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Field Listing :: Telephone system
This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:
Arabsat - Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia).
Autodin - Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).
CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications.
Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from which the telephone signal is fed to a telephone exchange.
Central American Microwave System - a trunk microwave radio relay system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.
Coaxial cable - a multichannel communication cable consisting of a central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.
Comsat - Communications Satellite Corporation (US).
DSN - Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense Communications System (US Department of Defense).
Eutelsat - European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).
Fiber-optic cable - a multichannel communications cable using a thread of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice, video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.
GSM - a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization, Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.
HF - high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz range.
Inmarsat - International Maritime Satellite Organization (London); provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.
Intelsat - International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Washington, DC).
Intersputnik - International Organization of Space Communications (Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in North America, Africa, and East Asia.
Landline - communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed on poles or buried in the ground.
Marecs - Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.
Marisat - satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the Inmarsat system.
Medarabtel - the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria, Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.
Microwave radio relay - transmission of long distance telephone calls and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.
NMT - Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).
Orbita - a Russian television service; also the trade name of a packet-switched digital telephone network.
Radiotelephone communications - the two-way transmission and reception of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.
PanAmSat - PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).
SAFE - South African Far East Cable
Satellite communication system - a communication system consisting of two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provide long distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in the same country, it is a domestic system.
Satellite earth station - a communications facility with a microwave radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting equipment for communicating with satellites.
Satellite link - a radio connection between a satellite and an earth station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from satellite to earth station - television receive-only transmission) or two-way (telephone channels).
SHF - super high frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-MHz range.
Shortwave - radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long distances.
Solidaridad - geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.
Statsionar - Russia's geostationary system for satellite telecommunications.
Submarine cable - a cable designed for service under water.
TAT - Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.
Telefax - facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public switched telephone network or the international Datel network.
Telegraph - a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated electric impulse transmission.
Telex - a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by wire through automatic exchanges.
Tropospheric scatter - a form of microwave radio transmission in which the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can extend the range of this system for very long distances.
Trunk network - a network of switching centers, connected by multichannel trunk lines.
UHF - ultra high frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to 3,000-MHz range.
VHF - very high frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz range.
By Country Listing of the values for the Telephone system field
Country Telephone system
Afghanistan
general assessment: progress has been made on Afghanistan's first limited fixed-line telephone service and nationwide optical fibre backbone; aided by the presence of multiple providers, mobile-cellular telephone service continues to improve swiftly; the Afghan Ministry of Communications and Information claims that more than 90% of the population live in areas with access to mobile-cellular services
domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line teledensity; 70 per 100 for mobile-cellular; an increasing number of Afghans utilize mobile-cellular phone networks
international: country code - 93; multiple VSAT's provide international and domestic voice and data connectivity
Albania
general assessment: consistant with the region; offsetting the deficit of fixed-line capacity, mobile-cellular phone service has been available since 1996; four companies presently providing mobile services and mobile teledensity; Internet broadband services initiated in 2005, and the penetration rate rose to over 65% by 2016; Internet cafes are popular in major urban areas; 1.3 million use mobile broadband services (3G/4G) (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100, teledensity continues to decline due to heavy use of mobile-cellular telephone services; mobile-cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective, 115 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 355; submarine cable provides connectivity to Italy, Croatia, and Greece; the Trans-Balkan Line, a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system, provides additional connectivity to Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Turkey; international traffic carried by fiber-optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2016)
Algeria
general assessment: privatization of Algeria's telecommunications sector began in 2000; three mobile-cellular licenses have been issued; regulator permits network operators to extend LTE services to additional provinces; a consortium led by Egypt's Orascom Telecom won a 15-year license to build and operate a fixed-line network in Algeria; migration to 5G
domestic: a limited network of fixed-lines with a teledensity of less than 10 telephones per 100 persons has been offset by the rapid increase in mobile-cellular subscribership; mobile-cellular teledensity was roughly 122 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 213; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; new submarine cables to link to the US and France
American Samoa
general assessment: good telex, telegraph, facsimile, and cellular telephone services; one of the most complete and modern telecommunications systems in the South Pacific Islands; all inhabited islands have telephone connectivity (2017)
domestic: 18 per 100 fixed-line teledensity, domestic satellite system with 1 Comsat earth station (2017)
international: country code - 1-684; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat-Pacific Ocean)
Andorra
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; broadband internet and LTE mobile lines for both consumer and enterprise customers available
domestic: 50 per 100 fixed-line, 45 per 100 mobile-cellular; modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Angola
general assessment:

in the process of a restructure plan and opening up the telecom sector to new competitors, while still retaining a 45% govt portion of the share;  slow progress in LTE network development, with only about 10% of the country covered by network infrastructure at the end of 2017

domestic: only about one fixed-line per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 45 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 244; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 29
Anguilla
general assessment: modern internal telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a realatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 37 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 158 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-264; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay to island of Saint Martin/Sint Maarten
Antarctica
general assessment: local systems at some research stations (2015)
domestic: commercial cellular networks operating in a small number of locations (2015)
international: country code - none allocated; via satellite (including mobile Inmarsat and Iridium systems) to and from all research stations, ships, aircraft, and most field parties (2015)
Antigua and Barbuda
general assessment: good automatic telephone system with fiber-optic lines; telecom sector contributes heavily to GDP; numerous mobile network competitors licensed, but small and local (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 24 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 190 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France); international: 3 fiber optic submarine cables (2 to Saint Kitts and 1 to Guadeloupe); satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Argentina
general assessment: Argentina opened its telecommunications market to competition and foreign investment encouraging the growth of modern telecommunications technology in 1998; major networks are entirely digital and the availability of telephone service continues to improve to rural areas; even with numerous providers there is a lack of competition; still Argentina is the 3rd largest in the region after Brazil and Mexico
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic cable, and a domestic satellite system with 40 earth stations serve the trunk network; 22 per 100 fixed-line, 144 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 54; landing point for the Atlantis-2, UNISUR, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus submarine cable systems that provide links to Europe, Africa, South and Central America, and US; satellite earth stations - 112; 2 international gateways near Buenos Aires; building started on the ARBR submarine cable between Argentina and Brazil
Armenia
general assessment:

telecommunications investments have made major inroads in modernizing and upgrading the outdated telecommunications network inherited from the Soviet era; now 100% privately owned and undergoing continued modernization and expansion

domestic:

16 per 100 fixed-line, 122 per 100 mobile-cellular; reliable fixed-line and mobile-cellular services are available across Yerevan and in major cities and towns; mobile-cellular coverage available in most rural areas 

international:

country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Georgia and Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States, through the Moscow international switch, and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3

Aruba
general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system; increased competition through privatization has increased mobile-cellular teledensity; three mobile-cellular service providers are now licensed; MNO (mobile network operator) launches island-wide LTE services; introduction of MNP (mobile number portability) (2017)
domestic: ongoing changes in regulations and competition improve teledensity; 31 per 100 fixed-line, 126 per 100 mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 297; landing site for the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from the US Virgin Islands through Aruba to Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and the west coast of South America; extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2016)
Australia
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service; domestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephones; 5G technologies in preparation and anticipation for 2020
domestic: more subscribers to mobile services than there are people; 90% of all mobile device sales are now smartphones, growth in mobile traffic brisk; 36 per 100 fixed-line, 119 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber-optic submarine cable provides links to NZ and the US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat, 2 Globalstar, 5 other
Austria
general assessment: mobile-cellular subscribership is everywhere; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are accessible; broadband is available in all large municipalities, and is planned to be accessible nation-wide by 2020; the roll-out of 5G has begun in a test phase in 2019 and is planned to be available nation-wide in 2025
domestic:

highly developed and efficient; 46 per 100 fixed-line for households, 174 per 100 for companies; 181 per mobile-cellular; Broadband: 138 per 100 on smartphones; 62 per 100 fixed broadband, 54 per 100 mobile broadband

international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems
Azerbaijan
general assessment: more competition exists in the mobile-cellular market; Azerbaijan has moderate mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration compared to other Asian nations; Pre-5G network operating on the TD-LTE standard
domestic: teledensity of some 17 fixed-lines per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to 102 telephones per 100 persons; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan (Nakhchivan)
international: country code - 994; the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic link transits Azerbaijan providing international connectivity to neighboring countries; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2
Bahamas, The
general assessment: modern facilities;  the telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; activation of Mobile Number Portability (MNP) in April 2017, allowing mobile subscribers to port their numbers between competing MNO (mobile network operators) (2017)
domestic: totally automatic system; highly developed; operators focus investment on mobile networks; 35 per 100 fixed-line, 107 per 100 mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 1-242; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and two additional fiber-optic submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2; the Bahamas Domestic Submarine Network links all of the major islands; (2017)
Bahrain
general assessment: modern system; well-developed LTE networks,  5G trials tested and deployment in near future; mobile penetration is high compared to the region; development of its own National Broadband Network (NBN); competition is good and telecoms are regulated
domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; 20 per 100 fixed-line, 168 per 100 mobile-cellular;
international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1
Bangladesh
general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities; fixed broadband penetration in Bangladesh remains very low mainly due to the dominance of the mobile platform; in July 2018  first test run of 5G technology in Bangladesh took place in Dhaka
domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 92 telephones per 100 persons; slow to moderate mobile subscriber growth is anticipated over the next five years to 2023; strong local competition
international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries
Barbados
general assessment: island-wide automatic telephone system; telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized
domestic: fixed-line teledensity of roughly 48 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone density about 116 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-246; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 1 (Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Trinidad and Saint Lucia
Belarus
general assessment: fiber network reaches two million establishments; trial 5G services during the first half of 2019; 10,000km of fiber cabling laid; August 2018 almost two million GPON connections (Gigabit Passive Optical Network, point-to-multi point access mechanism); 5 year plan is on track; Belarus launches its first telecoms satellite; LTE use reaches 75% of mobile subscribers
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved,  47 per 100 fixed-line; mobile-cellular teledensity now approaches 120 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations
Belgium
general assessment: highly developed, technologically advanced, and completely automated domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; LTE availability is nearly universal in mobile sector; ongoing investments in developing applications and services for 5G; consumer are interested in quad-play services (broadband +television +telephone +wireless services)  which will mean MNOs (mobile network operators)  are enhancing their fixed-line offerings
domestic: nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system; extensive cable network; limited microwave radio relay network; 37 per 100 fixed-line, 104 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 32; landing point for a number of submarine cables that provide links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat - 3)
Belize
general assessment: govt telecome company, BTL, continues to hold a monopoly in fixed-line services and mobile and broadband fixed-line teledensity; small market, underinvestment with lack of competion, yet BTL reports stable telecome revenue for fiscal 2017
domestic: mobile sector accounting for over 90% of all phone subscriptions; 6 per 100 fixed-line; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 65 per 100 persons
international: country code - 501; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 8 (Intelsat - 2, unknown - 6); mid-2017 completing a submarine cable to Ambergris Caye; SEUL submarine cable connecting the mainland with Ambergris Caye completed
Benin
general assessment: fixed-line network characterized by aging, deteriorating equipment; mobile networks account for almost all internet connections; govt. aims to provide telecoms services to 80% of the country, mostly via mobile infrastructure; govt aims to restructure state-owned telcos and has partially done so; Mobile Number Portability (MNP) is available; Benin joins free roaming scheme
domestic: fixed-line teledensity only about 1 per 100 persons; spurred by the presence of multiple mobile-cellular providers, cellular telephone subscribership has increased rapidly, exceeding 79 per 100 persons in 2017
international: country code - 229; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; long distance fiber-optic links with Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria; satellite earth stations - 7 (Intelsat-Atlantic Ocean);Orange commissions new connection from the ACE submarine cable, connecting Benin with Tenerife
Bermuda
general assessment: a good, fully automatic digital telephone system with fiber-optic trunk lines; telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; numerous competitors licensed, but small and localized
domestic: the system has a high fixed-line teledensity 31 per 100, coupled with a mobile-cellular teledensity of roughly 92 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-441; landing points for the GlobeNet, Gemini Bermuda, CBUS, and the Challenger Bermuda-1 (CB-1) submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3
Bhutan
general assessment: urban towns and district headquarters have telecommunications services; telecom sector has been continuing on a steady development path; fixed broadband penetration remains very low, due to the preeminence of the mobile platform; in the next five years to 2023 low to moderate growth is expected from this small base
domestic: domestic service inadequate, notably in rural areas; mobile-cellular service, begun in 2003, is now widely available; 3 to 100 fixed-line, 96 to 100 mobile cellular
international: country code - 975; international telephone and telegraph service via landline and microwave relay through India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat
Bolivia
general assessment: state-owned Empresa Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (Entel) is the country's incumbent long-distance operator, and offers local telephone service, DSL, and satellite TV;  its subsidiary Entel Movil is Bolivia's largest mobile network provider, reliability, and coverage have steadily improved, but some remote areas are still underserved; Entel plans to extend fibre to all 339 municipal capital cities by 2022; MNP (mobile number potability) launched in October 2018; Bolivian Space Agency planning to launch a second telecom satellite after 2020
domestic: most telephones are concentrated in La Paz, Santa Cruz, and other capital cities; 8 per 100 fixed-line, mobile-cellular telephone use expanding rapidly and teledensity stood at 91 per 100 persons
international: country code - 591; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Bolivia has no direct access to submarine cable networks and must therefore connect to the rest of the world either via satellite or through terrestrial links across neighbouring countries
Bosnia and Herzegovina
general assessment: post-war reconstruction of the telecommunications network, aided by an internationally sponsored program, resulted in sharp increases in fixed-line telephone availability; integration with the EU has given stability to the present economy, additionally a regulatory framework and the market has been liberalised; DSL and cable are the chief platforms for fixed-line connectivity,  there is a small market presence of fibre broadband; new mobile roaming fees come into effect similar to other EU countries; rural areas still suffer from insufficient connectivity
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly and stands at roughly 90 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 387; no satellite earth stations
Botswana
general assessment:

effective regulatory reform has turned the Botswana's telecom market into one of the most liberalized in the region; Botswana has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in Africa; 3 MNOs have entered the underdeveloped broadband sector with the adoption of 3G, LTE and WiMAX technologies; mobile internet remains the preferred choice

domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has advanced to 150 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone communication stations; the Botswana Telecommunications Corporation is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity
Brazil
general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations; four major mobile operators offering a range of voice and data services; one of the largest broadband markets in Latin America, broadband penetration only behind Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay; country is a pioneer in the region for m-commerce (electronic commerce conducted on mobile phones)
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less-expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major impetus broadening telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 114 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station; Brazil is connected through submarine cables to the USA, Central and South America, and the Caribbean; satellites is a major communication platform, as it is almost impossible to lay fibre optic cable in the thick vegetation
British Indian Ocean Territory
general assessment: separate facilities for military and public needs are available
domestic: all commercial telephone services are available, including connection to the Internet
international: country code (Diego Garcia) - 246; international telephone service is carried by satellite
British Virgin Islands
general assessment: good overall telephone service; major expansion sectors include the mobile telephony and data segments, which continue to appeal to operator investment; several operators licensed to provide services within individual markets, most of them are small and localised
domestic: fixed-line connections exceed 29 per 100 persons and mobile cellular subscribership is roughly 125 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-284; connected via submarine cable to Bermuda; the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable provides connectivity to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean
Brunei
general assessment: service throughout the country is good; international service is good to Southeast Asia, Middle East, Western Europe, and the US; while fixed-line is slowing down, mobile broadband has taken over in the advancement in the telecoms access market; broadband penetration slow to moderate growth predicted over the next five years to 2023
domestic: every service available; 17 per 100 fixed-line, 123 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 673; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable network provides new links to Asia and the US; the South-East Asia Japan Cable System linking Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, Philippines and Thailand; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Bulgaria
general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relay; Bulgaria has a mature mobile market with active competition
domestic: fixed-line 18 per 100 persons, mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, is over 120 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions)
Burkina Faso
general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; with slow regulatory procedures, insufficient mobile spectrum, and poor condition of fixed-line networks the development of fixed-line internet services leave Burkina Faso with some of the most expensive telecommunications globally; mobile telephony has experienced growth, but below the African average; Burkina Faso joins G5 Sahel countries to stop roaming fees by 2019; govt proposes technology-neutral licenses to boost mobile broadband connectivity
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage 91.4 per 100, with multiple providers there is competition and the hope for growth from a low base; internet penetration is 11% countrywide, but higher in urban areas
international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Burma
general assessment: remains one of the last underdeveloped telecoms markets in Asia; the mobile market has experienced rapid growth from 2013 to 2017, in 2014 foreign competion was allowed to compete in the market
domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100, while moblie-cellular is 87 per 100 and shows great potential for the future
international: country code - 95; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat
Burundi
general assessment: with the great population density Burundi remains one of the most alluring telecom markets in Africa for investors; the government in early 2018 began the Burundi Broadband project, which plans to deliver nationwide connectivity by 2025; mobile operators have launched 3G and LTE mobile services to capitalize on the expanding demand for Internet access
domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is approaching 52 per 100 persons
international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); the government, supported by the Word Bank, has backed a joint venture with a number of prominent telcoms to build a national fiber backbone network, offering onward connectivity to submarine cable infrastructure landings in Kenya and Tanzania
Cabo Verde
general assessment: good system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995; major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT)
domestic: 12 per 100 fixed-line and 109 per 100 mobile-cellular; fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched early in the decade
international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); new agreement between CVT and private company and subsea fibre connectivity in 2020 will promote growth in Internet, cloud computing and 5G services to the region, reaching Europe and Latin America
Cambodia
general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly spreading in rural areas; about 50% of Cambodians own at least one smart phone; in 2018 the MPTC began a free Wi-Fi service for visitors and residents of Phnom Penh, in selected parks around the city customers can access free Wi-Fi services
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 1 per 100 persons and declining; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to about 115 per 100 persons; in 2021 Cambodia hopes to launch it first communications satellite into orbit; fixed broadband penetration is predicted to reach over 2% by 2023
international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region)
Cameroon
general assessment: equipment is old and outdated, and connections with many parts of the country are unreliable; 3G service and LTE service both developing given growing competition, along with a fast-developing mobile broadband sector
domestic: only about 3 per 100 persons for fixed-line subscriptions; mobile-cellular usage has increased sharply, reaching a subscribership base of over 79 per 100 persons
international: country code - 237; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); by September 2018 the country is expected to be connected to the SAIL submarine cable, providing a direct link to Brazil and with onward connectivity to other countries in the Americas; the cable will considerably improve international bandwidth and lead to better prices for consumers
Canada
general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology; consumer demand for mobile data services have promted telecos to invest and advance LTE infrastructure, and further investment in 5G; government policy has aided the extension of broadband to rural and regional areas, with the result that services are almost universally accessible
domestic: comparatively low mobile penetration provides further room for growth; domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations; 41 per 100 fixed-line; 88 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region)
Cayman Islands
general assessment: reasonably good overall telephone system with a high fixed-line teledensity; given the high dependence of tourism and activities such as fisheries and offshore financial services, the telecom sector provides a relatively high contribution to overall GDP; good competion in all sectors promotes advancement in mobile telephony and data segments
domestic: introduction of competition in the mobile-cellular market in 2004 boosted subscriptions dramatically; 60 per 100 fixed-line, 164 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 1-345; landing points for the Maya-1, Eastern Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS), and the Cayman-Jamaica Fiber System submarine cables that provide links to the US and parts of Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Central African Republic
general assessment: network consists principally of microwave radio relay and at low-capacity; ongoing conflict has obstructed telecommunication and media development, although there are ISP (Internet service providers) and mobile phone carriers, radio is the most-popular communications medium
domestic: very limited telephone service with less than 1 fixed-line connection per 100 persons; with the presence of multiple providers mobile-cellular service has reached 22 per 100 mobile-cellular subscribers; cellular usage is increasing from a low base; most fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone services are concentrated in Bangui
international: country code - 236; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Chad
general assessment: inadequate system of radio telephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density; Chad remains one of the least developed on the African continent, telecom infrastructure is particularly low, with penetration rates in all sectors - fixed, mobile and internet -well below African averages
domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons, with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 52 per 100 persons
international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Chile
general assessment: most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; although Chile has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in the region, the number of subscribers has fallen due to subscribers ending multiple SIM card use; this downward trend is expected to be halted as the availability of LTE networks and services broaden; in terms of available broadband speeds the country ranks second highest in South and Central America
domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated to 18 per 100 in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations
international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
China
general assessment: China has become the largest Internet market in the world, with the majority of users accessing the Internet through mobile devices; moderate growth is predicted over the next five years in the fixed broadband segment; one of the biggest drivers of commercial growth is its increasing urbanisation rate as rural residents move to cities; 98.6% of China's Internet users access the Internet through mobile devices; China will be the world's largest 5G market
domestic: 14 per 100 fixed line and 107 per 100 mobile-cellular; a domestic satellite system with several earth stations is in place in 2018
international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacific and Indian Ocean regions)
Christmas Island
general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
domestic: local area code - 08; GSM mobile-cellular telephone service is provided by Telstra as part of the Australian network
international: international code - 61 8; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat provides telephone and telex service)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
general assessment: telephone service is part of the Australian network; an operational local mobile-cellular network available; wireless Internet connectivity available
domestic: local area code - 08
international: international code - 61 8; telephone, telex, and facsimile communications with Australia and elsewhere via satellite; satellite earth station - 1 (Intelsat)
Colombia
general assessment: modern system in many respects with a nationwide microwave radio relay system, a domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations, and a fiber-optic network linking 50 cities; the cable sector commands about half of the market by subscribers, with DSL having a declining share and with fiber-based broadband developing strongly; competition among the MVNO (mobile virtual network operator) sector has promoted 2.9 million subscribers as of mid-2018; though most infrastructure as yet is primarily in high-density urban areas
domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile cellular telephone subscribership is about 130 per 100 persons; competition among cellular service providers is resulting in falling local and international calling rates and contributing to the steep decline in the market share of fixed-line services
international: country code - 57; multiple submarine cable systems provide links to the US, parts of the Caribbean, and Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 10 (6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 3 fully digitalized international switching centers)
Comoros
general assessment: sparse system of microwave radio relay and HF radiotelephone communication stations; telephone service limited to the islands' few towns
domestic: fixed-line connections only about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage over 55 per 100 persons; two companies, Comoros Telecom and Telma, provide domestic and international mobile service and wireless data
international: country code - 269; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system connecting East Africa with Europe and North America; HF radiotelephone communications to Madagascar and Reunion
Congo, Democratic Republic of the
general assessment: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed-line infrastructure; efforts have been made to improve regulating the telecom sector; wars and social upheavel have not promoted advancement; a revised Telecommunications Act adopted in May 2018
domestic: fixed-line connections only about 8 per 100 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and mobile teledensity is over 42 per 100 persons
international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); the country was finally connected to low-cost, high-quality international bandwidth through the WACS submarine fibre optic cable in 2013, and SCPT is rolling out a fibre optic national backbone network with support from China
Congo, Republic of the
general assessment: primary network consists of microwave radio relay and coaxial cable with services barely adequate for government use; key exchanges are in Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; intercity lines frequently out of order
domestic: fixed-line infrastructure inadequate, providing less than 1 connection per 100 persons; in the absence of an adequate fixed-line infrastructure, mobile-cellular subscribership has surged to 102 per 100 persons
international: country code - 242; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Cook Islands
general assessment: Telecom Cook Islands offers international direct dialing, Internet, email, and fax; individual islands are connected by a combination of satellite earth stations, microwave systems, and VHF and HF radiotelephone
domestic: service is provided by small exchanges connected to subscribers by open-wire, cable, and fiber-optic cable; 75 per 100 fixed-line, 105 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 682; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); the topography of the South Pacific region has made internet connectivity a serious issue for many of the remote islands; submarine fiber-optic networks are expensive to build and maintain, with capital costs prohibitive for the smaller island communities; some countries have to rely solely on geostationary satellites; as a result, bandwidth is limited and broadband prices are expensive; in October 2017 a fire at Aroa broadcast station temporarily disrupted all mobile network and satellite connectivity
Costa Rica
general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; in recent years growth has been achieved from liberalistion of the telecom sector and has seen substantial expansion in all sectors; Costa Rica's broadband market is the most advanced in Central America, with the highest broadband penetration for this sub-region; broadband penetration does lag behind many South American countries; with the implementation of number portability there is greater opportunity for increased competition in the future
domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available; 17 per 100 fixed-line, 179 per 100 mobile-cellular
international: country code - 506; landing points for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), MAYA-1, and the Pan American Crossing submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Cote d'Ivoire
general assessment: well-developed by African standards; telecommunications sector privatized in late 1990s and operational fixed-lines have increased since that time with 2 fixed-line providers operating over open-wire lines, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optics; 90% digitalized; Côte d'Ivoire continues to benefit from strong economic growth; the fixed internet and broadband sectors have remained lagging
domestic: less than 1 per 100 fixed-line, with multiple mobile-cellular service providers competing in the market, usage has increased sharply to about 131 per 100 persons
international: country code - 225; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Croatia
general assessment: the telecommunications network has improved steadily since the mid-1990s, covering much of what were once inaccessible areas; local lines are digital; telecoms market in Croatia has been shaped by Croatia becoming part of the European Union in 2013, a process which opened up the market and the creation of a regulatory environment leading to competition; mobile market has one of the highest penetration rates in the Balkans region; government abolishes 6% tax on mobile services revenue; trials for 5G technologies
domestic: fixed-line teledensity has dropped somewhat to about 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 101 per 100
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; the ADRIA-1 submarine cable provides connectivity to Albania and Greece
Cuba
general assessment:

general assessment: fixed-line and mobile services run by the state-run ETESCA; mobile-cellular telephone service is expensive and must be paid in convertible pesos; Cuban Government has opened several hundred Wi-Fi hotspots around the island, which are expensive, and launched a new residential Internet pilot in Havana and other provinces; as of 2018, 3G mobile service is available, if limited

domestic: fixed-line density remains low at about 12 per 100 inhabitants; mobile-cellular service is expanding to about 41 per 100 persons
international:

country code - 53; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Cuba, Jamaica, and Venezuela;  January 2016 the FCC allowed US firms to do business directly with the Cuban telecom sector, satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); several US telecommunication companies have signed voice and data deals to serve their customers while in Cuba 

Curacao
international: country code - 599
Cyprus
general assessment: despite the growth of Cyprus's telecom sector, the market overall continues to be dominated by the incumbent, Cyprus Telecommunications Authority CyTA, which is still fully-owned by the state but is losing ground to its competition annually; improved regulatory circumstances, especially in relation to network interconnection and access, has given competing operators the certainty to invest in network infrastructure, to launch competing services
domestic: open-wire, fiber-optic cable, and microwave radio relay; fixed-line teledisity is 26 per 100,and  96 per 100 for mobile-cellular
international: country code - 357 (area administered by Turkish Cypriots uses the country code of Turkey - 90); a number of submarine cables, including the SEA-ME-WE-3, combine to provide connectivity to Western Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 8 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 2 Eutelsat, 2 Intersputnik, and 1 Arabsat); Quantum Cable contracts for new submarine cable linking to Greece and Israel; Telecom Italy Sparkle and CyTA complete the Kimonas cable subsystem linking Cyprus with Crete; CyTA upgrades transmission capacity on the TE-North Cable System to 500Gb/s
Czechia
general assessment: good telephone and Internet service; the Czech Republic has a sophisticated telecom market, with competition in all sectors provided by a number of alternate operators; the incumbent telco O2 Czech Republic remains the dominant player though other operators are gaining market share, through merger and acquisition activity; regulator makes progress for 5G services; fixed wireless broadband remains strong, with penetration among the highest in the EU
domestic: access to the fixed-line telephone network expanded throughout the 1990s, 15 per 100 fixed-line, but the number of fixed-line connections has been dropping since then; mobile telephone usage increased sharply 119 per 100 mobile-cellular, and the number of cellular telephone subscriptions now greatly exceeds the population
international: country code - 420; satellite earth stations - 6 (2 Intersputnik - Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions, 1 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat, 1 Globalstar)
Denmark
general assessment: excellent telephone and Internet services; Denmark's competitive telecom market has led to the country having the second highest broadband penetration rate in Europe; the fixed-line sector continues to see a decline in revenue while customers move to VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) and mobile alternatives; growth has been stimulated by the availability of LTE services; the government is able to offer broadband coverage in rural areas (2017)
domestic: buried and submarine cables and microwave radio relay form trunk network; multiple mobile-cellular communications systems; fixed-line 26 per 100,  124 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 45; a series of fiber-optic submarine cables link Denmark with Canada, Faroe Islands, Germany, Iceland, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, and UK; satellite earth stations - 18 (6 Intelsat, 10 Eutelsat, 1 Orion, 1 Inmarsat (Blaavand-Atlantic-East)); note - the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) share the Danish earth station and the Eik, Norway, station for worldwide Inmarsat access (2015)
Djibouti
general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country; Djibouti is one of the few remaining countries in which the national telco, Djibouti Telecom (DT), has a monopoly on all telecom services, including fixed lines, mobile, internet and broadband; the lack of competition has meant that the market has not lived up to its potential
domestic: Djibouti Telecom  (DT) is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city; 4 per 100 fixed-line, 43 per 100 moblie-cellular
international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); work starts on the PEACE submarine cable linking Djibouti with Pakistan; Djibouti Telecom joins six other regional telcoms to build the DARE submarine cable system, is contracted to manage the Australia West Cable landing; Djibouti Internet Exchange (DjIX) joins the African IXP Association; Djibouti Telecom signs an agreement to peer IP traffic through France-IX's IXPs in Paris and Marseille; growth in the mobile and internet sectors accelerates with 3G launch
Dominica
general assessment: fully automatic network; there are multiple operators licensed to provide services, most of them are small and localised; the telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas (2017)
domestic: fixed-line connections continued to decline slowly with the two active operators providing about 18 fixed-line connections per 100 persons; subscribership among the three mobile-cellular providers is about 106 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-767; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber Optic System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cables providing connectivity to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; microwave radio relay and SHF radiotelephone links to Martinique and Guadeloupe; VHF and UHF radiotelephone links to Saint Lucia (2016)
Dominican Republic
general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network; there are multiple operators licensed to provide services, most of them are small and localised; the telecom sector across the Caribbean region remains one of the key growth areas (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 12 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of over 80 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-809; 1-829; 1-849; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), Antillas 1, AMX-1, and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Ecuador
general assessment: fixed-line service and sophisticated 4G LTE ultra-broadband network; much of the country's fixed-line structure is influenced by topographical challenges associated with the Andes Mountains; Ecuador has a small telecom market with a dominant mobile sector;  the state-owned incumbent CNT dominates the fixed-line market, and therefore  the DSL broadband market aswell (2018)
domestic: fixed-line services with digital networks provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 85 per 100 persons (2018)
international: country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; in 2017, Alcatel completed a 6000km, submarine-cable system from Sarasota, Florida to Manta, Ecuador; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2018)
Egypt
general assessment: one of the largest fixed-line systems in Africa and the Arab region; 4 mobile-cellular networks (3 international and 1 local) cover most populated area of Egypt; Telecom Egypt, the country's only fixed-line operator, is 80% state owned; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; launch of LTE in late 2017 greatly helped the capabilities of mobile broadband services and will continue to do so for future development
domestic: fixed-line 8 per 100, mobile-cellular 101 per 100
international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel; MENA subsea cable came into commercial use in late 2015, augmenting the country's considerable international bandwidth
El Salvador
general assessment: multiple mobile-cellular began rolling out Long Term Evolution (LTE) data services in late-2016; Internet usage grew almost 400% between 2007 and 2015; 6% of phones are fixed while 94% are mobile (2017)
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; growth in fixed-line services 11 per 100, has slowed in the face of mobile-cellular competitionat at 162 per 100 (2017)
international: country code - 503; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2017)
Equatorial Guinea
general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and decent mobile cellular coverage; 3G technology has allowed for estimated growth of 9.5% during 2016 -2021; mobile data will be the fastest-growing segment 2016-2021
domestic: fixed-line density is about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2016 stood at about 70 percent
international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Eritrea
general assessment: woefully inadequate service provided by state-owned telecom monopoly; most fixed-line telephones are in Asmara; cell phone use is limited by government control of SIM card issuance; no data service; only about 3% of households having computers with 2% internet; untapped market ripe for competition; direct phone service between Eritrean and Ethiopia was restored in September 2018; government telco working on roll-out of 3G network
domestic: fixed-line subscribership is less than 1 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 9 per 100
international: country code - 291
Estonia
general assessment: range of regulatory measures competition and foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high-quality voice, data, and Internet services available; one of the most advanced mobile markets in Europe; 5G trials for further growth commercially available by 2020; highest broadband penetration in Europe
domestic: 29 per 100 for fixed-line and 152 per 100 for mobile-cellular; substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income tax returns online, and online voting - in local and parliamentary elections - has climbed steadily since first introduced in 2005; 85% of Estonian households have broadband access
international: country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn
Eswatini
general assessment:

earlier government monopoly in telecommunications hindered its growth; new regulatory authority established in 2013 has aided expansion in the telecom sector; 2G, 3G, 4G and LTE services

domestic:

Eswatini has 2 mobile-cellular providers; communication infrastructure has a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscriber base; fixed-line stands at 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 68 telephones per 100 persons; telephone system consists of carrier-equipped, open-wire lines and low-capacity, microwave radio relay 

international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Ethiopia
general assessment: Ethio Telecom maintains a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; mobile broadband services via 3G and LTE networks; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service; international Internet bandwidth increased 56% in 2016 to reach 35 Gb/s (2017)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions at 1 per 100 while mobile-cellular stands at 59 per 100; the number of mobile telephones is increasing steadily (2017)
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2016)
European Union
note - see individual country entries of member states
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
general assessment: government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radiotelephone networks provide effective service to almost all points on both islands
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 77 per 100, 146 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2015)
international: country code - 500; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) with links through London to other countries (2015)
Faroe Islands
general assessment: good international communications; good domestic facilities (2015)
domestic: conversion to digital system completed in 1998; both NMT (analog) and GSM (digital) mobile telephone systems are installed (2015)
international: country code - 298; satellite earth stations - 1 Orion; 1 fiber-optic submarine cable to the Shetland Islands, linking the Faroe Islands with Denmark and Iceland; fiber-optic submarine cable connection to Canada-Europe cable (2015)
Fiji
general assessment: modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities; regional radio communications center; subject to occasional devastating cyclones; Fiji is a leader in the Pacific region in terms of development of its ICT sector and investment in telecoms infrastructure; initial progress towards 5G readiness
domestic: telephone or radio telephone links to almost all inhabited islands; most towns and large villages have automatic telephone exchanges and direct dialing; fixed-line 8 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 112 per 100 persons
international: country code - 679; access to important cable links between US and Canada, as well as between NZ and Australia; satellite earth stations - 2 Inmarsat (Pacific Ocean); 2018 Fijian government to implement cable to connect the two major islands via submarine cable system
Finland
general assessment: modern system with excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; forefront in testing 5G networks; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies
domestic: digital fiber-optic, fixed-line 7 per 100 subscription; 132 per 100 mobile-cellular; network and an extensive mobile-cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; submarine cables provide links to Estonia and Sweden; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
France
general assessment: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system; highly developed; 3rd largest in Europe; broadband subscriber rate remains strong at 4%
domestic: 58 per 100 persons for fixed-line and 103 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions
international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsat, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean region); HF radiotelephone communications with more than 20 countries
overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262; ACE submarine cable connecting France with African markets extended
French Polynesia
general assessment: one of the most advanced telecom infrastructures for the Pacific islands region; 85% mobile broadband coverage (2017)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 33 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular density is roughly 97 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 689; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international submarine cables depolyed in 2010 and more cables after 2016 (2017)
Gabon
general assessment: adequate system of cable, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, radiotelephone communication stations, and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations; competition among telecoms, independent regulatory authority and reduction in cost  connecting makes for strong telecommunications (2017)
domestic: fiixed-line is 1 per 100 subscriptions; a growing mobile cellular network with multiple providers is making telephone service more widely available with mobile cellular teledensity at 150 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 241; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); sufficient international bandwidth on the SAT-3/WASC/SAFE submarine cable and ACE submarine cable; Airtel Gabon opens submarine link between Libreville and Port-Gentil (2017)
Gambia, The
general assessment: adequate microwave radio relay and open-wire network; state-owned Gambia Telecommunications partially privatized but still retaining a monopoly; multiple mobile networks offering effective competition; three licensed ISPs which serve local area without much competion
domestic: fixed-line stands at 2 per 100 subscriptions with one dominant company and mobile-cellular teledensity, aided by multiple mobile-cellular providers, is over 138 per 100 persons
international: country code - 220; microwave radio relay links to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; a landing station for the Africa Coast to Europe (ACE) undersea fiber-optic cable completed in 2011 and launched in 2012; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Gaza Strip
general assessment: Israel has final say in allocating frequencies in the Gaza Strip and does not permit anything beyond a 2G network (2018)
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; the Palestinian JAWWAL company provides cellular services; a slow 2G network allows calls and limited data transmission (2018)
international: country code - 970 (2018)
Georgia
general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country; broadband subscribers steadily increasing; with the recent investment in infrastructure customers are moving from copper to fibre networks (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100, cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 116 per 100 persons; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi (2017)
international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2015)
Germany
general assessment: one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part; universal 3G available infrastructure and LTE networks; penetration in broadband and mobile sectors average for region
domestic: extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries; 55 per 100 for fixed-line and 132 per 100 for mobile-cellular
international: country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems
Ghana
general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; 2019 to bring universal access licenses; government invested in fiber infrastructure; one of the most active mobile markets in Africa
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 subscriptions; competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 140 per 100 persons and rising
international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors
Gibraltar
general assessment: adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international facilities (2017)
domestic: automatic exchange facilities; 67 per 100 fixed-line and 140 per 100 mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 350; radiotelephone; microwave radio relay; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Greece
general assessment: adequate, modern networks reach all areas; good mobile telephone and international service; 3 mobile network operators; 2019 5G trials and LTE use; despite rough economic conditions broadband penetration developing
domestic: microwave radio relay trunk system; extensive open-wire connections; submarine cable to offshore islands; 48 per 100 for fixed-line and 120 per 100 for mobile-cellular
international: country code - 30; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; a number of smaller submarine cables provide connectivity to various parts of Europe, the Middle East, and Cyprus; tropospheric scatter; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat - Indian Ocean region)
Greenland
general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables, and microwave radio relay; microwave radio relay and satellite; the fundamental telecommunications infrastructure consists of a digital radio link from Nanortalik in south Greenland to Uummannaq in north Greenland; satellites cover north and east Greenland for domestic and foreign telecommunications; a marine cable connects south and west Greenland to the rest of the world, extending from Nuuk and Qaqortoq to Canada and Iceland (2017)
domestic: 28 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions and 106 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 15 (12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)) (2015)
Grenada
general assessment: adequate, automatic, island-wide telephone system; lack of local competition but telecoms are a high contibutor to overall GDP (2018)
domestic: interisland VHF and UHF radiotelephone links; 29 per 100 for fixed-line and 101 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2018)
international: country code - 1-473; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; also a landing point for the Southern Caribbean Fiber (SCF) submarine cable with links to 10 other islands in the Caribbean extending from Basseterre, Saint Kitts and Nevis to Trinidad and Tobago; SHF radiotelephone links to Trinidad and Tobago and Saint Vincent; VHF and UHF radio links to Trinidad (2018)
Guam
general assessment: modern system, integrated with US facilities for direct dialing, including free use of 800 numbers (2016)
domestic: three major companies provide both fixed-line and mobile services, as well as access to the Internet; fixed-line 42 per 100 and 113 per 100 for mobile-cellular (2016)
international: country code - 1-671; major landing point for submarine cables between Asia and the US (Guam is a transpacific communications hub for major carriers linking the US and Asia); satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2016)
Guatemala
general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala; one of the lowest teledensities in the region especially in the country; state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opened the way for competition; steady improvement of fixed-line which has also spurred growth in mobile-cellular and broadband; open regulatory framework coupled with competion and greater disposable household revenue spurs growth (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 15 per 100 persons; fixed-line investments are being concentrated on improving rural connectivity; mobile-cellular teledensity about 129 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that, together, provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Guernsey
general assessment: high performance global connections with quality service; connections to major cities around the world to rival and attract future  investment and future needs of islanders and businesses (2017)
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular 113 per 100 subscription services widely available (2015)
international: country code - 44; 1 submarine cable (2015)
Guinea
general assessment:

huge improvement over the last ten years; in May 2019, 4G wifi was launched in the capital; the capital and the regional administrative centers have 3G access; in 2013 the set up of an IXP (Internet Exchange Point) will reduce cost of internet bandwidth and improve infrastructure

domestic: there is national coverage and Conakry is reasonably well-served; coverage elsewhere remains inadequate but is improving; fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership is expanding rapidly and now approaches 90 per 100 persons
international: country code - 224; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); first international fibre optic submarine cable installed in 2012
Guinea-Bissau
general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile cellular communications; 3 mobile network operators (MNO)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile cellular teledensity is roughly 70 per 100 persons
international: country code - 245 (2015)
Guyana
general assessment: reliable international long distance service; 100% digital network; national transmission supported by fiber optic cable and rural network by microwaves; more than 150,000 lines; many areas still lack fixed-line telephone services; 2019 budget allocates funds for ICT (Information and Communications Technology)  development (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity about 87 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 592; SIP trunking to most providers; international calls via diverse fiber optic cables; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Haiti
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is among the least-developed in Latin America and the Caribbean; domestic cell service is functional
domestic: fixed-line is less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular telephone services have expanded greatly in the last decade due to low-cost GSM (Global Systems for Mobile) phones and pay-as-you-go plans; mobile-cellular teledensity is 61 per 100 persons
international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Holy See (Vatican City)
general assessment: automatic digital exchange (2015)
domestic: connected via fiber-optic cable to Telecom Italia network (2015)
international: country code - 39; uses Italian system (2015)
Honduras
general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership; demand for broadband need increasing and some investment in network upgrades; mobile penetration below regional average (2016)
domestic: private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity 5 per 100; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 91 per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to Central American Microwave System (2016)
Hong Kong
general assessment: modern facilities provide excellent domestic and international services; some of the highest peak average broadband speeds in the world; HK aims to be among the earliest adopters of 5G mobile technology as early as 2020; almost all households have access to high-speed broadband connectivity; in the next five years the government has organized the development of 'smart cities' in six areas - "smart mobility", "smart living", "smart environment", "smart people", "smart government", and "smart economy"  by 2022
domestic: microwave radio relay links and extensive fiber-optic network; fixed-line is 59 per 100 and mobile-cellular is 255 per 100
international: country code - 852; multiple international submarine cables provide connections to Asia, US, Australia, the Middle East, and Western Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Pacific Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); coaxial cable to Guangzhou, China
Hungary
general assessment: modern telephone system is digital and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; regulator preps for 5G spectrum auction in 2019 (2017)
domestic: competition among mobile-cellular service providers has led to a sharp increase in the use of mobile-cellular phones 122 per 100 and a decrease in the number of fixed-line connections 32 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals (2015)
Iceland
general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is modern and fully digitized, with satellite-earth stations, fiber-optic cables, and an extensive broadband network; LTE licenses providing 99% population coverage (2017)
domestic: liberalization of the telecommunications sector beginning in the late 1990s has led to increased competition especially in the mobile services segment of the market; 43 per 100 for fixed line and 121 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 354; the CANTAT-3 and FARICE-1 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Canada, the Faroe Islands, UK, Denmark, and Germany; a planned new section of the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable will provide additional connectivity to Canada, US, and Ireland; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Iceland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden)
India
general assessment: supported by deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; implementation of 4G/LTE services shift to data services across the country; steps taken towards 5G services; fixed broadband penetration is expected to grow at a moderate rate over the next five years to 2023 (2017)
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions stands at 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular at 91 per 100; mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) (2017)
international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2017)
Indonesia
general assessment: domestic service includes an interisland microwave system, an HF radio police net, and a domestic satellite communications system; international service good; Indonesia has very low fixed line and fixed broadband penetration, high mobile penetration and moderate mobile broadband penetration
domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 175 per 100 subscriptions; coverage provided by existing network has been expanded by use of over 200,000 telephone kiosks many located in remote areas; mobile-cellular subscribership growing rapidly
international: country code - 62; landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks that provide links throughout Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Iran
general assessment: opportunities for telecoms growth, but the disadvantage of lack of significant investment; one of the largest populations in the Middle East with a huge demand for services; mobile penetration is high with over 125% accessing 2G & 3G; 4G LTE becoming available; Iranian-net, is currently expanding a fiber network to have 8 million customers by 2020
domestic: 38 per 100 for fixed-line and 106 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions; heavy investment by Iran's state-owned telecom company has greatly improved and expanded both the fixed-line and mobile cellular networks; a huge percentage of the cell phones in the market have been smuggled into the country
international: country code - 98; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE with access to Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line runs from Azerbaijan through the northern portion of Iran to Turkmenistan with expansion to Georgia and Azerbaijan; HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; satellite earth stations - 13 (9 Intelsat and 4 Inmarsat)
Iraq
general assessment: the 2003 liberation of Iraq severely disrupted telecommunications throughout Iraq; widespread government efforts to rebuild domestic and international communications have slowed due to political unrest; 2018 showed signs of stability and installations of new fibre-optic cables and growth in mobile broadband subscribers; the most popular plans are pre-paid
domestic: the mobile cellular market continues to expand; 3G services offered by three major mobile operators; 4G offered by one operator in Iraqi Kurdistan Region; conflict has destroyed infrastructure in areas; 7 per 100 for fixed-line and 85 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions
international: country code - 964; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region, and 1 Arabsat (inoperative)); local microwave radio relay connects border regions to Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, and Turkey; international terrestrial fiber-optic connections have been established with Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Kuwait, Jordan, and Iran; links to the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the Gulf Bridge International (GBI) submarine fiber-optic cables have been established
Ireland
general assessment: modern digital system using cable and microwave radio relay; previous depressed economic climate has changed to one with Ireland having one of the highest GDP growth rates in Europe which translates to mean spending among telecom consumers; introduction of flat-rate plans; upgraded LTE technologies in rural areas; government intends to spend millions on Nat. Broadband Plan
domestic: increasing levels of broadband access particularly in urban areas; fixed-line 37 per 100 and mobile-cellular 98 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 353; landing point for the Hibernia-Atlantic submarine cable with links to the US, Canada, and UK; satellite earth stations - 81
Isle of Man
domestic: landline, telefax, mobile cellular telephone system
international: country code - 44; fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, satellite earth station, submarine cable
Israel
general assessment: most highly developed system in the Middle East; mobile broadband 100% population penetration; cunsumers enjoy inexpensive 3G services; 4G cellular service; fixed broadband available to 99% of all households (2018)
domestic: good system of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay; all systems are digital; competition among both fixed-line and mobile cellular providers results in good coverage countrywide; fixed-line 39 per 100 and 127 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 972; submarine cables provide links to Europe, Cyprus, and parts of the Middle East; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2018)
Italy
general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services; highest mobile penetration rates in Europe; leading edge of development with 5G; government selects operators for 5G trials in five cities (2017)
domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks; 33 per 100 for fixed-line and 135 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat; Global Cloud Xchange building the EAGLE submarine cable system linking Italy to Hong Kong; (2017)
Jamaica
general assessment: fully automatic domestic telephone network; LTE networks providing coverage to 90% of the island population (2017)
domestic: the 1999 agreement to open the market for telecommunications services resulted in rapid growth in mobile-cellular telephone usage 103 per 100 subscriptions, while the number of fixed-lines 10 per 100 subscriptions has declined (2017)
international: country code - 1-876; the Fibralink submarine cable network provides enhanced delivery of business and broadband traffic and is linked to the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) submarine cable in the Dominican Republic; the link to ARCOS-1 provides seamless connectivity to US, parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; the ALBA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable links Jamaica, Cuba, and Venezuela; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Japan
general assessment: excellent domestic and international service; Japan has exceedingly high mobile, mobile broadband and fixed broadband penetration; one of Japan's largest e-commerce companies planning to build its own nationwide 4G mobile network; Japan govt. to open up to new mobile network operators (MNO) for 5G services to be commercially available in 2020; Japan's first Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) commencing during 2018 (2017)
domestic: high level of modern technology and excellent service of every kind; 51 per 100 for fixed-line and 135 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 81; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 7 Intelsat (Pacific and Indian Oceans), 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region), 2 Inmarsat (Pacific and Indian Ocean regions), and 8 SkyPerfect JSAT (2017)
Jersey
general assessment: modern system with broadband access (2017)
domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; fixed-line 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular 119 per 100 subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2017)
Jordan
general assessment: microwave radio relay transmission and coaxial and fiber-optic cable are employed on trunk lines; growing mobile-cellular usage in both urban and rural areas is reducing use of fixed-line services; recent influx of refugees putting burden on country's econmy, infrastructure and society; mobile broadband area of growth with 4G services (2017)
domestic: 1995 telecommunications law opened all non-fixed-line services to private competition; in 2005, monopoly over fixed-line services terminated and the entire telecommunications sector was opened to competition; currently multiple mobile-cellular providers with subscribership up to 96 per 100 persons; fixed-line 4 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 962; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) FEA and FLAG Falcon submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 33 (3 Intelsat, 1 Arabsat, and 29 land and maritime Inmarsat terminals); fiber-optic cable to Saudi Arabia and microwave radio relay link with Egypt and Syria; participant in Medarabtel (2016)
Kazakhstan
general assessment: one of the most progressive telecoms sectors in Central Asia; vast 4G network; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration, moderate mobile broadband penetration and high mobile penetration
domestic: intercity by landline and microwave radio relay; number of fixed-line connections is 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage increased rapidly and the subscriber base approaches 143 per 100 persons
international: country code - 7; international traffic with other former Soviet republics and China carried by landline and microwave radio relay and with other countries by satellite and by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat
Kenya
general assessment:

the mobile-cellular system is generally good, especially in urban areas; fixed-line telephone system is small and inefficient; trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; to encourage advancement of the LTE services the govt. has fostered an open-access approach; govt. progresses with national broadband strategy; more licensing being awarded has led to competition which is good for growth

domestic: multiple providers in the mobile-cellular segment of the market fostering a boom in mobile-cellular telephone usage with teledensity reaching 90 per 100 persons; fixed-line subscriptions stand at less than 1 per 100 persons
international: country code - 254; landing point for the EASSy, TEAMS and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat; launches first micro satellites;
Kiribati
general assessment: generally good quality national and international service; wireline service available on Tarawa and Kiritimati (Christmas Island); connections to outer islands by HF/VHF radiotelephone; recently formed mobile network operator (MNO) is implementing the first phase of improvements with 3G and 4G upgrades on some islands; islands are connected to each other and the rest of the world via satellite
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 43 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 686; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Korea, North
general assessment: nationwide fiber-optic network; mobile-cellular service expanded beyond Pyongyang; infrastructure underdeveloped yet growing mobile penetration by means of foreign investment; low broadband penetration; mobile penetration in North Korea believed to stay well below other Asian nations due to govt restrictions; 3G network depolyed among universal population coverage
domestic: fiber-optic links installed down to the county level; telephone directories unavailable; mobile service launched in late 2008 for the Pyongyang area and considerable progress in expanding to other parts of the country since; fixed-line 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular 14 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 850; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Russian - Indian Ocean region); other international connections through Moscow and Beijing
Korea, South
general assessment: excellent domestic and international services featuring rapid incorporation of new technologies; ranked 1st out of 34 Asian telecoms; exceedingly high mobile and mobile broadband penetration and very high fixed broadband penetration; strong support from govt, savvy population has catapulted the nation into one of the world's most active telecommunication markets; 5G services to go live for enterprise customers in 2019; slower growth predicted over the next five years to 2023; Chinese telecommunications company Huawei has partnered with other MNOs in South Korea
domestic: fixed-line 52 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 124 per 100 persons widely available; rapid assimilation of a full range of telecommunications technologies leading to a boom in e-commerce
international: country code - 82; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 66
Kosovo
general assessment: Kosovo being part of the EU pre-accession process has helped with their progress in the telecom industry, following a regulatory framework,  European standards, and a market of new players encourages development in its telecommunications; 2 MNOs dominate the sector; poor telecom infrastructure means low fixed-line penetration
domestic: fixed-line stands at 45 per 100 and mobile-cellular 31 per 100 persons
international: country code - 383
Kuwait
general assessment: the quality of service is excellent; new telephone exchanges provide a large capacity for new subscribers; trunk traffic is carried by microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and open-wire and fiber-optic cable; a 4G LTE mobile-cellular telephone system operates throughout Kuwai; Internet access is available via 4G LTE connections for fixed and mobile users; high ownership of smart phone in Kuwait; one of the highest mobile penetration rates in the world
domestic: fixed-line subscriptions 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular stands at 179 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 965; linked to Bahrain, Qatar, UAE via the Fiber-Optic Gulf (FOG) cable; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth stations - 6 (3 Intelsat - 1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, 1 Inmarsat - Atlantic Ocean, and 2 Arabsat)
Kyrgyzstan
general assessment: digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; low fixed-line and fixed-broadband penetration and low to moderate mobile broadband penetration; international connectivity continues to grow; 4 mobile networks in operation; 4G networks cover over 50% of the nation, eventually 5G networks will be available
domestic: fixed-line penetration 6 per 100 persons remains low and concentrated in urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 127 per 100 persons
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2016)
Laos
general assessment: service to public is generally improving; the government relies on a radiotelephone network to communicate with remote areas; regulatory reform below industry standards; low fixed-broadband penetration due to dominance of mobile platforms; strong boost in mobile broadband penetration but still low compared to other Asian markets; development of mobile broadband internet services given the expansion of 4G services
domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 and 52 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions
international: country code - 856; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) and a second to be developed by China
Latvia
general assessment: recent efforts focused on bringing competition to the telecommunications sector; the number of fixed lines is decreasing as mobile-cellular telephone service expands; EU regulatory policies, and framework provide guidelines for growth; govt. adopted measures to build a national fiber broadband network, part-funded by European Commission; commercial 5G services coming in 2019
domestic: fixed-line 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular 127 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 371; the Latvian network is now connected via fiber-optic cable to Estonia, Finland, and Sweden
Lebanon
general assessment: new landlines and fiber-optic networks installed along with faster DSL in 2017; two mobile-cellular networks provide good service, with 4G LTE services; preparing for 5G service; future improvements to fiber-optic infrastructure for total nation coverage in 2020
domestic: fixed-line 17 per 100 and 79 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions
international: country code - 961; submarine cable links to Cyprus, Egypt, and Syria; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean); coaxial cable to Syria
Lesotho
general assessment: rudimentary system consisting of a modest number of landlines, a small microwave radio relay system, and a small radiotelephone communication system; fixed-line teledensity is low; mobile-cellular telephone system is expanding;  commercial services with LTE technology
domestic: mobile-cellular service dominates the market with a subscribership now over 122 per 100 persons; fixed-line is 1 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 266; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); although expensive, given the need for access prices due to the fact that the country is landlocked, the internet has improved with the several submarine fibre optic cables which land on African east and west coasts
Liberia
general assessment: the limited services available are found almost exclusively in the capital, Monrovia; fixed-line service stagnant and extremely limited; telephone coverage extended to a number of other towns and rural areas by four mobile-cellular network operators; almost entirely wireless telecommunications market; mobile market penetration is low compared to others in the region; number of operators avoid paying dues and operate despite regulations (2017)
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100; mobile-cellular subscription base growing and teledensity approached 66 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 231; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Libya
general assessment: political and security instability in Libya has disrupted its telecommunications sector, but much of its infrastructure remains superior to that in most other African countries; registering a SIM card now requires proof of ID; govt. established new independent regulatory authority; LTE-based fixed broadband network launched (2018)
domestic: 21 per 100 fixed-line and 115 per 100 mobile-cellular subscriptions; service generally adequate, but pressure to rebuild damaged infrastructure growing (2018)
international: country code - 218; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat, NA Arabsat, and NA Intersputnik; submarine cable to France and Italy; microwave radio relay to Tunisia and Egypt; tropospheric scatter to Greece; participant in Medarabtel (2018)
Liechtenstein
general assessment: automatic telephone system, connected to Swiss telephone networks via cable and microwave radio relay systems; 44 internet service providers in Liechtenstein and Switzerland combined
domestic: fixed-line 41 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 122 per 100; widely available
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay
Lithuania
general assessment: adequate; being modernized to provide improved international capability and better residential access; SIM card penetration is high for the region; prepaid sector accounts for most subscribers; postpaid subscribers is increasing; LTE networks available to more than 99% of the population; Lithuanian FttP (fiber to the home cable connections for Internet) penetration ranked third highest in Europe (2017)
domestic: 17 per 100 for fixed-line subscriptions; rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services has resulted in a steady decline in the number of fixed-line connections; mobile-cellular teledensity stands at about 154 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 370; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite; landline connections to Latvia and Poland (2016)
Luxembourg
general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system; by 2020 the government’s program is to provide a 1Gb/s service to all citizens, and to make Luxembourg the first fully fibred country in Europe; new law requiring  SIM cards be registered has slowed down growth for mobile subscribers; 5G launch by 2020 (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 46 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated with 134 per 100 mobile-cellular (2017)
international: country code - 352 (2016)
Macau
general assessment: modern communication facilities maintained for domestic and international services; high mobile subscriber numbers and mobile penetration with 4 network operators and a mobile virtual network operator (MNVO), offering 4 G and LTE services; 5G wireless technology for commercial use in 2020, possible synchronizing with neighbouring regions
domestic: fixed-line 20 per 100 and mobile-celluar 344 per 100 subscriptions
international: country code - 853; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; HF radiotelephone communication facility; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Madagascar
general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the four mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market and helped the service to be less expensive for the consumer; LTE services available
domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 35 per 100 persons
international: country code - 261; landing point for the EASSy, SEACOM, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region); possible IOX cable in 2019 and Africa-1 cable in 2020 providing additional links and international cable systems
Malawi
general assessment:

rudimentary; 2 fixed-line and 3 mobile-cellular operators govern the market; some mobile services to rural areas; in a resolution to discourage crime the regulatory has imposed SIM card registration since 2018; 50 licensed ISPs; DSL services are available; LTE services are available;

domestic: limited fixed-line subscribership less than 1 per 100 households; mobile-cellular services are expanding but network coverage is limited and is based around the main urban areas; mobile-cellular subscribership approaching 40 per 100 households
international: country code - 265; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean); recent access to international submarine fiber cable via neighboring countries
Malaysia
general assessment: modern system featuring good intercity services mainly by microwave radio relay and an adequate intercity microwave radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via Brunei; international service excellent; one of the most advanced telecom networks; roll-out of a national broadband network
domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 135 per 100 persons; domestic satellite system with 2 earth stations
international: country code - 60; landing point for several major international submarine cable networks that provide connectivity to Asia, Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean)
Maldives
general assessment: all inhabited islands and resorts are connected with telephone and fax service; two mobile operators extend LTE coverage;  tourism has strengthened the telecom market with investment; the unusually high mobile penetration rate is also helped by tourism; internet bandwidth increased 37% in 2016; mobile penetration passes 250%
domestic: fixed-line is at 5 per 100 persons and high mobile-cellular subscriptions stands at 229 per 100 persons
international: country code - 960; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth station - 3 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); submarine cable to Sri Lanka and India improve international bandwith and reduce access pricing for users; additional cables linking the main atolls have bolstered domestic connectivity
Mali
general assessment:

domestic system improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas; geography a challenge for telecommunications; poverty, security, high illiteracy and low PC use has taken its toll;  4 mobile operators in market; potential for mobile broadband services; local plans for Internet Exchange Point

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to over 113 per 100 persons
international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean); new competition with submarine fiber optic cables in the region
Malta
general assessment: automatic system featuring submarine cable and microwave radio relay between islands; one of the most advanced telecoms in Europe, high penetration of mobile and broadband, and a way forward to expand e-commerce opportunities; '5G ready' and LTE network; regulatory system that encourages investors
domestic: fixed-line  58 per 100  persons and mobile-cellular subscribership  135 per 100 persons
international: country code - 356; submarine cable connects to Italy; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Marshall Islands
general assessment: some telecom infrastructure improvements made in recent years; modern services include telex, cellular, Internet, international calling, caller ID, and leased data circuits;  the US Government, World Bank, UN and International Telecommunication Union (ITU),  have aided in improvements and monetary aid to the islands telecom; opening competition and improving access and regulatory frameworks; mobile penetrations is around 30%; radio communication is especially vital to remote islands (2016)
domestic: Majuro Atoll and Ebeye and Kwajalein islands have regular, seven-digit, direct-dial telephones; other islands interconnected by high frequency radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes) and mini-satellite telephones; fixed-line 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular is 21 per 100 subscriptions (2016)
international: country code - 692; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); US Government satellite communications system on Kwajalein (2016)
Mauritania
general assessment: limited system of cable and open-wire lines, minor microwave radio relay links, and radiotelephone communications stations; mobile-cellular services expanding rapidly; 3 mobile network operators; 3G penetration high; mobile broadband speeds are low; World Bank and European Investment Bank support attempts to improve telecom and improve regulatory measures; efforts to improve backbone of network; auction for fourth mobile provider and 4G service in spring 2019
domestic: fixed-line teledensity 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular network coverage extends mainly to urban areas with a teledensity of roughly 108 per 100 persons; mostly cable and open-wire lines; a domestic satellite telecommunications system links Nouakchott with regional capitals
international: country code - 222; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean, 2 Arabsat); fiber-optic and asymmetric digital subscriber line cables for Internet access
Mauritius
general assessment:

small system with good service; LTE and fiber broadband service are available; government building a national Wi-Fi network; partial privatization of biggest telecommunications company, open to competition 

domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 30 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services  teledensity approaching 136 per 100 persons
international: country code - 230; landing point or hub for the SAFE submarine cable that provides links to Asia and South Africa where it connects to the SAT-3/WASC submarine cable that provides further links to parts of East Africa, and Europe; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); new microwave link to Reunion; HF radiotelephone links to several countries
Mexico
general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable; two main MNOs despite efforts for competition; preparation for 5G and LTE-M services; Mexico’s first local Internet Exchange Point opens in Mexico City (2017)
domestic: competition has spurred the mobile-cellular market; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 17 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 92 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2016)
Micronesia, Federated States of
general assessment: adequate system (2016)
domestic: islands interconnected by shortwave radiotelephone (used mostly for government purposes), satellite (Intelsat) ground stations, and some coaxial and fiber-optic cable; mobile-cellular service available on the major islands (2016)
international: country code - 691; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); in 2015, Fiber Optic was launched and is the primary communication path to the outside world (2016)
Moldova
general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country; endeavors to join the EU have promoted regulatory issues to be in line with EU principles and standards; market is competitive with 80 ISPs active; LTE services available and mobile broadband growth
domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service 33 per 100; mobile-cellular teledensity sits at 105 per 100 persons
international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik)
Monaco
general assessment: modern automatic telephone system; the country's sole fixed-line operator offers a full range of services to residential and business customers; competitive mobile telephony market (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 153 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 108 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 377; no satellite earth stations; connected by cable into the French communications system (2016)
Mongolia
general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas; a fiber-optic network has been installed that is improving broadband and communication services between major urban centers with multiple companies providing inter-city fiber-optic cable services; compared to other Asian countries, Mongolia's growth in telecommunications is moderate; mobile broadband is growing with 4 competitive MNOs (mobile network operators) along with better tarrifs; 3G mobile broadband products are very popular with 4G services by 2022; in May 2018 a South Korean company completed the sale of 40% stake back to Mongolian government
domestic: very low fixed-line teledensity 10 per 100; there are four mobile-cellular providers and subscribership is increasing with 131 per 100 persons
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7 (2016)
Montenegro
general assessment: modern telecommunications system with access to European satellites; telecom sector in-line with EU norms which means competition, access and tariff structures; DSL, cable, leased line, fibre and wireless; seasonal tourist have boosted mobile penetration; LTE technologies available (2017)
domestic: GSM mobile-cellular service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing; fixed-line 24 per 100 and mobile-cellular 163 per 100 subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 382; 2 international switches connect the national system (2015)
Montserrat
general assessment: modern and fully digitalized; high dependency on tourism and offshore finiacial services; operators expand FttP (Fiber to Home) services; LTE launches and operators invest in mobile networks (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 57 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 95 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-664; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad (2016)
Morocco
general assessment: good system composed of open-wire lines, cables, and microwave radio relay links; principal switching centers are Casablanca and Rabat; national network nearly 100% digital using fiber-optic links; improved rural service employs microwave radio relay; one of the most state-of-the-art markets in Africa; high mobile penetration rates in the region with low cost for broadband internet access; LTE and VoD (Video on Demand) launched
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 6 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership exceeds 129 per 100 persons
international: country code - 212; landing point for the Atlas Offshore, Estepona-Tetouan, Euroafrica, Spain-Morocco, and SEA-ME-WE-3 fiber-optic telecommunications undersea cables that provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and Western Sahara; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria; participant in Medarabtel; fiber-optic cable link from Agadir to Algeria and Tunisia; satellite telecom licenses awarded; cable connected to Mali and Morocco
Mozambique
general assessment: the mobile segment has shown strong growth given competition; poor fixed-line infrastructure means most Internet access is through mobile accounts; DSL, cable broadband, WiMAX (broadband over long distances), 3G and some fibre broadband available; LTE services launched
domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; operators provide coverage that includes all the main cities and key roads; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and 45 per 100 mobile-cellular teledensity
international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems allows for reduced cost of bandwidth and retail broadband prices; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Namibia
general assessment: good system; core fiber-optic network links most centers with digital connections; 3G and LTE services; internet and broadband sector fairly competitive; infrastructure investment through 2021
domestic: fixed-line still a government monopoly with plans to open to competion soon; multiple mobile-cellular providers; fixed-line subscribership of 8 per 100 and mobile-cellular 107 per 100 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 264; fiber-optic cable to South Africa, microwave radio relay link to Botswana, direct links to other neighboring countries; connected to the South African Far East submarine cable through South Africa; connected to the West Africa Cable System, an ultra-high capacity fiber-optic submarine cable linking southern and western African countries to Europe; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Nauru
general assessment: adequate local and international radiotelephone communication provided via Australian facilities; geography is a challenge for the islands; there is a need to service the tourism sector and thus the South Pacific Islands economy; mobile technology is booming
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 87 per 100
international: country code - 674; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean)
Nepal
general assessment:

mountainous topography hinders development of telecom infrastructure; fair radiotelephone communication service; 20% of the market share is fixed (wired) broadband, 2% is fixed (wireless) broadband, and 78% is mobile broadband (2019); fixed broadband is low due to limited number of fixed lines and preeminence of the mobile platform; accelerated mobile broadband penetration the last five years; 90% of the population will have access to broadband by 2020

domestic: mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area; 3G coverage is available in 20 major cities (2019); disparity between high coverage in cities and coverage available in underdeveloped rural regions; fixed-line 3 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 109 per 100 persons
international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); Nepal, China and Tibet connected across borders with underground and all-dielectric self-supporting (ADSS) fiber-optic cables
Netherlands
general assessment: highly developed and well maintained; while fixed-line voice market is in decline the VoIP (voice over Internet protocal) and mobile platforms advance; one of the highest fixed broadband penetration rates in the world; government investments; preparations for 5G trials, plans for 3G network shutdown in 2022; LTE-A services; MNOs and banks launch m-payments system (2018)
domestic: extensive fixed-line, fiber-optic network; large cellular telephone system with five major operators utilizing the third generation of the Global System for Mobile Communications technology; one in five households now use Voice over the Internet Protocol services; fixed-line 38 per 100 and mobile-cellular 120 per 100 subscriptions (2018)
international: country code - 31; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 5 (3 Intelsat - 1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (2011)
New Caledonia
general assessment: well advanced telecoms sector; 4G network services (2015)
domestic: fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 91 per 100 persons (2015)
international: country code - 687; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); a submarine cable network connection between New Caledonia and Australia, increased network capacity and improved high-speed connectivity and access to international networks (2015)
New Zealand
general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems; mobile and P2P services soar; LTE rates some of the fastest in the world; investment and development of infrastructure enable network capabilities to propel the digital economy, digital media sector along with e-government, e-commerce across the country
domestic: fixed-line 30 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 142 per 100 persons
international: country code - 64; the Southern Cross submarine cable system provides links to Australia, Fiji, and the US; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other)
Nicaragua
general assessment: system being upgraded by foreign investment; nearly all installed telecommunications capacity now uses digital technology, owing to investments since privatization of the formerly state-owned telecommunications company; lowest fixed-line teledensity and mobile penetration in Central America; a Russian state corporation is operating in the area; LTE service in 60 towns and cities (2016)
domestic: since privatization, access to fixed-line and mobile-cellular services has improved; fixed-line teledensity roughly 6 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has increased to 136 per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 505; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region) and 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Niger
general assessment: small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger; mobile services stronger than fixed telecoms; broadband penetration inconsequential;  LTE license secured for the future; government tax of telecom sector
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity remains 46 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned
international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Nigeria
general assessment:

one of the larger telecom markets in Africa; foreign investment; market competition; LTE technologies available but GSM technology dominate; unified licensing regime; government committed to expanding broadband penetration; in Q1 2018, the Nigerian Communications Commission approved seven licenses to telecom companies to deploy fiber optic cable in the six geopolitical zones and Lagos

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base over 76 per 100 persons
international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean)
Niue
general assessment: sole provider services for over 1000 landlines and fixed wireless lines; cellular telephone service operates on AMPS and GSM platforms; difficult geography presents challenges for rural areas
domestic: single-line (fixed line) telephone system connects all villages (and virtually all households) on island
international: country code - 683 (2015)
Norfolk Island
general assessment: adequate
domestic: free local calls
international: country code - 672; submarine cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
North Macedonia
general assessment: being part of the EU pre-accession process has led to a stronger teledensity with closer regulatory framework, independent regulators and administrative ties with the the European Commission (EC) have led to progress; broadband services are widely available; more customers moving to fibre networks; 2 mobile network operators; end of roaming tariffs (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 17 per 100 and mobile-cellular 101 per 100 subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 389 (2017)
Northern Mariana Islands
general assessment: digital fiber-optic cables and satellites connect the islands to worldwide networks; future launch of 5G (2017)
domestic: wide variety of services available including dial-up and broadband Internet, mobile cellular, international private lines, payphones, phone cards, voicemail, and automatic call distribution systems (2015)
international: country code - 1-670; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Norway
general assessment:

modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe; forward leaning in LTE-A developments; looking to close 3G and 2G networks by 2025 and preparing for 5G; broadband penetration rate is among the best in Europe (2017)

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 108 per 100
international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden)
Oman
general assessment: modern system consisting of open-wire, microwave, and radiotelephone communication stations; coaxial cable; domestic satellite system with 8 earth stations; both 3G and 4G LTE networks; exploring 5G options; competition among mobile network operators (MNO)
domestic: fixed-line 11 per 100 and mobile-cellular 151 per 100, subscribership both increasing with fixed-line phone service gradually being introduced to remote villages using wireless local loop systems
international: country code - 968; the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat
Pakistan
general assessment: the telecommunications infrastructure is improving, with investments in mobile-cellular networks increasing, but fixed-line subscriptions declining; system consists of microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, fiber-optic cable, cellular, and satellite networks; 4G mobile services broadly available; 5G not before 2030; mobile platform and mobile broadband doing well
domestic: mobile-cellular subscribership has skyrocketed; more than 90% of Pakistanis live within areas that have cell phone coverage; fiber-optic networks are being constructed throughout the country to increase broadband access, though broadband penetration in Pakistan is still relatively low; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 71 per 100 persons
international: country code - 92; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable systems that provide links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; developed 510 mile fiber optic land connection to China; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean); 3 operational international gateway exchanges (1 at Karachi and 2 at Islamabad); microwave radio relay to neighboring countries
Palau
general assessment: well-developed mobile sector recently boosted by satellite network capacity upgrades; 3G services available with satellite; lack of telecom regulations; (2017)
domestic: fixed-line  34 per 100 and mobile-cellular services 112 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 680; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); SEA-US submarine cable landing in Palau  (2017)
Panama
general assessment: domestic and international facilities well-developed; investmentn from international operators; competion among operators helps reduce price of services; launches LTE services; (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 16 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone 159 per 100 and subscribership has increased rapidly (2017)
international: country code - 507; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), the MAYA-1, and PAN-AM submarine cable systems that together provide links to the US and parts of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); connected to the Central American Microwave System; extention of Deep Blue cable pan-Caribbean regional to Panama (2017)
Papua New Guinea
general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services; a great deal of the population is under served in telecommunications; terrain, living conditions and economice stability is not high; new submarine cable installed in 2018 will increase capacity, reliability and reduce Internet costs; 3G and 4G LTE in urban areas
domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 55 per 100 person, teledensity has increased
international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service; new Coral Sea Cable System in 2018 linking PNG, and the Solomons Islands to Australia and APEC partners; planned for 2019 Kacific-1 launch
Paraguay
general assessment: the fixed-line market is a state monopoly and fixed-line telephone service is meager; principal switching center is in Asuncion; DSL, cable modem, FttP (fiber to the home) and WiMAX technologies available; competition in mobile market among 4 operators; 18 mobile phones for every fixed-line service phone
domestic: deficiencies in provision of fixed-line service have resulted in a rapid expansion of mobile-cellular services fostered by competition among multiple providers; Internet market also open to competition; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 108 per 100
international: country code - 595; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Paraguay's landlocked position means they must depend on neighbors for interconnection with submarine cable networks, making it cost more for broadband services
Peru
general assessment: adequate for most requirements; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations; 3G network and new LTE services begun; 2019 the year to try 5G; Peru is seen as a potential market for growth in broadband with government work with fibre-optic backbone to remote areas  (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 10 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, now 125 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Philippines
general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate; National Broadband Plan to improve connectivity in rural areas underway; 4G available now in some areas with 5G  pilots planned to commence in 2019-2020
domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber-optic cable, and satellite for redundant international connectivity; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 111 per 100 (2017)
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to the US, and to countries like Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, Brunei, and Malaysia, among others; multiple international gateways (2016)
Pitcairn Islands
general assessment: satellite-based phone services; rural connectivity a chanllenge
domestic: local phone service with international connections via Internet
international: country code - 872; satellite earth station - 1 (Inmarsat)
Poland
general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has accelerated with market-based competition; fixed-line service, dominated by the former state-owned company, is dwarfed by the growth in mobile-cellular services; regulatory is framed by EU principles of competition; moble penetration is above European average; 5G trials begin; LTE-B and VoWi-Fi technologies; launch of 1Gb/s cable services (2017)
domestic: several nation-wide networks provide mobile-cellular service; coverage is generally good; fixed-line 24 per 100 service lags in rural areas, mobile-cellular 130 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 48; international direct dialing with automated exchanges; satellite earth station - 1 with access to Intelsat, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik (2015)
Portugal
general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP by 2020; 3G comprehensive and 4G upgrades; 5G developing; LTE-A trials; DSL moves to fibre services; FttP for over 5 million customers by 2020 providing national coverage; (2017)
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 45 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 109 per 100 subscriptions (2017)
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; new cable to link Portugal with Brazil (2015)
Puerto Rico
general assessment: modern system integrated with that of the US by high-capacity submarine cable and Intelsat with high-speed data capability; havoc caused by the hurricane in 2017 has left the island lagging behind the mainland US both economically and technologically; competition among network operators helps with growth; availability of LTE coverage increasing to 90% (2016)
domestic: digital telephone system; mobile-cellular services; fixed-line 23 per 100 and mobile-cullular 101 per 100 subscriptions (2016)
international: country code - 1-787, 939; submarine cables provide connectivity to the US, Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (2016)
Qatar
general assessment: modern system centered in Doha; notable efforts to deploy 5G wireless technology; steady LTE networks; one of the most connected markets in the Middle East with broadband penetration; ADSL, Fibre-to-the-Home (FttH), wireless and mobile services
domestic: fixed-line 19 per 100  and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 169 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 974; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and the US; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and the UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; retains full ownership of two commercial satellites, Es'hailSat 1 and 2
Romania
general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services; competition among a number of telecoms; LTE services; 1Gb/FttP offering; government secures EU funding to extend broadband to areas of the country not yet connected (2016)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 18 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by four mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 105 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2016)
Russia
general assessment: telecom sector impacted by sanctions related to the annexations in Ukraine; the estimated number of mobile subscribers jumped from fewer than 1 million in 1998 to 255 million in 2016; fixed-line service has improved but a large demand remains; Russia is one of Europe's fastest growing markets for fibre-based broadband; 5G trials; FttP/FttB, DSL, cable and LTE services (2017)
domestic: cross-country digital trunk lines run from Saint Petersburg to Khabarovsk, and from Moscow to Novorossiysk; the telephone systems in 60 regional capitals have modern digital infrastructures; cellular services, both analog and digital, are available in many areas; in rural areas, telephone services are still outdated, inadequate, and low-density; 22 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular 160 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 7; connected internationally by undersea fiber -optic cables; satellite earth stations provide access to Intelsat, Intersputnik, Eutelsat, Inmarsat, and Orbita systems (2016)
Rwanda
general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government; government carries out investment in smart city infrastructure; expands wholesale LTE services
domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to provincial centers by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased 74 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service); international submarine fiber-optic cables on the African east coast has brought international bandwidth and lessened the dependency on satellites
Saint Barthelemy
general assessment: fully integrated access; 4G and LTE services (2017)
domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems (2017)
international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe (2017)
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
general assessment: can communicate worldwide; ADSL- broadband service; LTE service; Wi-Fi hotspots in Jamestown, 1 ISP, many services are not offered locally but made available for visitors (2017)
domestic: automatic digital network; fixed-line 35 per 100 and moblie-cellular 39 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code (Saint Helena) - 290, (Ascension Island) - 247; international direct dialing; satellite voice and data communications; satellite earth stations - 5 (Ascension Island - 4, Saint Helena - 1); and the United Kingdom; branching spur to St. Helena from South Atlantic Express submarine cable between South Africa and South America by 2020 (2017)
Saint Kitts and Nevis
general assessment: good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2017)
domestic: interisland links via ECFS; fixed-line teledensity about 33 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 146 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-869; connected internationally by the East ECFS and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables (2017)
Saint Lucia
general assessment: an adequate system that is automatically switched; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2016)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is 21 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 107 per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 1-758; the East Caribbean Fiber System and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables, along with Intelsat from Martinique, carry calls internationally; direct microwave radio relay link with Martinique and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; tropospheric scatter to Barbados (2016)
Saint Martin
general assessment: fully integrated access;  good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) and LTE markets; regulatory development (2017)
domestic: direct dial capability with both fixed and wireless systems (2009)
international: country code - 590; undersea fiber-optic cable provides voice and data connectivity to Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe (2009)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
general assessment: adequate
international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
general assessment: adequate islandwide, fully automatic telephone system; broadband access; expand FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development (2017)
domestic: fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 114 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-784; the East Caribbean Fiber System and Southern Caribbean Fiber submarine cables carry international calls; connectivity also provided by VHF/UHF radiotelephone from Saint Vincent to Barbados; SHF radiotelephone to Grenada and Saint Lucia; access to Intelsat earth station in Martinique through Saint Lucia (2016)
Samoa
general assessment: most households have at least one mobile phone; all businesses in the greater Apia area have access to broadband and Wi-Fi, which is reasonably reliable and fast; in rural Upolu and on Savaii Island there is now readily available  high-speed Internet and Wi-Fi; due to the establishment of a regulatory infrastructure, liberalization and competition of the mobile market the telecom market has increased coverage and reduced cost; 4G LTE services accessible to about 95% of residents
domestic: fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 62 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); Tui Samoa Cable, connected to the Southern Cross Cable via Fiji is the primary connection servicing Samoa
San Marino
general assessment: automatic telephone system completely integrated into Italian system (2016)
domestic: fixed-line 47 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 113 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 378; connected to Italian international network (2016)
Sao Tome and Principe
general assessment: local telephone network of adequate quality with most lines connected to digital switches; mobile cellular superior choice to landland; dial-up quality low; broadband expensive (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 3 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 86 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 239; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Saudi Arabia
general assessment: modern system including a combination of extensive microwave radio relays, coaxial cables, and fiber-optic cables; boradband is available with DSL, fibre, and wireless; mobile penetration is steep in Saudi Arabia; 4G/5G use in early 2019 (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 13 per 100 mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing rapidly 141 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 966; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) and for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks providing connectivity to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; microwave radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, Yemen, and Sudan; coaxial cable to Kuwait and Jordan; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region) (2016)
Senegal
general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system; mobile penetraction reached 106% in 2018; mobile broadband accounts for close to 100% Internet accesses; 3G and LTE services (2017)
domestic: generally reliable urban system with a fiber-optic network; about two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar; mobile-cellular service is steadily displacing fixed-line service, even in urban areas; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 107 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 221; the ACE fiber-optic cable connects Senegal to Europe, the SAT-3/WASC provides fiber-optic connectivity to Europe and Asia, and Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Serbia
general assessment: Serbia's integration with the EU has helped regulator reforms and promotion of telecoms; wireless service are available through multiple providers; national coverage is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications services are centered in urban centers; 4G/LTE mobile network launched; 5G trials (2016)
domestic: fixed-line 37 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100 persons (2016)
international: country code - 381 (2016)
Seychelles
general assessment: effective system; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago
domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 178 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean); Seychelles East Africa System (SEAS) submarine cable landed in Beau Vallon, connecting Seychelles with Tanzania
Sierra Leone
general assessment: telephone service improving with the expansion of the mobile sector; the national microwave radio relay trunk system connects Freetown to Bo and Kenema; mobile-cellular service has grown rapidly from a small base, overcoming the deficiencies of the fixed-line sector; mobile sector high penetration; investments in upgrades to LTE (2017)
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 102 per 100 (2017)
international: country code - 232; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Singapore
general assessment: excellent service; world leader in telecommunications and perhaps the first 'Smart Nation' where a sensor network is implemented; saturated mobile audience; roll out of 4G and 5G networks to ensure faster speeds; wireless and fiber broadband growing segments of telecommunications
domestic: excellent domestic facilities; fixed-line 34.9 per 100 and mobile-cellular 149.6 per 100 teledensity; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity
international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 3, Bukit Timah, Seletar, and Sentosa; supplemented by VSAT coverage
Sint Maarten
general assessment: generally adequate facilities (2010)
domestic: extensive interisland microwave radio relay links (2010)
international: country code - 1-721; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the Americas-2 submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Central America, parts of South America, the Caribbean, and the U.S.; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Slovakia
general assessment: a modern telecommunications system; near monopoly of fixed-line market; competition in mobile and fixed broadband market; poor mobile virtual network operator (MVNO); regulatory preparing for 5G; broadband growth in recent years; competition among DSL, cable and fibre platforms; wireless broadband options from mobile network operators; FttP growth in cities (2017)
domestic: four companies have a license to operate cellular networks and provide nationwide cellular services (cellular operators); a few other companies provide services but do not have their own networks; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular 131 per 100 teledesity (2017)
international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2017)
Slovenia
general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure; four mobile network operators; regulatory intervention has improved; trials for use of 5G; unbundles fiber infrastructure; FttP to 90% of population by 2020 (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 36 per 100 and mobile-cellular 124 per 100 teledensity (2017)
international: country code - 386 (2016)
Solomon Islands
general assessment: Internet penetration has reached 20%; 3G mobile networks expanding and even 4G LTE services launched in the capital; otherwise 2G and satellite services for communication and Internet access; increase in broadband subscriptions
domestic: fixed-line is 1 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular telephone density is about 72 per 100 persons; domestic cable system to extend to key major islands
international: country code - 677; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); in 2018 the Coral Sea Cable System connects to PNG and Australian landing station
Somalia
general assessment: the public telecom system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging some of the lowest rates on the continent; Al Shabaab Islamic militant group has forced closure of Internet services in some parts of the country; new telecom regulatory sector in place (2017)
domestic: seven networks compete for customers in the mobile sector; some of these mobile-service providers offer fixed-lines and Internet services; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 60 per 100 (2017)
international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; this connection ended the country's expensive satellite-dependent Internet access; contracts signed to build DARE and G2A submarine cable systems; SEACOM cable lands in Somalia (2016)
South Africa
general assessment: the system is the best-developed and most modern in Africa; mobile internet accounts for about 95% of Internet connections; 94% with access to WiMAX/LTE services; 5G trials; LTE-A services launched for commercial use
domestic: fixed-line 7 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 168 telephones per 100 persons; consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; the SAT-3/WASC and SAFE fiber-optic submarine cable systems connect South Africa to Europe and Asia; the EASSy fiber-optic cable system connects with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)
South Sudan
general assessment: one of the least developed telecommunications and Internet systems in the world; domestic mobile providers are waiting for a political settlement and the return of social stability in order to expand their networks; the few carriers in the market have reduced the areas in which they offer service, not expanded them; the government shut down the largest cellphone carrier, Vivacell, in March 2018, stranding 1.4 million customers over a disputed service fee arrangement (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 0 total subscriptions, mobile-cellular 12 per 100 persons
international: country code - 211 (2017)
Spain
general assessment:

well-developed, modern facilities; one of the largest in Europe, average mobile penetration for Europe; effective competition with encouraging regulation; investment in 5G technologies and services; more than 60 percent of households have access to fiber to the home broadband connections

domestic: fixed-line 42 per 100 and mobile-cellular 113 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries
Sri Lanka
general assessment: telephone services have improved significantly and are available in most parts of the country; 4G moving to 5G trials; strong growth anticipated as Sri Lanka is lagging behind other Asian telecoms; increase in mobile broadband penetration   (2018)
domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100 and mobile-cellular 126 per 100; national trunk network consists of digital microwave radio relay and fiber-optic links; fixed wireless local loops have been installed; competition is strong in mobile cellular systems and mobile cellular subscribership is increasing (2018)
international: country code - 94; the SEA-ME-WE-3, SEA-ME-WE-4, SEA-ME-WE-5, FLAG, and the Bay of Bengal Gateway submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2018)
Sudan
general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities; economic climate has not encouraged growth in telecoms, but some investment has been made to build mobile towers and expand LTE services (2017)
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; teledensity fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 77 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat; Govt plans to build fibre network to connect submarine cables via Uganda (2017)
Suriname
general assessment: international facilities are good; state-owned fixed-line and broadband services; competition in the mobile sector; fixed-line effective along the coastline and poor in the interior (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 15 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 134 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network is in place (2017)
international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2017)
Svalbard
general assessment: modern, well-developed (2017)
domestic: the Svalbard Satellite Station - connected to the mainland via the Svalbard Undersea Cable System - is the only Arctic ground station that can see low-altitude, polar-orbiting satellites; it provides ground services to more satellites than any other facility in the world (2017)
international: country code - 47-790; the Svalbard Undersea Cable System is a twin communications cable that connects Svalbard to mainland Norway; the system is the sole telecommunications link to the archipelago (2017)
Sweden
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet, and broadband penetration; best developed LTE infrastructures in the region; first in the world to deliver 5G services (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 28 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100; coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels (2017)
international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2017)
Switzerland
general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure with extensive domestic and international services; one of the highest broadband penetration rates in Europe; although not a member of the EU, Switzerland follows the EU's telecom framework, and regulations; broad DSL infrastructure and cable broadband network with good competition; LTE, DOCSIS3.1 and 5G promotions by the govt
domestic: ranked among leading countries for fixed-line teledensity and infrastructure; fixed-line 45 per 100 and mobile-cellular subscribership 137 per 100 persons; extensive cable and microwave radio relay networks
international: country code - 41; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean)
Syria
general assessment: the armed insurgency that began in 2011 has led to major disruptions to the network and has caused telephone and Internet outages throughout the country; 2018 saw some stabilizing; telecoms have become decentralized with expensive satellite communications in the country; fairly high mobile penetration; potential for growth given that subscription numbers are low (2017)
domestic: the number of fixed-line connections increased markedly prior to the civil war in 2011 and now stands at 15 per 100; mobile-cellular service stands at about 87 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 963; submarine cable connection to Egypt, Lebanon, and Cyprus; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region); coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey; participant in Medarabtel (2016)
Taiwan
general assessment: good telecommunications infrastructure and competitive mobile market; Taiwan has a stable regulatory system and an educated workforce building on availability of fixed and mobile broadband networks; fixed-line will decline in the next 5 years; six mobile network operators; 4G LTE and trial 5G (2017)
domestic:

fixed-line 58 per 100 and mobile-cellular 122 per 100

(2017)
international: country code - 886; roughly 15 submarine fiber cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 (2016)
Tajikistan
general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market; low broadband penetration
domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 111 per 100
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita); established a single gateway for Internet traffic in December 2015, which is expected to limit the connectivity of nonstate-owned telecom, Internet, and mobile companies
Tanzania
general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; 2 fixed-line operators and 8 operational mobile networks; unfortunate high tariffs on telecoms; mobile penetration is 83%; 3G/LTE services (2017)
domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 74 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital (2017)
international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
Thailand
general assessment: high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok; mobile and mobile broadband penetration are on the increase; Fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) has seen strong growth in the major cities; 4G TD-LTE and moving to 5G trials; seven smart cities with the hope of 100 smart cities within its borders in the next two decades; one of the biggest e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia (2017)
domestic: fixed-line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly; fixed-line 4 per 100 and mobile-cellular 178 per 100 (2017)
international: country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2017)
Timor-Leste
general assessment: rudimentary service in urban and some rural areas, which is expanding with the entrance of new competitors; 3G LTE service, with about 97% of population having access, among 3 mobile operators; increase in mobile broadband penetration
domestic: system suffered significant damage during the violence associated with independence; limited fixed-line services; less than 1 per 100 and  mobile-cellular services have been expanding and are now available in urban and most rural areas with teledensity of 120 per 100
international: country code - 670; international service is available; geostationary earth orbit satellite agreement in the works
Togo
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system;
domestic: fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 78 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie; West Africa Cable System (WACS), linking countries along the west coast of Africa with each other and with Portugal and the United Kingdom; GLO-1, linking countries along the west coast of Africa to each other and to Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom
Tokelau
general assessment: modern satellite-based communications system; 4G LTE service
domestic: radiotelephone service between islands; fixed-line less than 1 per 100
international: country code - 690; radiotelephone service to Samoa; government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok); satellite earth stations - 3
Tonga
general assessment: high speed Internet provided by 3 MNOs, which has subsequently allowed for better health care services, faster connections for education and growing e-commerce services; fixed-line tele-density has dropped given mobile subscriptions; mobile technology dominates given the island geography; satellite technology is widespread and is important especially in areas away from the city
domestic: fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 70 telephones per 100; fully automatic switched network
international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); in 2013 undersea fibre-optic cable links Tonga to Fiji and  Sydney (2017)
Trinidad and Tobago
general assessment: excellent international service; good local service; broadband access; expand FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development (2017)
domestic: fixed-line 21 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 167 per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2016)
Tunisia
general assessment: above the African average and continuing to be upgraded; key centers are Sfax, Sousse, Bizerte, and Tunis; telephone network is completely digitized; Internet access available throughout the country; penetration rates and internet services are among the highest in the region; launched Tunisia's first commercial 3G mobile service; in 2016 the regulator accepted 3 MNO (mobile network operator) bids for LTE licenses; government Internet censorship abolished in 2013 (2017)
domestic: in an effort to jumpstart expansion of the fixed-line network, the government awarded a concession to build and operate a VSAT network with international connectivity; rural areas are served by wireless local loops; competition between several mobile-cellular service providers has resulted in lower activation and usage charges and a strong surge in subscribership; fixed-line is 10 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity has reached about 126 telephones per 100 persons (2017)
international: country code - 216; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; coaxial cable and microwave radio relay to Algeria and Libya; participant in Medarabtel; 2 international gateway digital switches (2017)
Turkey
general assessment: comprehensive telecommunications network undergoing rapid modernization and expansion, especially in mobile-cellular services; rise in subscribers and increase in bundled packages; DSL has largest share of fixed broadband technologies, but fibre-optic is growing with significant investment; 4G LTE networks well incorporated in Turkey, 87% coverage of the population; 5G trials
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; fixed-line 14 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is 96 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems
Turkmenistan
general assessment: telecommunications network is gradually improving for the former Soviet republic; state control over most economic activities has not helped growth; mobile market will see slow growth; some rural areas are still without telephones; mobile broadband is in the early stages of development (2018)
domestic: Turkmentelekom, in cooperation with foreign partners, has installed high-speed fiber-optic lines and has upgraded most of the country's telephone exchanges and switching centers with new digital technology; fixed-line 13 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity is about 160 per 100 persons; Russia's Mobile TeleSystems (MTS), the only foreign mobile-cellular service provider in Turkmenistan, suspended operations in September 2017 due to the state-owned telecom company cutting MTS' access to international and long-distance communication services and Internet; Turkmenistan's first telecommunication satellite was launched in 2015 and is expected to greatly improve connectivity in the country (2018)
international: country code - 993; linked by fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and to other countries by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; an exchange in Ashgabat switches international traffic through Turkey via Intelsat; satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 1 Intelsat (2018)
Turks and Caicos Islands
general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing; broadband access; expanded FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development (2017)
domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available; (2017)
international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Tuvalu
general assessment: serves particular needs for internal communications; small global scale of 10,000 people on 9 inhabited islands; mobile subscriber penetration at 40% and broadband at 10% penetration; govt owned and sole provider of telecommunications services; satellite technology; hopeful future 5-year contract to improve high speed Internet for schools, hospitals and banks; 3G not launched yet
domestic: radiotelephone communications between islands; fixed-line 18 per 100 and mobile-cellular 69 per 100
international: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite
Uganda
general assessment: in recent years, telecommunications infrastructure has developed through private partnerships; private companies have laid over 1,800 km of fiber optics in Uganda since 2015; as of 2018, fixed fiber backbone infrastructure is available in over half of Uganda’s districts; mobile phone companies now provide 4G networks across all major cities and national parks, while offering 3G coverage in second-tier cities and most rural areas with road access; between 2016 and 2018, commercial Internet services dropped in price from $300/Mbps to $80/Mbps.
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile- cellular systems  teledensity about 63 per 100 persons
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog and digital links to Kenya and Tanzania
Ukraine
general assessment: Ukraine's telecommunication development plan emphasizes improving domestic trunk lines, international connections, and the mobile-cellular system; Turkey and Russian have made investments to telecom market; competition available between 3 alternative operators; LTE services available; Fttp networks taking over DSL platforms; political tensions have not added to growth and telecom regulators must not count Crimea numbers (Annexed by Russia in 2014); mobile broadband services present a growth opportunity
domestic: the country's former sole telephone provider, Ukrtelekom, was successfully privatized 2011 and independent foreign-invested private companies now provide substantial telecommunications services; fixed-line teledensity is 16 per 100; the mobile-cellular telephone system's expansion has slowed, largely due to saturation of the market that is now 127 mobile phones per 100 persons
international: country code - 380; 2 new domestic trunk lines are a part of the fiber-optic Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) system and 3 Ukrainian links have been installed in the fiber-optic Trans-European Lines (TEL) project that connects 18 countries; additional international service is provided by the Italy-Turkey-Ukraine-Russia (ITUR) fiber-optic submarine cable and by an unknown number of earth stations in the Intelsat, Inmarsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems; new cable to Crimean peninsula is operational
United Arab Emirates
general assessment: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones; key centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubai; 5G technology developing; two operators are competitive, but majority owned by the government; HSPA (high speed packet access) + LTE networks cover most of the population; low cost smart phones readily available; well-established fibre-broadband network provides future growth
domestic: microwave radio relay, fiber-optic and coaxial cable; fixed-line 38 per 100 and mobile-cellular 326 per 100
international: country code - 971; linked to the international submarine cable FLAG (Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe); landing point for both the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian)
United Kingdom
general assessment: technologically advanced domestic and international system; one of the largest markets in Europe for revenue and subscribers; will complete the switch to fibre by 2025; mobile penetration above the EU average; govt funding for trial 5G technologies; Fttp provided to over million customers; super-fast broadband available to about 95% of customers
domestic: equal mix of buried cables, microwave radio relay, and fiber-optic systems; fixed-line 50 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100
international: country code - 44; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and 1 Eutelsat; at least 8 large international switching centers
United States
general assessment: a large, technologically advanced, multipurpose communications system; mobile subscriber penetration rate of about 127%; 5G technologies and commercial services into 2019 and 2020; developing technologies based on 5G for non-commercial customers as well; FttP rather than FttN efforts
domestic: a large system of fiber-optic cable, microwave radio relay, coaxial cable, and domestic satellites carries every form of telephone traffic; a rapidly growing cellular system carries mobile telephone traffic throughout the country; fixed-line 27 per 100 and mobile-cellular 121 per 100
international: country code - 1; multiple ocean cable systems provide international connectivity; satellite earth stations - 61 Intelsat (45 Atlantic Ocean and 16 Pacific Ocean), 5 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 4 Inmarsat (Pacific and Atlantic Ocean regions)
Uruguay
general assessment: fully digitalized; one of the highest broadband penetrations in Latin America; high fixed-line and mobile penetrations as well; FttP coverage by 2022; nationwide 3G coverage
domestic: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; nationwide microwave radio relay network; overall fixed-line 34 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 152 per 100 persons
international: country code - 598; the UNISOR submarine cable system provides direct connectivity to Brazil and Argentina; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Bicentenario 2012 and Tannat 2017 cables helped end-users with internet bandwidth
Uzbekistan
general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas; increased investment in infrastructure and growing subscriber base; fixed-line is underdeveloped due to preeminence of mobile market; growth in broadband penetration in the future; Wi-Fi hotspot in the city of Tashkent in the future
domestic: fixed-line 12 per 100 person and mobile-cellular 82 per 100; the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbek Telecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 2 private and 3 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008
Vanuatu
general assessment: telecom services have progressed significantly in recent years; mobile phones are now the primary means of communication and more than 92% of the population is covered by a mobile network; 2016 saw the launch of LTE services and the introduction of rural satellite broadband services; mobile phone use in some rural areas is constrained by electricity shortages; investment in fixed broadband saw recent growth with fiber-optic cables; mobile broadband infrastructure also expanded with a reduction in prices; general broadband penetration is at 45%
domestic: fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 81 per 100
international: country code - 678; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); 1CN1 submarine cable which resulted in reduction of broadband pricing
Venezuela
general assessment: modern and expanding; by late 2018 teledensity has fallen due to political upheaval in the country with people holding on to mobile service, but cancelling fixed-line telecom services; poor quality of service in many areas of the country due to financial concerns of customers, decrepit sate of fixed-line network and difficulty to pay for equipment from foreign vendors; popularity of social networks has given growth to mobile data traffic; LTE population coverage about 47%
domestic: two domestic satellite systems with three earth stations; recent substantial improvement in telephone service in rural areas; installation of a national inter-urban fiber-optic network capable of digital multimedia services; 3 major providers operate in the mobile market and compete with state-owned company; fixed-line 19 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership about 78 per 100 persons
international: country code - 58; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to Cuba and the Caribbean, Central and South America, and US; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 PanAmSat; participating with Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia in the construction of an international fiber-optic network
Vietnam
general assessment: Vietnam is putting considerable effort into modernization and expansion of its telecommunication system; competition is thriving in the market place; mobile dominates over fixed-line; FttH market growing, as is e-commerce; govt driving force for growth; data sovereignty is a key driver for local centers; 4G licenses awarded to 5 major operators; Ho Chi Minh City to become the first smart city in Vietnam with cloud computing infrastructure, big data, data centers and security-monitoring centers
domestic: all provincial exchanges are digitalized and connected to Hanoi, Da Nang, and Ho Chi Minh City by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay networks; main lines have been increased, and the use of mobile telephones is growing rapidly; fixed-line 5 per 100 and mobile-cellular 125 per 100
international: country code - 84; a landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3, the C2C, and Thailand-Vietnam-Hong Kong submarine cable systems; the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable system, completed in 2009, provided new access links to Asia and the US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region); VNPT cable landing station for the Southeast Asia-Japan Cable 2 (SJC2) in Quy Nhon, cable system connects to 11 landing sites: Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, mainland China, Korea and Japan
Virgin Islands
general assessment: modern system with total digital switching, uses fiber-optic cable and microwave radio relay; good interisland and international connections; broadband access; expansion of FttP (Fiber to the Home) markets; LTE launches; regulatory development
domestic: full range of services available; fixed-line 73 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-340; submarine cable connections to US, the Caribbean, Central and South America; satellite earth stations - NA
Wake Island
general assessment: satellite communications; 2 Defense Switched Network circuits off the Overseas Telephone System (OTS); located in the Hawaii area code - 808
Wallis and Futuna
general assessment: bandwidth is limited and broadband is expensive; mobile subscriber numbers are higher than fixed-line and better suited for islands; good mobile coverage in the capital cities and also reasonable coverage across more remote atolls; new satellite broadband access and speeds
international: country code - 681
West Bank
general assessment: continuing political and economic instability has impeded liberalization of the telecommunications industry
domestic: Israeli company BEZEK and the Palestinian company PALTEL are responsible for fixed-line services; two Palestinian cellular providers, JAWWAL and WATANIYA MOBILE, launched 3G mobile networks in the West Bank in January 2018 after Israel lifted its ban
international: country code - 970; 1 international switch in Ramallah
Western Sahara
general assessment: sparse and limited system
international: country code - 212; tied into Morocco's system by microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) linked to Rabat, Morocco
Yemen
general assessment: due to 75% of population needing humanitarian assistance, and given the civil conflict, telecommunications services are vital but disrupted; mobile towers are often deliberately targeted; maintenance is dangerous to staff; aid organization rely on satellite and radio communications; scarcity of telecommunications equipment in rural areas
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line teledensity remains low by regional standards at 4 per 100 but mobile cellular use expanding at 59 per 100
international: country code - 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Zambia
general assessment:

service is among the best in sub-Saharan Africa; regulatory approach promotes competition and a cohort of private sector service providers offering mobile voice and Internet at some of the lowest prices in the region

domestic: fiber optic connections are available between most larger towns and cities with microwave radio relays serving more rural areas; 3 cellular telephone providers currently in operation plus several data only ISPs; fixed-line infrastructure has degraded significantly and is often being discontinued or replaced with fixed wireless service; Internet service is widely available via mobile or fixed wireless terminals (LTE and 3G), with FTTx in limited urban areas and private Ku or Ka band VSAT terminals in remote locations; fixed-line 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 84 per 100
international: country code - 260; multiple providers operate overland fiber optic routes via Zimbabwe/South Africa, Botswana/Namibia and Tanzania provide access to the major undersea cables
Zimbabwe
general assessment: continued economic instability given fractious elections in 2013 and infrastructure limitations, such as reliable power, hinder progress; competition has driven rapid expansion of telecommunications, particularly cellular voice and mobile broadband, in recent years; 3 mobile network operators continue to invest in m-commerce and m-banking facilities; 3G and VoIP services are widely available with 4G/LTE service being deployed
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, fiber-optic cable, VSAT terminals, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is most readily available in Harare and major towns; two government owned and two private cellular providers; fixed-line 2 per 100 and mobile-cellular 102 per 100
international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 5 international digital gateway exchanges; fiber-optic connections to neighboring states provide access to international networks via undersea cable