The author owes debts of gratitude for help and support to a number of individuals. During the study’s initial phase, Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management Joan Dempsey and Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration James Simon encouraged the effort and provided funding for research that made the inquiry possible. Two directors of CIA’s Center for the Study of Intelligence, Mr. Lloyd Salvetti and Mr. Paul Johnson, steadfastly provided essential support and sponsorship to the study.
Dr. Gerald Haines, CIA’s chief historian during the initial years of this project, recognized that the subject could lead to new perspectives as well as unearth long-forgotten stories, and his constant advice and support were vital to the study’s initiation and progress. His successor, Dr. Scott Koch, continued unbroken and enthusiastic backing and counsel to the author throughout the remainder of the study. Dr. Michael Warner, deputy chief historian at CIA during most of the project, contributed innumerable suggestions that kept the author searching deeper and further for information and, more importantly, continually revising his reasoning and conclusions. Other members of CIA’s History Staff also contributed in many ways. Dr. David Robarge’s thorough, classified biography of John McCone as DCI served as both a source and a model, and staff assistant Mark Ellcessor worked tirelessly to find relevant archival materials and graphics. Thanks also go to Dr. Woodrow Kuhns, deputy director of the Center for the Study of Intelligence, for his painstaking review of the entire study and to Mary McElroy, Andres Vaart, and CIA’s publications specialists, whose editing and publishing expertise greatly helped its final presentation.
Outside CIA, there were many former officials of the intelligence business who were willing to contribute their time, memories, and thoughts in interviews. A list of those whom the author interviewed is appended. The author wishes to thank Mr. Charles Briggs and Mr. James Hanrahan, two retired veterans whose association with CIA included virtually the entire period covered by this project, for reading much of the study in draft and offering insightful recollections and constructive observations. Particular appreciation is due to the former DCIs who recounted personal experiences that enlivened and enriched the study. Thanks also go to archivist John D. Wilson of the LBJ Library and Museum for providing a declassified presidential memorandum and to Bruce Lowe for providing the photograph of the United States Intelligence Board that appears in chapter four.
The views expressed in the study are the author’s, not those of the US Government or of CIA, whose publications review board ensured that it contains no classified information. The study benefited greatly from the help of many. The author alone accepts responsibility for any errors of fact or judgment that may have survived the study’s review and publication processes.