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Agency PageDeclassification in an Open Society
Declassification in an Open Society, Gail F. Donnalley. People are creatures of habit and have an innate resistance to change. The dilemma created for 'intelligence agencies in June 1972 by the implementation of Executive Order 11652 — the Executive Order dealing with classification and declassification of national security information — bears out this theory. The concept that "the interests of the United States and its citizens are best served by making information regarding the affairs of Government readily available to the public," is reflected in that Executive Order and in the Freedom of Information Act. The Order acknowledges that information bearing directly on the effectiveness of our national defense and the conduct of our foreign relations "must be subject to some constraints for the security of our nation and the safety of our people and our allies." It identifies the information to be protected, prescribes classification, downgrading, declassification and safeguarding procedures to be followed, and establishes a monitoring system to ensure its effectiveness...
Agency PagePreface to a Theory of Intelligence
Preface to a Theory of Intelligence, Lawrence T. Mitelman. It is an obvious but essential point that the question of why we collect and produce intelligence precedes the question of how. In a world of increasingly constrained resources, the clear answer to the question of why must be that the intelligence is in the most serious national interests. Those interests, as defined and made explicit by the political leadership of this country, are the only justification for the collection and further processing of information. We no longer live in an age tolerant of the "nice-to-know"—need-to-know has assumed an additional meaning for us. But the effort to develop standards to guide intelligence with reference to both the why and how is conceptual as well as practical. Theory, however assimilated and unexamined its assumptions may be, precedes practice. A theory, as I shall use the term rather broadly, is a well-coordinated conceptual system which requires a rigorous statement of premises, assumptions, and relationships to give order to a body of observed data or empirical situations. Clearly a theory has other characteristics as well, but at this early stage I would much prefer to emphasize the process, not the product; to stress the effort to make general statements about relations rather than the statements themselves...
Agency PageThe Arab Mind by Raphael Patai. Book review by Lloyd F. Jordan
The Arab Mind by Raphael Patai. Book review by Lloyd F. Jordan. The major objectives of social science research involving the topics of "national character" or "personality and culture" are: (1) the prediction of the type of character that a given society is likely to produce, based upon the sum total of its culture and social structure and (2) the demonstration of how character or personality, in turn, impacts upon the very culture and social structure which has shaped it...
Agency PageBook review of Fran Borjan Tel Slutet: En Spions Memoarer by Stig Wennerstrom
Book review of Fran Borjan Tel Slutet: En Spions Memoarer by Stig Wennerstrom. Stig Wennerström notes in his memoirs (From Beginning to End) that as a boy he aspired to be a dentist. However, he relates, his fingers were too short and his hands too clumsy; family tradition prevailed and like his father, an uncle, and a grandfather, he became a military officer. In mid-career his fingers became among the stickiest in the annals of espionage; his hands smoothly passed many a roll of film in supposedly innocuous handshakes...