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Soviet radars, precision measurement program for (1960s),
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antenna is making 360-degree scan rotations the radial flight will yield continuous measurements around it at increasing angles of elevation. This provides data from which the complete three-dimensional radiation pattern can be described. Such flight paths, of course, are not often possible; sometimes the data are limited to elevations of 15 degrees or less. Fortunately, the lower angles of a radar pattern are of greatest importance for intelligence; that is where target detection and tracking begin.
Each of the deployments shown in the Table was the result of months of preparation, which included calibration and installation of the equipment, detailed planning of the mission, operator training, and the coordination of a multitude of technical and operational matters. The radar types were selected on the basis of intelligence priority and the particular target sites on the basis of air access, with preference to isolated areas where other radars would not offer interference. The location of the site was known beforehand; the target signals were identified by direction-finding equipment which was part of the airborne system. During collection runs the aircraft's position and attitude were recorded by special navigational instruments so that the exact geometric relationships between the radar and the measurement system would be known. Several of the projects were completed in fewer than six missions; others required more than 40 to get the desired results.
The power-pattern measurement program has been carried out with the full cooperation of U.S. Air Force organizations, which have furnished the aircraft and crews and have also given the extensive support required for airborne reconnaissance operations. The flight missions have been conducted for the most part within the framework of world-wide peripheral reconnaissance programs carried out by the Strategic Air Command and other USAF elements. Exceptions to established flight restrictions and security rules have been necessary on only a few occasions.
As of this writing the most recent deployment was that listed as Project See Top, in which a C-97 aircraft flew over the Gulf of Tonkin to make measurements of the SA-2 Fan Song radar during U.S. air strikes irA the Haiphong-Hanoi area. The antenna patterns recorded were used in the development of guidance systems for new anti-radiation missiles designed to home on and destroy target radars.
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Posted: May 08, 2007 08:16 AM
Last Updated: Aug 05, 2011 01:09 PM