There are literally slightly more than 1,000 people to thank for their help in developing this work. Most of them I cannot name, for one reason or another, but my thanks go out to all of those who took the time to participate in this research project. Thank you for your trust. Particular thanks are due the other researchers who coauthored chapters: Judith Meister Johnston, J. Dexter Fletcher, and Stephen Konya.
There is a long list of individuals and institutions deserving of my gratitude, but, at the outset, for making this study possible, I would like to express my appreciation to Paul Johnson and Woody Kuhns, the chief and deputy chief of the Central Intelligence Agency’s Center for the Study of Intelligence, and their staff for their support and to John Phillips and Tom Kennedy of the Intelligence Technology Innovation Center who, along with their staff, administer the Director of Central Intelligence Postdoctoral Fellowship Program.
I would like to thank Greg Treverton and Joe Hayes for their help throughout this project and for their willingness to give of their time. Dr. Forrest Frank, Charles Perrow, and Matthew Johnson deserve recognition for the material they contributed. Although it was not possible to cite them as references for those contributions, these are indicated in the footnotes, and I give them full credit for their work and efforts.
I would also like to thank Bruce Berkowitz, Mike Warner, Fritz Ermarth, Gordon Oehler, Jeffrey Cooper, Dave Kaplan, John Morrison, James Wirtz, Robyn Dawes, Chris Johnson, Marilyn Peterson, Drew Cukor, Dennis McBride, Paul Chatelier, Stephen Marrin, Randy Good, Brian Hearing, Phil Williams, Jonathan Clemente, Jim Wilson, Dennis, Kowal, Randy Murch, Gordie Boezer, Steve Holder, Joel Resnick, Mark Stout, Mike Vlahos, Mike Rigdon, Jim Silk, Karl Lowe, Kevin O’Connell, Dennis Gormley, Randy Pherson, Chris Andrew, Daniel Serfaty, Tom Armour, Gary Klein, Brian Moon, Richard Hackman, Charlie Kisner, Matt McKnight, Joe Rosen, Mike Yared, Jen Lucas, Dick Heuer, Robert Jervis, Pam Harbourne, Katie Dorr, Dori Akerman, and, most particularly, my editors: Mike Schneider, Andy Vaart, and Barbara Pace. Special thanks are also due Adm. Dennis Blair, USN (Ret.), and Gen. Larry Welch, USAF (Ret.), and their staff.
There were 50 peer reviewers who made sure I did not go too far afield in my research and analysis. Again, there are mitigating reasons why I cannot thank them by name. Suffice it to say, their work and their time were invaluable, and I appreciate their efforts.
Because I cannot name specific individuals, I would like to thank the organizations of the Intelligence Community that gave me access to perform this research and made available research participants: Air Force Intelligence; Army Intelligence; Central Intelligence Agency; Defense Intelligence Agency; Department of Energy; Department of Homeland Security; Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Department of State; Department of the Treasury; Federal Bureau of Investigation; Marine Corps Intelligence; National Geospatial Intelligence Agency; National Reconnaissance Office; National Security Agency; Navy Intelligence.
Thanks are also due the following: Institute for Defense Analyses; the Sherman Kent Center and the Global Futures Partnership at the CIA University; the CIA’s Publications Review Board; Office of Public Affairs, National Archives; Joint Military Intelligence College; Advanced Research and Development Activity, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA); International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts; Drug Enforcement Administration and the DEA Academy; FBI Academy; National Military Intelligence Association; Association of Former Intelligence Officers; MITRE; RAND; Analytic Services, Inc. (ANSER); Potomac Institute; Center for Strategic and International Studies; Woodrow Wilson International Center; Booz Allen Hamilton; Naval Postgraduate School; Columbia University; Dartmouth College; University of Pittsburgh; Georgetown University; Carnegie Mellon University; Cambridge University; Johns Hopkins University and the Advanced Physics Laboratory; George Mason University; Harvard University; Yale University; American Anthropological Association; Society for the Anthropology of Work; Society for Applied Anthropology; National Association for the Practice of Anthropology; Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society; Royal Anthropological Institute, and the national laboratories.
I express my sincere apologies if I have failed to include any individuals or organizations to which thanks are due. Moreover, any errors of commission or omission are my own. God knows, with this much help, there is no one to blame but myself. Mostly, though, I would like to thank my long-suffering wife, to whom this book is dedicated. Thanks, Jude.