Public Texts in Intelligence
CIA HISTORICAL REVIEW PROGRAM
22 SEPT 93
A selection of the most broadly informative books on intelligence available in English.
PUBLIC TEXTS IN INTELLIGENCE
Unclassified writings on an activity so well protected from public inquiry as intelligence must necessarily show great deficiencies when assessed as material for professional reading. Some number of the thousands of books published in this field have professional value, to be sure, but many of these are devoted to recording the story of particular individuals or isolated episodes rather than to a study of the nature or the history of intelligence. The following bibliography has been selected from among books available in English that are the most broadly illuminating or at least serve to fill important gaps in the picture. Whether viewed as a symposium on intelligence methods or as a composite history of intelligence they are at many points grossly inadequate, but they do offer matter that should be part of the intelligence officer's basic equipment.
The selections fall into the following categories:
The Intelligence Process-theory, procedure, organization
From the earliest times up to World War II
Activities of the Western Allies in World War II
Organized resistance under the Nazis
German intelligence in World War II
The Soviet Services
Evading Capture and Escape from Imprisonment
THE INTELLIGENCE PROCESS - Theory, Procedure, Organization
Ladislas Farago, WAR OF WITS: The Anatomy of Espionage and Intelligence. (New York: Funk & Wagnalls. 1954. Pp, 379.)
The only comprehensive unclassified essay covering both the organization and procedures of world intelligence agencies and their activities in the espionage, counterespionage, sabotage, and propaganda fields. Marred by theoretical crudities, factual inaccuracies, and uncritical journalism, it nevertheless is useful as a composite of the most important information on intelligence doctrine publicly available in 1954. With source citations and index.
[Available in translation as Det Tysta Kriget (Stockholm: Ljus Forlag, 1956), and Les Secrets de l'Espionnage (Paris: Presses de la Cite, 1955) ]
Sherman Kent, STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE for American World Policy. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. 1949. Pp. 226.)
Foresighted early work on the theory and ideal operation of national intelligence production, by the present Chairman of the Board of National Estimates. Lays down many principles which have since become established in practice.
[Available in translation as Inteligencia Estrategica para la Politica Mundial Norteamericana (Buenos Aires: Circulo Militar, Biblioteca del Oficial, 1951), and in pirated Japanese and Chinese editions]
Harry Howe Ransom, CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 1958. Pp. 287.)
The best current account of the development, organization, and problems of the U.S. intelligence system, with particular attention to the production of national estimates. Includes a valuable bibliography.
Roger Hilsman, STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL DECISIONS. (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. 1956. Pp. 187.)
An academic study of the theory of intelligence, with emphasis on its relation to policy. Valuable for its provocative thesis that policy is likely to go its own way in disregard of intelligence, while intelligence tends to turn scholar, gathering and piecing together facts for their own sake. The author has recently become director of State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research.
Washington Platt, STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE PRODUCTION. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger. 1957. Pp. 302.)
A study of intelligence production from the perspective of the working analyst, with an emphasis on useful tools and methods which makes it tend to treat social science methodology as something peculiar to intelligence. The author had experience in combat intelligence during World War II and in intelligence production thereafter.
Don Whitehead, THE FBI STORY: A Report to the People. (New York: Random House. 1956. Pp. 368.)
A laudatory account of FBI operations, both anticriminal and in the maintenance of internal security.
[Available in the following foreign editions: The FBI Story (London: Frederick Muller Ltd., 1957); Le F.B.I. (Paris: Morgan, 1957) ; Le Storia dello FBI (Milan: Sugar Editore, 1958); Historia del F.B.I. (Buenos Aires: Editorial Sopena, 1958)]
U.S. Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government, INTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES: A Report to the Congress. (Washington: Government Printing Office. 1955. Pp. 76.)
The unclassified report of the intelligence task force of the second Hoover Commission, under the chairmanship of General Mark W. Clark. Considers problems of intelligence at the national and departmental levels, including those of personnel and security administration and functional organization.
[Also published as House Document No. 201, 84th Congress, 1st Session, 1955]
OPERATIONAL HISTORY - Through World War I
Richard Wilmer Rowan, THE STORY OF SECRET SERVICE. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran. 1937. Pp. 732.)
The best comprehensive history of espionage and its practitioners from Bible days to the end of World War I. Often sketchy and sometimes overdramatized, the treatment is generally sound and at its best illuminated by perceptive reflections on the ways of human kind.
[Also available in a British edition, The Story of Secret Service (London: John Miles Ltd., 1938)]
John Bakeless, TURNCOATS, TRAITORS AND HEROES. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. 1959. Pp. 406.)
The most nearly complete account of espionage in the American Revolution, covering-in an impossible attempt at encyclopedic narrative-both sides' activities on the American continent. The author has had extensive military intelligence experience.
Philip Van Doren Stern, SECRET MISSIONS OF THE CIVIL WAR. (New York: Rand McNally. 1959. Pp. 320.)
Integrated and annotated anthology of the best accounts of clandestine operations undertaken by both North and South during the American Civil War.
Admiral Sir William James, THE CODE BREAKERS OF ROOM 40: The Story of Admiral Sir William Hall, Genius of British Counter-Intelligence. (New York: St. Martin's Press. 1956. Pp. 212.)
Biography of Britain's Director of Naval Intelligence during World War I, by the officer in charge of communications intelligence. Centers on the decipherment of German messages, including the notorious Zimmermann telegram.
[Published in Great Britain under the title The Eyes of the Navy (London: Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1956). For other reading on this subject, see Chapter IX, "Secret Intelligence-1917-1919," in The Sky Was Always Blue, by Admiral Sir William James (London: Methuen & Co., Ltd., 1951); The Man of Room 40, by A. W. Ewing (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1940); 40 O.B., by Hugh Cleland Hoy (London: Hutchinson & Co., 1932) ; and The Zimmermann Telegram, by Barbara W. Tuckman (New York: Viking, 1958)]
Herbert Osborn Yardley, THE AMERICAN BLACK CHAMBER. (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill. 1931. Pp. 375.)
Querulous history of the first modern U.S. organization for communications intelligence, by its founder and director during World War I and through the twenties.
[Available in the following foreign editions: Secret Service in America (London: Faber & Faber, Ltd., 1940) ; Le Cabinet Noir Americain (Paris: Editions de la Nouvelle Revue Critique, 1935); Amerikas Svarta Kammare (Stockholm: Tidens Forlag, 1938)]
The Western Allies in World War II
Constance Babington-Smith, AIR SPY: The Story of Photo Intelligence in World War II. (New York: Harper. 1957. Pp. 266.)
Description by a leading RAF photo interpreter of the development of photo intelligence techniques first by British and then by Allied personnel and their use in the European theater. Shows the role of air photography in planning the D-Day landings, in bombing and damage assessment, in industrial analysis, and in learning the secrets of German countermeasures, radar, and the new "V" weapons.
[Published in Great Britain under the title Evidence in Camera (London: Chatto and Windus, 1958)]
Ewen Edward Samuel Montagu, THE MAN WHO NEVER WAS. (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1954. Pp. 160.)
Account of a classic British hoax which misled the Germans about the coming Allied invasion of Sicily. The body of a Marine officer was floated onto a beach in southern Spain with secret documents indicating that Greece would be the point of invasion. Illustrates exemplary intelligence planning with respect to documentation, both personal and official, and estimate of German reactions. The author was in charge of this operation.
[Available in the following foreign editions: The Man Who Never Was (London, Evans Brothers, 1953); De Man Die Niet Bestond (Utrecht: Uitgeverij Het Spectrum, 1954) ; L'Homme Qui N'Existait Pas (Paris: Juilliard, 1954); Mies Jota Ei Ollutkaan (Helsinki: Kustannusosakeyhtio Otava, 1954). For further study see: Ian Colvin, The Unknown Courier (London: William Kimber, 1953) ; and Sir Alfred Duff Cooper, Operation Heartbreak (New York: Viking Press, 1951), a fictionalized version of the operation]
Richard Collier, TEN THOUSAND EYES. (New York: E. P. Dutton. 1958. Pp. 320.)
Probably the best English-language account of the Resistance agent networks in France which under the direction of Free French Head quarters in London secured information on the beach and inland defenses of Hitler's Atlantic Wall.
[Available in foreign editions: Ten Thousand Eyes (London: Collins, 1958); La Guerre Secrete du Mur de Z'Atlantique (Paris: Presses de la Cite, 1958); Tiendinzend Ogen (Hoorn: U.-M. "West Friesland," 1958)]
Philip John Stead, SECOND BUREAU. (London: Evans Bros., 1959. Pp. 212.)
Wartime history of the regular French military intelligence service, comprising the Deuxieme Bureau and its supporting organizations for clandestine collection and counterespionage. Based on French-language accounts and on conversations with many officers of the service, it shows the difficulty experienced in maintaining operations after 1940 in double clandestinity, secret from both the Germans and the Vichy Government.
Joint Committee of the Congress, REPORT: Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. (Washington: Government Printing Office. 1946. Pp. 580.)
Summarizes the exhaustive congressional hearings on the surprise Japanese blow, details the prior intelligence available, and analyzes the poor coordination displayed in its collection, evaluation, and dissemination.
[For the full text of the congressional hearings see Hearings Before The Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, Parts 1-39 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1945-46)1
Stewart Alsop and Thomas Braden, SUB ROSA: The O.S.S. and American Espionage. (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock. 1946. Pp. 237.)
Fragmentary but authentic examples of OSS clandestine intelligence and paramilitary operations in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The authors were OSS parachutists.
[Available in a Swedish edition: O. S. S. (Stockholm: Ljus, 1947)]
Elizabeth P. MacDonald, UNDERCOVER GIRL. New York: MacMillan. 1947. Pp. 305.)
A rather too sprightly feminine travelogue which nevertheless contains in autobiographical form the most detailed information publicly available on OSS operations, especially in black psychological warfare, in the Far East.
Colonel Allison Ind, ALLIED INTELLIGENCE BUREAU: Our Secret Weapon in the War against Japan. (New York: David McKay. 1958. Pp. 305.)
Kaleidoscopic scenes from the operations of the clandestine AIB amalgamated from American, British, Australian, and Dutch personnel under General MacArthur's command in the Southwest Pacific. The author, its Deputy Controller, emphasizes the activities of the Australian Coast Watchers concealed on Japanese-held islands, but also devotes sections to guerrilla and agent activity in the Philippines and to sabotage operations.
[For further reading see Eric A. Feldt, The Coastwatchers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946; New York: Ballantine Books, 1959)]
Resistance under the Nazis
Maurice James Buckmaster, SPECIALLY EMPLOYED: The Story of British Aid to French Patriots of the Resistance. (London: Batchworth Press. 1952. Pp. 200.)
The work of the French Section of the British Special Operations Executive as described by its chief. Covers the organization of resistance, many aspects of tradecraft, and the operations of a number of individual agents in France.
[For further reading on this subject see Buckmaster's They Fought Alone (New York: Norton, 1958; and British editions)]
Remy (Gilbert Renault-Roulier), MEMOIRS OF A SECRET AGENT OF FREE FRANCE. Vol. 1: The Silent Company, June 1940-June 1942. (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1948. Pp. 406.)
The first of Remy's six volumes on his experiences. Describes his escape from France and his joining the Free French Intelligence Service in London, his trips back to set up an agent net, and his second escape with his family.
[Volume II has also been translated, as Courage and Fear (London: Arthur Barker Ltd., 1950). The other four are: Comment Meurt Un Reseau (Monte Carlo: Raoul Solar, 1947); Une A$aire de Trahison (Monte Carlo: Raoul Solar, 1947); Les Mains Jointes (Monte Carlo: Raoul Solar, 1948); ... is le Temple Est Bdti (Monte Carlo: Raoul Solar, 1950)]
David Lampe, THE SAVAGE CANARY: The Story of Resistance in Denmark. (London: Cassell. 1957. Pp. 236.)
High spots and personalities of the Danish resistance, with much material on resistance tradecraft.
(Published also as The Danish Resistance (New York: Ballantine Books, 1980) and in Danish as Den Utaemmede Kanariefugl (Copenhagen, Gyldendal, 1957)]
David Armine Howarth, ACROSS TO NORWAY. (New York: William Sloane. 1952. Pp. 286.)
The story of Norwegian escapees assembled at a British base in the Shetland Islands (where the author was deputy commander) to sail their small boats back and forth as transport for saboteurs, agents, and refugees. Also describes contacts with the Norwegian resistance and evasion from capture by the enemy.
(Originally published in England under the title The Shetland Bus (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1951)]
Christopher Montague Woodhouse, APPLE OF DISCORD: A Survey of Recent Greek Politics in Their International Setting. (London: Hutchinson. 1951. Pp. 320.)
An authoritative account of Greek resistance against the Germans during World War II and the internal postwar struggle, with emphasis on the political background. Col. Woodhouse commanded the Allied Military Mission to the Greek guerrillas.
Germany in World War II
Ian Goodhope Colvin, MASTER SPY: The Incredible Story of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1951. Ppk 286.)
Ambivalent attitude and pro-Allied activities of the head of the German Abwehr, based on published documents and interviews with many of his former associates. Climax is the Admiral's involvement in the plot to assassinate Hitler on 20 July 1944, for which he paid with his life. [Available in the following foreign editions: Chief of Intelligence (London: Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1951) ; L'Amiral Canaris, Notre Allie Secret (Paris: Editions de la Paix, 1955); Admiral Canaris, Chef des Geheimdienstes (Vienna: Wilhelm Frick Verlag, 1955); Canaris (Barcelona: Editorial AHR, 1956); Mysteriet Canaris (Bergen: John Griegs Forlag, 1952). For further reading see: Karl Heinz Abshagen, Canaris (London: Hutchinson, 1956) ; Paul Leverkuehn, German Military Intelligence (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954)]
Walter Schellenberg, THE LABYRINTH: Memoirs. (New York: Harper. 1956. Pp. 423.)
Political intrigues and intelligence accomplishments in the Third Reich through the eyes of Himmler's chief of foreign intelligence. [Available in the following foreign editions: The Schellenberg Memoirs (London: Andrd Deutsch, 1956); Le Chef de Centre-Espionnage Nazi Parle (1933-1945) (Paris: Rend Juilliard, 1957); Los Secretos del Servicio Secreto Alemdn (Barcelona: Mateu, 1958); Memoiren (Cologne: Verlag fur Politik and Wirtschaft, 1959)1
Herman J. Giskes, LONDON CALLING NORTH POLE. (New York: British Book Centre. 1953. Pp. 208.)
Story of a remarkable radio deception set up by the Germans after their capture of a Dutch officer parachuted into Holland by the British SOE to work with the resistance: undetected for nearly two years, it netted 54 agents and quantities of British weapons and explosives parachuted in to the Dutch. Contains also material on other operations of the Abwehr's counterintelligence branch. The author was chief of the counterespionage unit in Holland.
[Available in the following foreign editions: London Calling North Pole (London: William Kimber, 1953); Abwehr III F (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij de Bezige Bij, 1949) ; Londres Appelle Pole Nord (Paris: Librarie Plon, 1958); La Burla Maestra De La Guerra (Buenos Aires: Editorial Americana, 1954); Spione tlberspielen Spione (Hamburg: Hansa Verlag Josef Toth, 1951). For further study see Pieter Dourlein, Inside North Pole (London: William Kimber, 1953); Joseph Schreider, Das War das Englandspiel (Munich: Walter Stutz Verlag, 1950)1
Charles Wighton and Gunter Peis, HITLER'S SPIES AND SABOTEURS: Based on the German Secret Service War Diary of General Lahousen. (New York: Henry Holt. 1958. Pp. 285.)
General Lahousen headed the Abwehr's sabotage section during part of the war. This elaboration from his diary gives case histories of his agents in Great Britain, Ireland, and South Africa and of the saboteurs he landed by submarine on the U.S. coast who were rounded up by the FBI.
[Published in Great Britain under the title They Spied on England London: Odhams Press, 1958)1
THE SOVIET SERVICES
Simon Wolin and Robert M. Slusser, THE SOVIET SECRET POLICE. (New York: Frederick A. Praeger. 1957. Pp. 408.)
Historical development and philosophical bases of the Soviet state security services from the establishment of the Cheka in 1917 until 1956, presented largely through the accounts of defectors and victims. The editors have contributed documentation and an excellent summary. [Published in Great Britain under the same title (London: Methuen & Co., 1957))
David J. Dallin, SOVIET ESPIONAGE. (New Haven: Yale University Press. 1955. Pp. 558.)
A scholarly historical study of Soviet intelligence activities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, based on published materials, some unpublished documents, and interviews with former Soviet agents and others.
[Available in the following foreign editions: Die Sowjetspionage (Cologne: Verlag fur Politik and Wirtschaft, 1956); Espionage Sovietico (Buenos Aires: Agora, 1957)]
Peter Deriabin and Frank Gibney, THE SECRET WORLD. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. 1959. Pp. 334.)
With its four appendices the most detailed and factual compilation, for all its character as an expose, on the organization and activity of Soviet State Security from 1946 to 1953.
[Published in Great Britain under the same title (London: Arthur Barker, 1960) 1
Alexander Foote, HANDBOOK FOR SPIES. (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. 1949. Pp. 273.)
Classic case history of the operation of a Soviet wartime intelligence net. The author was a senior member of a group of agents in Switzerland collecting information from Germany and reporting to Moscow by radio
[Available in the following foreign editions: Handbook for Spies (London: Museum Press, 1949); Les Secrets d'un Espion Sovidtique (Brussels: Editions de la Paix, 1951) ; Handbuch fur Spione (Darmstadt: C. W. Leske Verlag, 1954); Manual Para Espias (Barcelona: Editorial AHR, 1954)]
REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ... to Investigate ... the Communication ... of Confidential Information to Agents of a Foreign Power. (Ottawa: Edmond Cloutier, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1946. Pp. 733.
Details on Soviet espionage, subversion, and agent recruitment in Canada officially uncovered after Igor Gouzenko's defection in 1945. [Available in the following foreign-language editions: Russisk Spionage i Canada (Copenhagen: Schultz Forlag, 1947); Le Rapport de la Commission Royale (Ottawa: Edmond Cloutier, 1946)1
REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON ESPIONAGE. (Sydney: Government Printer for New South Wales. 1955. Pp. 483.)
An excellent account of Soviet espionage and subversion in Australia brought to light by the defection in 1954 of MVD agent Vladimir Petrov and his wife.
[See also: Official Transcript of Proceedings of the Royal Commission On Espionage; Vladimir and Evdokia Petrov, Empire. of Fear (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1956; London: Andre Deutsch, 1956). Empire of Fear is also available in foreign editions: L'Empire de la Peur (Paris: Morgan, 1957); Imperio del Miedo (Mexico City: Ediciones Zenit, 1957) ; Fryktens Land (Oslo: J. W. Cappelens Forlag, 1956); Sant Vittnesbord (Stockholm: Sven-Erik Berghs Forlag, 1956) 1
EVASION AND ESCAPE
Aidan Merivale Crawley, ESCAPE FROM GERMANY: A History of R.A.F. Escapes during the War. (New York: Simon and Schuster. 1956. Pp. 291.)
The sanitized version of an official history prepared for the British Air Ministry. Describes the escape intelligence organizations (one of which the author headed) in the German POW camps and the prisoners' continual efforts, successful and unsuccessful, to get away. [Available in the following foreign editions: Escape from Germany (London: Collins, 1958); R. A. F. Te Woet (Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Nieuwe Wieken N. V., n. d.)]
Clay Blair, Jr., BEYOND COURAGE. (New York: David McKay. 1955. Pp. 247.)
Stories of American airmen who, shot down behind enemy lines in the Korean War, evaded capture and returned.
[Available in the following foreign editions: Beyond Courage (London: Jarrolds Publishers, Ltd., 1956); Met de Moed der Wanhoop (Utrecht: Uitgeverij Het Spectrum, 1955)]