of electricity is a chief constraint for Senegal’s development. Electricity prices in Senegal are among the highest in the world. Power Africa, a US presidential initiative led by USAID, supports Senegal’s plans to improve reliability and increase generating capacity.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $54.8 billion (2017 est.)
    $51.15 billion (2016 est.)
    $48.15 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 107
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $21.11 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    7.2% (2017 est.)
    6.2% (2016 est.)
    6.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $3,500 (2017 est.)
    $3,300 (2016 est.)
    $3,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 188
    Gross national saving:
    21.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 71.9% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -42.8% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 16.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 24.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 58.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish
    Industries:
    agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair
    Industrial production growth rate:
    7.7% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Labor force:
    6.966 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 77.5%
    industry: 22.5%
    industry and services: 22.5% (2007 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    48% (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Population below poverty line:
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
    highest 10%: 31.1% (2011)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    40.3 (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Budget:
    revenues: 4.139 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.9 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    19.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Public debt:
    48.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    47.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    0.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Central bank discount rate:
    0.25% (31 December 2010)
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Stock of narrow money:
    $5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Stock of broad money:
    $5.944 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.689 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $6.695 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.219 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$1.547 billion (2017 est.)
    -$769 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Exports:
    $2.362 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.498 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Exports - partners:
    Mali 14.8%, Switzerland 11.4%, India 6%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, UAE 5.1%, Gambia, The 4.2%, Spain 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton
    Imports:
    $5.217 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.966 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Imports - commodities:
    food and beverages, capital goods, fuels
    Imports - partners:
    France 16.3%, China 10.4%, Nigeria 8%, India 7.2%, Netherlands 4.8%, Spain 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $1.827 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $116.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Debt - external:
    $8.571 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.327 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    617.4 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Senegal
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 6.4 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 55% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 90% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 28% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    4.167 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Electricity - consumption:
    3.497 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    977,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    82% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    11% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Crude oil - imports:
    17,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    17,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    48,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    4,063 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    32,050 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Natural gas - production:
    59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Natural gas - consumption:
    59.46 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    8.644 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
  • Communications :: Senegal
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 290,636 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 15,758,366 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 107 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system (2017)
    domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas (2017)
    international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) broadcasts TV programs from five cities in Senegal; in most regions of the country, viewers can receive TV programming from at least 7 private broadcasters; a wide range of independent TV programming is available via satellite; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; at least 7 community radio stations and 18 private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 5 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .sn
    Internet users:
    total: 3,675,209 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 25.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 111,795 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
  • Transportation :: Senegal
  • National air transport system:
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 115,355 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 3,095,523 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    6V (2016)
    Airports:
    20 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 11 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 7 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    43 km gas, 8 km refined products (2017)
    Railways:
    total: 906 km (713 km operational in 2017) (2017)
    narrow gauge: 906 km 1.000-m gauge (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Roadways:
    total: 16,496 km (2017)
    paved: 5,957 km (includes 72 km of expressways) (2017)
    unpaved: 10,539 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Waterways:
    1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance Rivers) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Merchant marine:
    total: 26 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 3, oil tanker 1, other 22 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Dakar
  • Military and Security :: Senegal
  • Military expenditures:
    1.89% of GDP (2017 est.)
    1.73% of GDP (2016)
    1.58% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Military branches:
    Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; 2-year service obligation; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Senegal
  • Disputes - international:
    cross-border trafficking in persons, timber, wildlife, and cannabis; rebels from the Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance find refuge in Guinea-Bissau
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 13,779 (Mauritania) (2018)
    IDPs: 22,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis