from policy was greater than that of being too close. But he could not leave matters there, warning instead that "the absorption of intelligence producers by intelligence consumers may prove too heroic a cure for both disease and patient." Thus, Kent recommended what he called the customary compromise, in effect the "bargain" of his book:


interests and obtained his degree in political philosophy. In the mid-1930s, his ideology was leftist, perhaps even Trotskyite. In the 1940s, he became a staunchly anticommunist conservative. At the time of his death in 1967, he was considered to have been a major (to some, the major) contributor to the postwar development of American conservative political philosophy.13









Guarantee intelligence its administrative and substantive integrity by keeping it separate from its consumers; keep trying every known device to make the users familiar with the producers' organization, and the producers with the users' organization.



In 1942, Kendall was an assistant professor of political science at the University of Richmond when he made the move to Washington to join the war effort. Most of his wartime posts appear to have been as an operational official rather than as an intelligence analyst. He served, for example, in Washington and in Bogota, Colombia, with the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American affairs, which was engaged in propaganda and psychological warfare. This wartime creation was independent of OSS, but was moved to State's Office of Research and Intelligence in 1945 along with R&A.






He ended chapter and book with still another expression of concern about the "delicacy" of the relationship between men of study and men of action. He warned policymakers that if they ignored the intelligence arm when its considered judgments disagreed with their "intuition," they would be turning their back "on the two instruments by which Western man has since Aristotle steadily enlarged his horizon of knowledge-the instruments of reason and the scientific method."






Kendall's hands-on experience with intelligence analysis apparently was limited to a year or so. For some months in 1946, he was chief of Latin American research in State's troubled intelligence office. In August 1946, Kendall moved to the newly created Office of Research and Evaluation (soon renamed Reports and Estimates) of the Central Intelligence Group (shortly thereafter, CIA). He served there as chief of the Latin American Branch, one of several large units of that office. By the fall of 1947, he had joined the Political Science Department of Yale University as associate professor, the same time that Kent had rejoined the History Department as full professor.14






Kendall's Perspective









Kendall's perspective on intelligence and policy is much more difficult to capture within the confines of a short paper than is Kent's. Kendall seems by far the more complex man. Unlike Kent, he left little or no commentary on his doctrine of intelligence; and some of his recommendations require understanding of his philosophical positions on broader matters of politics, government, and Constitution.

















Little information is available on Kendall's brief experience in intelligence analysis. Two who served with him during his CIA tour remember him as contemptuous of his fellow branch chiefs and of his staff; ready to lecture those few he deemed capable of learning about political philosophy, effective argumentation, and the intelligence mission; and equally combative about bureaucratic perquisites and substantive judgments. He was not a particularly good "listener." And he was seen

Born in Oklahoma in 1909, Kendall was a child prodigy, who at the age of four began reading adult material to his father, a blind, circuit-riding Methodist minister. Kendall's education and world view had more varied stations than did Kent's. Kendall attended the universities of Tulsa, Oklahoma, Northwestern, Illinois, and Oxford (as a Rhodes Scholar). After completing all course work for a doctorate in Romance languages, he switched


















Posted: May 08, 2007 08:48 AM
Last Updated: Aug 04, 2011 08:36 AM