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Agency PageAn Intelligence Role for the Footnote
An Intelligence Role for the Footnote. By A. John Alexander. After some dozen years' immersion in intelligence, I still find myself reacting uncomfortably to its rather cavalier disregard for the footnote. In that strange way each profession has of altering accepted words to its own meanings, "footnote" in the jargon of the intelligence community designates primarily the notation of a major disagreement on the part of a member with an otherwise agreed estimate. Here, however, I am referring to the footnote in its academic, scholarly, or scientific sense, as a device for identifying and in some cases even evaluating the source material used for a particular textual statement. Such a footnote is deeply scorned by practitioners of intelligence and makes only a rare appearance in most intelligence products...
Agency PagePitfalls of Civilian Cover
Pitfalls of Civilian Cover. By A. S. Rogov. In present-day conditions the work of GRU residencies 2 under civilian cover in Soviet establishments abroad has certain advantages over that of intelligence officers in military attaché offices. Case officers of these legal 3 residencies have great opportunities to establish contacts among the people, and it is more difficult for counterintelligence to detect their activities when under civilian cover. There are usually far more civilian officials in a country than military personnel staffing attaché offices, and it would be very difficult to keep a watch on all of them; counterintelligence therefore has to establish which civilians are in fact intelligence officers, whereas in a military attaché office they can assume that every member of the staff is a potential intelligence officer ...
Agency PagePortrait of a Cuban Refugee
Portrait of a Cuban Refugee. By Andrew Wixson. A recent article on the personality of the Libyan pointed out that "any attempt to characterize all members of a society . . . is necessarily a stereotype, subject to error in individual application." The following attempt to describe the composite personality of certain Cuban refugees is fraught with even greater likelihood of error with respect to individuals because the sample under study is much less homogeneous than the Libyan was. It ranges from illiterate peasants to highly educated members of professional groups; the level of intelligence, which is comparable over-all with that found in the United States, runs from nearly deficient to superior. In addition, while the Libyan data were gathered through the administration of a psychological test designed for such purposes, the data analyzed in the present study are the by-product of assessments conducted for a variety of reasons, often under much less than ideal conditions. Two characteristics were common to all members of the group: all had fled Cuba because of their opposition to the Castro regime, and at the time of their assessment all were either candidates for anti-Castro clandestine activity or actively engaged in such activity....
Agency Page'Face' Among the Arabs
'Face' Among the Arabs. By Peter A. Naffsinger. George Washington, American children are told, having cut down his father's favorite cherry tree, showed his sterling character by confessing to the deed. An Arab hearing this story not only fails to see the moral beauty of such behavior but wonders why anyone would ever compromise his integrity by admitting thus his guilt. As to Washington's explanation that "I cannot tell a lie," the Arab asks how a man could rise to the presidency if he were not suave enough to use a well-concocted falsehood as a tactic in emergency behavior...
Agency PageOrigins of Central Intelligence
Origins of Central Intelligence. By Arthur B. Darling. The processes of intelligence and their attendant propaganda, sabotage, and guerrilla tactics received tremendous stimulus during the second World War. Fifth-column activities had become famous in the Spanish civil strife prior to the Nazi invasion of Czechoslovakia and Poland. An interdepartmental committee of the Army, Navy, and Federal Bureau of Investigation in July 1939 sought to control spies, saboteurs, and subversive persons. The overthrow of France in June 1940 and the expulsion of Britain's troops from the continent at Dunkirk convinced leading Americans that this country must prepare in every way for the eventuality of war. German agents under Nazi direction were already at work in Latin America as their predecessors had been for the Kaiser. The specter of an invasion even of North America possessed some minds. The British fleet had long supported the Monroe Doctrine against foreign encroachment upon Anglo-American dominance in the western hemisphere. If Britain fell, there would be no British fleet...