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Africa :: Madagascar Print
Page last updated on February 07, 2020
  • Introduction :: Madagascar
  • Background field listing
    Madagascar was one of the last major habitable landmasses on earth settled by humans. While there is some evidence of human presence on the island in the millennia B.C., large-scale settlement began between A.D. 350 and 550 with settlers from present-day Indonesia. The island attracted Arab and Persian traders as early as the 7th century, and migrants from Africa arrived around A.D. 1000. Madagascar was a pirate stronghold during the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and served as a slave trading center into the 19th century. From the 16th to the late 19th century, a native Merina Kingdom dominated much of Madagascar. The island was conquered by the French in 1896 who made it a colony; independence was regained in 1960.

    During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA won a second term in 2006 but, following protests in 2009, handed over power to the military, which then conferred the presidency on the mayor of Antananarivo, Andry RAJOELINA, in what amounted to a coup d'etat. Following a lengthy mediation process led by the Southern African Development Community, Madagascar held UN-supported presidential and parliamentary elections in 2013. Former de facto finance minister Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA won a runoff election in December 2013 and was inaugurated in January 2014. In January 2019, RAJOELINA was declared the winner of a runoff election against RAVALOMANANA; both RATSIRAKA and RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA also ran in the first round of the election, which took place in November 2018.
  • Geography :: Madagascar
  • Location field listing
    Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
    Geographic coordinates field listing
    20 00 S, 47 00 E
    Map references field listing
    Area field listing
    total: 587,041 sq km
    land: 581,540 sq km
    water: 5,501 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Area - comparative field listing
    almost four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries field listing
    0 km
    Coastline field listing
    4,828 km
    Maritime claims field listing
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
    Climate field listing
    tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
    Terrain field listing
    narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
    Elevation field listing
    mean elevation: 615 m
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
    Natural resources field listing
    graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
    Land use field listing
    agricultural land: 71.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 64.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 21.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land field listing
    10,860 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution field listing
    most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline
    Natural hazards field listing

    periodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation

    volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times

    Environment - current issues field listing
    erosion and soil degredation results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; agricultural fires; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; wildlife preservation (endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island)
    Environment - international agreements field listing
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note field listing
    world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel; despite Madagascar’s close proximity to the African continent, ocean currents isolate the island resulting in high rates of endemic plant and animal species; approximately 90% of the flora and fauna on the island are found nowhere else
  • People and Society :: Madagascar
  • Population field listing
    26,955,737 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Nationality field listing
    noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
    adjective: Malagasy
    Ethnic groups field listing
    Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
    Languages field listing
    French (official), Malagasy (official), English
    Religions field listing
    Christian, indigenous, Muslim
    Demographic profile field listing

    Madagascar’s youthful population – just over 60% are under the age of 25 – and high total fertility rate of more than 4 children per women ensures that the Malagasy population will continue its rapid growth trajectory for the foreseeable future. The population is predominantly rural and poor; chronic malnutrition is prevalent, and large families are the norm. Many young Malagasy girls are withdrawn from school, marry early (often pressured to do so by their parents), and soon begin having children. Early childbearing, coupled with Madagascar’s widespread poverty and lack of access to skilled health care providers during delivery, increases the risk of death and serious health problems for young mothers and their babies.

    Child marriage perpetuates gender inequality and is prevalent among the poor, the uneducated, and rural households – as of 2013, of Malagasy women aged 20 to 24, more than 40% were married and more than a third had given birth by the age of 18. Although the legal age for marriage is 18, parental consent is often given for earlier marriages or the law is flouted, especially in rural areas that make up nearly 65% of the country. Forms of arranged marriage whereby young girls are married to older men in exchange for oxen or money are traditional. If a union does not work out, a girl can be placed in another marriage, but the dowry paid to her family diminishes with each unsuccessful marriage.

    Madagascar’s population consists of 18 main ethnic groups, all of whom speak the same Malagasy language. Most Malagasy are multi-ethnic, however, reflecting the island’s diversity of settlers and historical contacts (see Background). Madagascar’s legacy of hierarchical societies practicing domestic slavery (most notably the Merina Kingdom of the 16th to the 19th century) is evident today in persistent class tension, with some ethnic groups maintaining a caste system. Slave descendants are vulnerable to unequal access to education and jobs, despite Madagascar’s constitutional guarantee of free compulsory primary education and its being party to several international conventions on human rights. Historical distinctions also remain between central highlanders and coastal people.

    Age structure field listing
    0-14 years: 38.86% (male 5,278,838/female 5,196,036)
    15-24 years: 20.06% (male 2,717,399/female 2,689,874)
    25-54 years: 33.02% (male 4,443,147/female 4,456,691)
    55-64 years: 4.6% (male 611,364/female 627,315)
    65 years and over: 3.47% (male 425,122/female 509,951) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios field listing
    total dependency ratio: 75.9
    youth dependency ratio: 70.5
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.5
    potential support ratio: 18.3 (2020 est.)
    Median age field listing
    total: 20.3 years
    male: 20.1 years
    female: 20.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Population growth rate field listing
    2.39% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Birth rate field listing
    29.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Death rate field listing
    6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Net migration rate field listing
    0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Population distribution field listing
    most of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline
    Urbanization field listing
    urban population: 38.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 4.48% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population field listing
    3.369 million ANTANANARIVO (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio field listing
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
    total population: 100 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth field listing
    19.5 years (2008/09 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate field listing
    335 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Infant mortality rate field listing
    total: 37.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 41.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 34.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Life expectancy at birth field listing
    total population: 67.3 years
    male: 65.7 years
    female: 68.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Total fertility rate field listing
    3.78 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Contraceptive prevalence rate field listing
    47.9% (2017)
    Drinking water source field listing
    improved: urban: 81.6% of population
    rural: 35.3% of population
    total: 51.5% of population
    unimproved: urban: 18.4% of population
    rural: 64.7% of population
    total: 48.5% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure field listing
    6% (2016)
    Physicians density field listing
    0.18 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density field listing
    0.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Sanitation facility access field listing
    improved: urban: 18% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 8.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 12% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 82% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 91.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 88% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate field listing
    0.3% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS field listing
    39,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    HIV/AIDS - deaths field listing
    1,700 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Major infectious diseases field listing
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate field listing
    5.3% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight field listing
    32.9% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Education expenditures field listing
    2.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Literacy field listing
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 74.8%
    male: 77.3%
    female: 72.4% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) field listing
    total: 10 years
    male: 10 years
    female: 10 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 field listing
    total: 1%
    male: 1%
    female: 1% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
  • Government :: Madagascar
  • Country name field listing
    conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
    conventional short form: Madagascar
    local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
    local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
    former: Malagasy Republic
    etymology: the name "Madageiscar" was first used by the 13th-century Venetian explorer Marco POLO, as a corrupted transliteration of Mogadishu, the Somali port with which POLO confused the island
    Government type field listing
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital field listing
    name: Antananarivo
    geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the name, which means "City of the Thousand," was bestowed by 17th century King Adrianjakaking to honor the soldiers assigned to guard the city
    Administrative divisions field listing
    6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
    Independence field listing
    26 June 1960 (from France)
    National holiday field listing
    Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
    Constitution field listing
    history: previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic in consultation with the cabinet or supported by a least two thirds of both the Senate and National Assembly membership; passage requires at least three-fourths approval of both the Senate and National Assembly and approval in a referendum; constitutional articles, including the form and powers of government, the sovereignty of the state, and the autonomy of Madagascar’s collectivities, cannot be amended (2017)
    International law organization participation field listing
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship field listing
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Madagascar; in the case of a child born out of wedlock, the mother must be a citizen
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    Suffrage field listing
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch field listing
    chief of state: President Andry RAJOELINA (since 21 January 2019) (2019)
    head of government: Prime Minister Christian NTSAY (since 6 June 2018 and re-appointed 19 July 2019)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 November and 19 December 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly, appointed by the president
    election results: Andry RAJOELINA elected President in second round; percent of vote - Andry RAJOELINA (TGV) 55.7%, Marc RAVALOMANANA 44.3% (TIM)
    Legislative branch field listing
    description: bicameral Parliament consists of:
    Senate or Antenimieran-Doholona (reestablished on 22 January 2016, following the December 2015 senatorial election) (63 seats; 42 members indirectly elected by an electoral college of municipal, communal, regional, and provincial leaders and 21 appointed by the president of the republic; members serve 5-year terms)
    National Assembly or Antenimierampirenena (151 seats; 87 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 64 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: Senate - last held 29 December 2015 (next to be held in 2021)
    National Assembly - last held on 27 May 2019
    election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - HVM 34, TIM 3, MAPAR 2, LEADER-Fanilo 1, independent 2, appointed by the president 21; composition - men 51, women 12, percent of women 19%
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party -Independent Pro-HVM 18%, MAPAR 17%, MAPAR pro-HVM 16%, VPM-MMM 10%, VERTS 3%, LEADER FANILO 3%, HIARAKA ISIKA 3%, GPS/ARD 7%,  INDEPENDENT 9%, TAMBATRA 1%, TIM 13%;  composition - men 120, women 31, percent of women 20.5%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 20.1%
    Judicial branch field listing
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 11 members; addresses judicial administration issues only); High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle (consists of 9 members); note - the judiciary includes a High Court of Justice responsible for adjudicating crimes and misdemeanors by government officials, including the president
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court heads elected by the president and judiciary officials to serve 3-year, single renewable terms; High Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 each by the president, by both legislative bodies, and by the Council of Magistrates; members serve single, 7-year terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance
    Political parties and leaders field listing

    Economic liberalism and democratic action for national recovery or LEADER FANILO [Jean Max RAKOTOMAMONJY]
    Gideons fighting against poverty in Madagascar (Gedeona Miady amin'ny Fahantrana eto Madagascar) or GFFM [Andre Christian Dieu Donne MAILHOL]
    Green party or VERTS (Antoko Maintso) [Alexandre GEORGET]
    I Love Madagascar (Tiako I Madagasikara) or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]
    Malagasy aware (Malagasy Tonga Saina) or MTS [Roland RATSIRAKA]
    Malagasy raising together (Malagasy Miara-Miainga) or MMM [Hajo ANDRIANAINARIVELO]
    New Force for Madagascar (Hery Vaovao ho an'ny Madagasikara) or HVM [Hery Martial RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA Rakotoarimanana]
    Total Refoundation of Madagascar (Refondation Totale de Madagascar) or RTM [Joseph Martin RANDRIAMAMPIONONA]
    Vanguard for the renovation of Madagascar (Avant-Garde pour la renovation de Madagascar) or AREMA [Didier RATSIRAKA]
    Young Malagasies Determined (Malagasy: Tanora malaGasy Vonona) or TGV [Andry RAJOELINA]and MAPAR [Andry RAJOELINA], and IRD (We are all with Andy Rajoelina) [Andry RAJOELINA]

    International organization participation field listing
    Diplomatic representation in the US field listing
    chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US field listing
    chief of mission: Ambassador Michael PELLETIER (since 14 February 2019)
    telephone: [261] 20 23 480 00
    embassy: Lot 207A, Point Liberty, Andranoro, Antehiroka, 105 Antananarivo
    mailing address: B.P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
    FAX: [261] 20 23 480 35 or [261] 33 44 328 17
    Flag description field listing
    two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side; by tradition, red stands for sovereignty, green for hope, white for purity
    National symbol(s) field listing
    traveller's palm, zebu; national colors: red, green, white
    National anthem field listing
    name: "Ry Tanindraza nay malala o" (Oh, Our Beloved Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Pasteur RAHAJASON/Norbert RAHARISOA

    note: adopted 1959

  • Economy :: Madagascar
  • Economy - overview field listing

    Madagascar is a mostly unregulated economy with many untapped natural resources, but no capital markets, a weak judicial system, poorly enforced contracts, and rampant government corruption. The country faces challenges to improve education, healthcare, and the environment to boost long-term economic growth. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing roughly 80% of the population. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by bushfires, slash-and-burn clearing techniques, and the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns to the agriculture dependent economy.

    After discarding socialist economic policies in the mid-1990s, Madagascar followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization until a 2009 coup d’état led many nations, including the United States, to suspend non-humanitarian aid until a democratically-elected president was inaugurated in 2014. The pre-coup strategy had placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low starting point. Exports of apparel boomed after gaining duty-free access to the US market in 2000 under the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA); however, Madagascar's failure to comply with the requirements of the AGOA led to the termination of the country's duty-free access in January 2010, a sharp fall in textile production, a loss of more than 100,000 jobs, and a GDP drop of nearly 11%.

    Madagascar regained AGOA access in January 2015 and ensuing growth has been slow and fragile. Madagascar produces around 80% of the world’s vanilla and its reliance on this commodity for most of its foreign exchange is a significant source of vulnerability. Economic reforms have been modest and the country’s financial sector remains weak, limiting the use of monetary policy to control inflation. An ongoing IMF program aims to strengthen financial and investment management capacity.

    GDP (purchasing power parity) field listing
    $39.85 billion (2017 est.)
    $38.25 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.72 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 120
    GDP (official exchange rate) field listing
    $11.5 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate field listing
    4.2% (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2016 est.)
    3.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    GDP - per capita (PPP) field listing
    $1,600 (2017 est.)
    $1,500 (2016 est.)
    $1,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 218
    Gross national saving field listing
    14.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    11.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    GDP - composition, by end use field listing
    household consumption: 67.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 15.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 8.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 31.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -33.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin field listing
    agriculture: 24% (2017 est.)
    industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products field listing
    coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
    Industries field listing
    meat processing, seafood, soap, beer, leather, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism, mining
    Industrial production growth rate field listing
    5.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Labor force field listing
    13.4 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Unemployment rate field listing
    1.8% (2017 est.)
    1.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Population below poverty line field listing
    70.7% (2012 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share field listing
    lowest 10%: 2.2%
    highest 10%: 34.7% (2010 est.)
    Budget field listing
    revenues: 1.828 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.136 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues field listing
    15.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) field listing
    -2.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Public debt field listing
    36% of GDP (2017 est.)
    38.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Fiscal year field listing
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices) field listing
    8.3% (2017 est.)
    6.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Current account balance field listing
    -$35 million (2017 est.)
    $57 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Exports field listing
    $2.29 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.26 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Exports - partners field listing
    France 24.8%, US 16.5%, China 6.7%, Germany 6.5%, Japan 6%, Netherlands 4.7% (2017)
    Exports - commodities field listing
    coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, clothing, chromite, petroleum products, gems, ilmenite, cobalt, nickel
    Imports field listing
    $2.738 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.427 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Imports - commodities field listing
    capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
    Imports - partners field listing
    China 18.7%, India 9.3%, France 6.4%, South Africa 5.6%, UAE 5.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold field listing
    $1.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.076 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Debt - external field listing
    $4.089 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.425 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Exchange rates field listing
    Malagasy ariary (MGA) per US dollar -
    3,116.1 (2017 est.)
    3,176.5 (2016 est.)
    3,176.5 (2015 est.)
    2,933.5 (2014 est.)
    2,414.8 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Madagascar
  • Electricity access field listing
    population without electricity: 20 million (2017)
    electrification - total population: 22.9% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 67.3% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 17.3% (2016)
    Electricity - production field listing
    1.706 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Electricity - consumption field listing
    1.587 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Electricity - exports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Electricity - imports field listing
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Electricity - installed generating capacity field listing
    675,400 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Electricity - from fossil fuels field listing
    74% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels field listing
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants field listing
    24% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Electricity - from other renewable sources field listing
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Crude oil - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Crude oil - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Crude oil - imports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Crude oil - proved reserves field listing
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Refined petroleum products - production field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Refined petroleum products - consumption field listing
    18,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Refined petroleum products - exports field listing
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Refined petroleum products - imports field listing
    18,880 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Natural gas - production field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Natural gas - consumption field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Natural gas - exports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Natural gas - imports field listing
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Natural gas - proved reserves field listing
    0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy field listing
    4.021 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
  • Communications :: Madagascar
  • Telephones - fixed lines field listing
    total subscriptions: 69,046
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 150
    Telephones - mobile cellular field listing
    total subscriptions: 10,654,710
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 41 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Telephone system field listing
    general assessment: system is above average for the region; competition among the four mobile service providers has spurred recent growth in the mobile market and helped the service to be less expensive for the consumer; LTE services available (2018)
    domestic: less than 1 per 100 for fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 41 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 261; landing points for the EASSy, METISS, and LION fiber-optic submarine cable systems connecting to numerous Indian Ocean Islands, South Africa, and Eastern African countries; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean, 1 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2019)
    Broadcast media field listing
    state-owned Radio Nationale Malagasy (RNM) and Television Malagasy (TVM) have an extensive national network reach; privately owned radio and TV broadcasters in cities and major towns; state-run radio dominates in rural areas; relays of 2 international broadcasters are available in Antananarivo (2019)
    Internet country code field listing
    Internet users field listing
    total: 1,151,563
    percent of population: 4.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions field listing
    total: 27,211
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
  • Military and Security :: Madagascar
  • Military expenditures field listing
    0.6% of GDP (2018)
    0.58% of GDP (2017)
    0.59% of GDP (2016)
    0.6% of GDP (2015)
    0.65% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Military and security forces field listing
    People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, Navy, Air Force; National Gendarmerie (operates under the Ministry of Defense) (2019)
    Military service age and obligation field listing
    Madagascar has an all-volunteer military; 18-25 years of age for males; service obligation 18 months; women are permitted to serve in all branches (2018)
  • Transportation :: Madagascar
  • National air transport system field listing
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 546,946 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 30,512,607 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix field listing
    5R (2016)
    Airports field listing
    83 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Airports - with paved runways field listing
    total: 26 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 16 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways field listing
    total: 57 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 38 (2013)
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    Railways field listing
    total: 836 km (2018)
    narrow gauge: 836 km 1.000-m gauge (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Roadways field listing
    total: 31,640 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Waterways field listing
    600 km (432 km navigable) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Merchant marine field listing
    total: 28
    by type: general cargo 15, oil tanker 2, other 11 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Ports and terminals field listing
    major seaport(s): Antsiranana (Diego Suarez), Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara (Tulear)
  • Transnational Issues :: Madagascar
  • Disputes - international field listing

    claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France); the vegetated drying cays of Banc du Geyser, which were claimed by Madagascar in 1976, also fall within the EEZ claims of the Comoros and France (Glorioso Islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands)

    Illicit drugs field listing
    illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin