Central Asia :: Tajikistan
  • Introduction :: Tajikistan
  • Background:

    The Tajik people came under Russian imperial rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. At that time, bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but in 1929 the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between political, regional, and religious factions from 1992 to 1997.

    Though the country holds general elections for both the presidency (once every seven years) and parliament (once every five years), observers note an electoral system rife with irregularities and abuse, with results that are neither free nor fair. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power in 1994 during the civil war, used an attack planned by a disaffected deputy defense minister in 2015 to ban the last major opposition political party in Tajikistan. In December 2015, RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself declared "Founder of Peace and National Unity, Leader of the Nation," with limitless terms and lifelong immunity through constitutional amendments ratified in a referendum. The referendum also lowered the minimum age required to run for president from 35 to 30, which would make RAHMON's son Rustam EMOMALI, the current mayor of the capital city of Dushanbe, eligible to run for president in 2020.

    The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the WTO in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistani migrant laborers working in Russia and Kazakhstan, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade and other destabilizing violence emanating from neighboring Afghanistan. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. Tajikistan suffered its first ISIS-claimed attack in 2018, when assailants attacked a group of Western bicyclists with vehicles and knives, killing four.

  • Geography :: Tajikistan
  • Location:
    Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
    Geographic coordinates:
    39 00 N, 71 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 144,100 sq km
    land: 141,510 sq km
    water: 2,590 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Wisconsin
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,130 km
    border countries (4): Afghanistan 1357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1312 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
    mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
    mean elevation: 3,186 m
    lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
    highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
    Natural resources:
    hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 34.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 27.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 2.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    7,420 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
    Natural hazards:
    earthquakes; floods
    Environment - current issues:
    areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of untreated industrial waste and sewage; poor management of water resources; soil erosion; increasing levels of soil salinity
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
  • People and Society :: Tajikistan
  • Population:
    8,873,669 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    noun: Tajikistani(s)
    adjective: Tajikistani
    Ethnic groups:
    Tajik 84.3% (includes Pamiri and Yagnobi), Uzbek 13.8%, other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2014 est.)
    Tajik (official) 84.4%, Uzbek 11.9%, Kyrgyz .8%, Russian .5%, other 2.4% (2010 est.)

    note: Russian widely used in government and business

    Muslim 98% (Sunni 95%, Shia 3%) other 2% (2014 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 31.43% (male 1,420,271/female 1,368,445)
    15-24 years: 18.13% (male 816,658/female 792,231)
    25-54 years: 40.58% (male 1,789,271/female 1,811,566)
    55-64 years: 6.23% (male 253,862/female 299,378)
    65 years and over: 3.63% (male 132,831/female 189,156) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 67.9
    youth dependency ratio: 62.6
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.3
    potential support ratio: 18.7 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 25.3 years
    male: 24.6 years
    female: 26 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Population growth rate:
    1.52% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Birth rate:
    21.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Death rate:
    5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Net migration rate:
    -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Population distribution:
    the country's population is concentrated at lower elevations, with perhaps as much as 90% of the people living in valleys; overall density increases from east to west
    urban population: 27.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    916,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
    total population: 98.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    22 years (2017 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    17 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 28.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 32.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 24.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 69 years
    male: 65.9 years
    female: 72.3 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Total fertility rate:
    2.51 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    29.3% (2017)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 93.1% of population
    rural: 66.7% of population
    total: 73.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 6.9% of population
    rural: 33.3% of population
    total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    7% (2016)
    Physicians density:
    1.7 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    4.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 93.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 95.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 95% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 6.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    13,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2018 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    14.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    7.6% (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Education expenditures:
    5.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 99.8%
    male: 99.8%
    female: 99.7% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years
    male: 12 years
    female: 11 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 16.7%
    male: 19.2%
    female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
  • Government :: Tajikistan
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
    conventional short form: Tajikistan
    local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
    local short form: Tojikiston
    former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    name: Dushanbe
    geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: today's city was originally at the crossroads where a large bazaar occurred on Mondays, hence the name Dushanbe, which in Persian means Monday, i.e., the second day (du) after Saturday (shambe)
    Administrative divisions:
    2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

    note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses

    9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
    history: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by at least one third of the total membership of both houses of the Supreme Assembly; adoption of any amendment requires a referendum, which includes approval of the president or approval by at least two-thirds majority of the Assembly of Representatives; passage in a referendum requires participation of an absolute majority of eligible voters and an absolute majority of votes; constitutional articles, including Tajikistan’s form of government, its territory, and its democratic nature, cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2016 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Tajikistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years or 3 years of continuous residence prior to application
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
    head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term for a maximum of two terms; however, as the "Leader of the Nation" President RAHMON can run an unlimited number of times; election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of:
    National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for each living former president; members serve 5-year terms)
    Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by 2-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results:
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 28, women 6, percent of women 17.6%
    Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, CPT 2, SPT 1, DPT 1; composition - men 50, women 13, percent of women 20.6%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 19.6%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, family, criminal, administrative offense, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, deputy chairman, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists of 16 judicial positions)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no term limits, but the last appointment must occur before the age of 65
    subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
    Political parties and leaders:
    Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA]
    Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Miroj ABDULLOEV]
    Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar USMONZODA]
    Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Rustam OUDRATOV]
    People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON]
    Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV]
    Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV]
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
    chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
    telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
    FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador John Mark POMMERSHEIM (since 15 March 2019)
    telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
    embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
    mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
    FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
    Flag description:
    three horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe; red represents the sun, victory, and the unity of the nation, white stands for purity, cotton, and mountain snows, while green is the color of Islam and the bounty of nature; the crown symbolizes the Tajik people; the seven stars signify the Tajik magic number "seven" - a symbol of perfection and the embodiment of happiness
    National symbol(s):
    crown surmounted by an arc of seven, five-pointed stars; snow leopard; national colors: red, white, green
    National anthem:
    name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

    note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics

  • Economy :: Tajikistan
  • Economy - overview:

    Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, tungsten, and coal. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan is the poorest among the former Soviet republics. Because less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the predominant crop, Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food.

    Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but its poor business climate remains a hindrance to attracting foreign investment. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

    Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2017 were equivalent to nearly 35% of GDP. Tajikistan’s large remittances from migrant workers in Russia exposes it to monetary shocks. Tajikistan often delays devaluation of its currency for fear of inflationary pressures on food and other consumables. Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations have hampered economic growth. The dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by almost 65% in 2015, and the government spent almost $500 million in 2016 to bail out the country’s still troubled banking sector.

    Tajikistan’s growing public debt – currently about 50% of GDP – could result in financial difficulties. Remittances from Russia increased in 2017, however, bolstering the economy somewhat. China owns about 50% of Tajikistan’s outstanding debt. Tajikistan has borrowed heavily to finance investment in the country’s vast hydropower potential. In 2016, Tajikistan contracted with the Italian firm Salini Impregilo to build the Roghun dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion. A 2017 Eurobond has largely funded Roghun’s first phase, after which sales from Roghun’s output are expected to fund the rest of its construction. The government has not ruled out issuing another Eurobond to generate auxiliary funding for its second phase.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $28.43 billion (2017 est.)
    $26.55 billion (2016 est.)
    $24.83 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 135
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $7.144 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    6.9% (2016 est.)
    6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $3,200 (2017 est.)
    $3,000 (2016 est.)
    $2,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 192
    Gross national saving:
    24.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    11.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 98.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 13.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 11.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 2.5% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 10.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -36.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 28.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 25.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
    aluminum, cement, coal, gold, silver, antimony, textile, vegetable oil
    Industrial production growth rate:
    1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Labor force:
    2.295 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 43%
    industry: 10.6%
    services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    2.4% (2016 est.)
    2.5% (2015 est.)

    note: official rate; actual unemployment is much higher

    country comparison to the world: 25
    Population below poverty line:
    31.5% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA (2009 est.)
    highest 10%: NA (2009 est.)
    revenues: 2.269 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.374 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    31.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Public debt:
    50.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    42% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    7.3% (2017 est.)
    5.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Current account balance:
    -$35 million (2017 est.)
    -$362 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    $873.1 million (2017 est.)
    $691.1 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Exports - partners:
    Turkey 27.5%, China 17.7%, Russia 13.4%, Switzerland 12.5%, Algeria 8.2%, Iran 7.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
    $2.39 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.554 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    Russia 38%, Kazakhstan 19%, China 8.7%, Iran 4.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $1.292 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Debt - external:
    $5.75 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Exchange rates:
    Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
    8.764 (2017 est.)
    7.8358 (2016 est.)
    7.8358 (2015 est.)
    6.1631 (2014 est.)
    4.9348 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Tajikistan
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    17.03 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Electricity - consumption:
    12.96 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Electricity - exports:
    1.4 billion kWh NA (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - imports:
    103 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    5.508 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    6% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    94% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 208
    Crude oil - production:
    180 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    12 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    172 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    24,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    22,460 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Natural gas - production:
    19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Natural gas - consumption:
    19.82 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    6.329 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Communications :: Tajikistan
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 468,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 9.4 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012; the country has endeavored to launch 4G/LTE services with mixed results; 7 major cities have 4G coverage; 5 major operators in the market; low broadband penetration (2018)
    domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns; fixed-line 6 per 100 and mobile-cellular 111 per 100 (2018)
    international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita
    Broadcast media:
    state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite (2016)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 1,705,345
    percent of population: 20.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 6,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
  • Military and Security :: Tajikistan
  • Military expenditures:
    1.22% of GDP (2015)
    1.13% of GDP (2014)
    1% of GDP (2012)
    1.09% of GDP (2011)
    note: no public data available for 2013, 2016-2018
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Military and security forces:
    Armed Forces of the Republic of Tajikistan: Land Forces, Mobile Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces; National Guard; Ministry of Internal Affairs: Internal Troops (reserves for Armed Forces in wartime); State Committee on National Security: Border Guard Forces (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 12-18 month conscript service obligation (2019)
  • Transportation :: Tajikistan
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 802,470 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 105,376 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    EY (2016)
    24 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 17 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 3 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 7 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 5 (2013)
    549 km gas, 38 km oil (2013)
    total: 680 km (2014)
    broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    total: 30,000 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 98
  • Transnational Issues :: Tajikistan
  • Disputes - international:

    in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 4,616 (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    Tajikistan sits on one of the world's highest volume illicit drug trafficking routes, between Afghan opiate production to the south and the illicit drug markets of Russia and Eastern Europe to the north; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; significant consumer of opiates