Middle East :: Bahrain
  • Introduction :: Bahrain
  • Background:

    In 1783, the Sunni Al-Khalifa family took power in Bahrain. In order to secure these holdings, it entered into a series of treaties with the UK during the 19th century that made Bahrain a British protectorate. The archipelago attained its independence in 1971. A steady decline in oil production and reserves since 1970 prompted Bahrain to take steps to diversify its economy, in the process developing petroleum processing and refining, aluminum production, and hospitality and retail sectors. It has also endeavored to become a leading regional banking center, especially with respect to Islamic finance. Bahrain's small size, central location among Gulf countries, economic dependence on Saudi Arabia, and proximity to Iran require it to play a delicate balancing act in foreign affairs among its larger neighbors. Its foreign policy activities usually fall in line with Saudi Arabia and the UAE.

    The Sunni royal family has long struggled to manage relations with its large Shia-majority population. In early 2011, amid Arab uprisings elsewhere in the region, the Bahraini Government confronted similar pro-democracy and reform protests at home with police and military action, including deploying Gulf Cooperation Council security forces to Bahrain. Political talks throughout 2014 between the government and opposition and loyalist political groups failed to reach an agreement, prompting opposition political societies to boycott legislative and municipal council elections in late 2014. Ongoing dissatisfaction with the political status quo continues to factor into sporadic clashes between demonstrators and security forces.

  • Geography :: Bahrain
  • Location:
    Middle East, archipelago in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia
    Geographic coordinates:
    26 00 N, 50 33 E
    Map references:
    Middle East
    Area:
    total: 760 sq km
    land: 760 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Area - comparative:
    3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    161 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: extending to boundaries to be determined
    Climate:
    arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
    Terrain:
    mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Persian Gulf
    135 highest point: Jabal ad Dukhan
    Natural resources:
    oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas, fish, pearls
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 11.3% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 2.1% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 3.9% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 5.3% (2014 est.)
    forest: 0.7% (2014 est.)
    other: 88% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    40 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
    Natural hazards:
    periodic droughts; dust storms
    Environment - current issues:
    desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land, periods of drought, and dust storms; coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations; lack of freshwater resources (groundwater and seawater are the only sources for all water needs); desalinization provides some 90% of the country's freshwater
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    close to primary Middle Eastern petroleum sources; strategic location in Persian Gulf, through which much of the Western world's petroleum must transit to reach open ocean
  • People and Society :: Bahrain
  • Population:
    1,442,659 (July 2017 est.) (July 2018 est.)

    note: immigrants make up approximately 48% of the total population, according to UN data (2017)

    country comparison to the world: 154
    Nationality:
    noun: Bahraini(s)
    adjective: Bahraini
    Ethnic groups:
    Bahraini 46%, Asian 45.5%, other Arab 4.7%, African 1.6%, European 1%, other 1.2% (includes Gulf Co-operative country nationals, North and South Americans, and Oceanians) (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    Arabic (official), English, Farsi, Urdu
    Religions:
    Muslim 73.7%, Christian 9.3%, Jewish 0.1%, other 16.9% (2017 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 18.88% (male 138,309 /female 134,067)
    15-24 years: 15.49% (male 126,564 /female 96,834)
    25-54 years: 56.06% (male 527,417 /female 281,391)
    55-64 years: 6.49% (male 59,404 /female 34,284)
    65 years and over: 3.08% (male 22,258 /female 22,131) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 30.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 27.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 3 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 33.1 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 32.5 years
    male: 34 years
    female: 29.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Population growth rate:
    2.19% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Birth rate:
    13.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Death rate:
    2.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 223
    Net migration rate:
    12.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Population distribution:
    smallest population of the Gulf States, but urbanization rate exceeds 90%; largest settlement concentration is found on the far northern end of the island in and around Manamah and Al Muharraq
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 89.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    565,000 MANAMA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.3 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.81 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.54 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    15 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 8.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 9.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 79.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 76.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 81.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Total fertility rate:
    1.73 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Health expenditures:
    5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Physicians density:
    0.92 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    2 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    <.1% (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    29.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Education expenditures:
    2.7% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 95.7% (2015 est.)
    male: 96.9% (2015 est.)
    female: 93.5% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 5.3% (2012 est.)
    male: 2.6% (2012 est.)
    female: 12.2% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
  • Government :: Bahrain
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Bahrain
    conventional short form: Bahrain
    local long form: Mamlakat al Bahrayn
    local short form: Al Bahrayn
    former: Dilmun, Tylos, Awal, Mishmahig, Bahrayn, State of Bahrain
    etymology: the name means "the two seas" in Arabic and refers to the water bodies surrounding the archipelago
    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Manama
    geographic coordinates: 26 14 N, 50 34 E
    time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: name derives from the Arabic "al-manama" meaning "place of rest" or "place of dreams"
    Administrative divisions:
    4 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Asimah (Capital), Janubiyah (Southern), Muharraq, Shamaliyah (Northern)

    note: each governorate administered by an appointed governor

    Independence:
    15 August 1971 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    National Day, 16 December (1971); note - 15 August 1971 was the date of independence from the UK, 16 December 1971 was the date of independence from British protection
    Constitution:
    history: adopted 14 February 2002 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the king or by at least 15 members of either chamber of the National Assembly followed by submission to an Assembly committee for review and, if approved, submitted to the government for restatement as drafts; passage requires a two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both chambers and validation by the king; constitutional articles on the state religion (Islam), state language (Arabic), and the monarchy and “inherited rule” cannot be amended; amended 2012, 2017 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Bahrain
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 25 years; 15 years for Arab nationals
    Suffrage:
    20 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King HAMAD bin Isa Al-Khalifa (since 6 March 1999); Crown Prince SALMAN bin Hamad Al-Khalifa (son of the monarch, born 21 October 1969)
    head of government: Prime Minister KHALIFA bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 1971); First Deputy Prime Minister SALMAN bin Hamad Al Khalifa (since 11 March 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers MUHAMMAD bin Mubarak Al-Khalifa (since September 2005), Jawad bin Salim al-ARAIDH, ALI bin Khalifa bin Salman Al-Khalifa (since 11 December 2006), KHALID bin Abdallah Al Khalifa (since November 2010)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Assembly consists of:
    Consultative Council or Majlis al Shura (40 seats; members appointed by the king)
    Council of Representatives or Majlis al Nuwab (40 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed; members serve 4-year renewable terms)
    elections:
    Consultative Council - last appointments on 7 December 2014 (next NA)
    Council of Representatives - last held in two rounds on 23 and 29 November 2014 (next to be held in late 2018)
    election results:
    Consultative Council - composition - men 31, women 9, percent of women 22.5%
    Council of Representatives - percent of vote by society (Bahrain has societies rather than parties) - NA; seats by society - Islamic Al-Asalah (Sunni Salafi) 2, National Islamic Minbar (Sunni Muslim Brotherhood) 1, independent 37; composition - men 37, women 3, percent of women 7.5%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 15%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court of Appeal (consists of the chairman and 3 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the president and 6 members); High Sharia Court of Appeal (court sittings include the president and at least one judge); appeals beyond the High Sharia Court of Appeal are heard by the Supreme Court of Appeal
    judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by royal decree and serve for a specified tenure; Constitutional Court president and members appointed by the Higher Judicial Council, a body chaired by the monarch and includes judges from the Court of Cassation, sharia law courts, and Civil High Courts of Appeal; members serve 9-year terms; High Sharia Court of Appeal member appointment and tenure NA
    subordinate courts: Civil High Courts of Appeal; middle and lower civil courts; High Sharia Court of Appeal; Senior Sharia Court; Administrative Courts of Appeal; military courts

    note: the judiciary of Bahrain is divided into civil law courts and sharia law courts; sharia courts(involving personal status and family law) are further divided into Sunni Muslim and Shia Muslim

    Political parties and leaders:

    note: political parties are prohibited, but political societies were legalized under a July 2005 law

    International organization participation:
    ABEDA, AFESD, AMF, CAEU, CICA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulla bin Rashid AL KHALIFA (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 3502 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 342-1111
    FAX: [1] (202) 362-2192
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Justin H. SIBERELL (since November 2017)
    embassy: Building #979, Road 3119 (next to Al-Ahli Sports Club), Block 331, Zinj District, Manama
    mailing address: PSC 451, Box 660, FPO AE 09834-5100; international mail: American Embassy, Box 26431, Manama
    telephone: [973] 1724-2700
    FAX: [973] 1727-2594
    Flag description:
    red, the traditional color for flags of Persian Gulf states, with a white serrated band (five white points) on the hoist side; the five points represent the five pillars of Islam

    note: until 2002, the flag had eight white points, but this was reduced to five to avoid confusion with the Qatari flag

    National symbol(s):
    a red field surmounted by a white serrated band with five white points; national colors: red, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Bahrainona" (Our Bahrain)
    lyrics/music: unknown

    note: adopted 1971; although Mohamed Sudqi AYYASH wrote the original lyrics, they were changed in 2002 following the transformation of Bahrain from an emirate to a kingdom

  • Economy :: Bahrain
  • Economy - overview:

    Oil and natural gas play a dominant role in Bahrain’s economy. Despite the Government’s past efforts to diversify the economy, oil still comprises 85% of Bahraini budget revenues. In the last few years lower world energy prices have generated sizable budget deficits - about 10% of GDP in 2017 alone. Bahrain has few options for covering these deficits, with low foreign assets and fewer oil resources compared to its GCC neighbors. The three major US credit agencies downgraded Bahrain’s sovereign debt rating to “junk” status in 2016, citing persistently low oil prices and the government’s high debt levels. Nevertheless, Bahrain was able to raise about $4 billion by issuing foreign currency denominated debt in 2017.

    Other major economic activities are production of aluminum - Bahrain's second biggest export after oil and gas –finance, and construction. Bahrain continues to seek new natural gas supplies as feedstock to support its expanding petrochemical and aluminum industries. In April 2018 Bahrain announced it had found a significant oil field off the country’s west coast, but is still assessing how much of the oil can be extracted profitably.

    In addition to addressing its current fiscal woes, Bahraini authorities face the long-term challenge of boosting Bahrain’s regional competitiveness — especially regarding industry, finance, and tourism — and reconciling revenue constraints with popular pressure to maintain generous state subsidies and a large public sector. Since 2015, the government lifted subsidies on meat, diesel, kerosene, and gasoline and has begun to phase in higher prices for electricity and water. As part of its diversification plans, Bahrain implemented a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with the US in August 2006, the first FTA between the US and a Gulf state. It plans to introduce a Value Added Tax (VAT) by the end of 2018.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $71.17 billion (2017 est.)
    $68.59 billion (2016 est.)
    $66.3 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 100
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $35.33 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.8% (2017 est.)
    3.5% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $49,000 (2017 est.)
    $48,200 (2016 est.)
    $48,400 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 33
    Gross national saving:
    19.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    22% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 45.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 15.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 26.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 80.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -67.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 39.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 60.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    fruit, vegetables; poultry, dairy products; shrimp, fish
    Industries:
    petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting, iron pelletization, fertilizers, Islamic and offshore banking, insurance, ship repairing, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Labor force:
    831,600 (2017 est.)

    note: excludes unemployed; 44% of the population in the 15-64 age group is non-national

    country comparison to the world: 149
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 67% (2004 est.)
    industry: 32% (2004 est.)
    services: 67% (2004 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    3.6% (2017 est.)
    3.7% (2016 est.)

    note: official estimate; actual rate is higher

    country comparison to the world: 43
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 5.854 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 9.407 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    16.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -10.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Public debt:
    88.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    81.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.4% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Central bank discount rate:
    1.75% (18 December 2017)
    0.5% (31 December 2010)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.33% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.18% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Stock of narrow money:
    $9.185 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.078 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of broad money:
    $9.185 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.078 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $29.72 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $29.08 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $19.25 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $22.07 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $18.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Current account balance:
    -$1.6 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.493 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Exports:
    $15.38 billion (2017 est.)
    $12.78 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Exports - commodities:
    petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles
    Exports - partners:
    UAE 19.6%, Saudi Arabia 11.7%, US 10.8%, Oman 8.1%, China 6.5%, Qatar 5.7%, Japan 4.2% (2017)
    Imports:
    $16.08 billion (2017 est.)
    $13.59 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Imports - commodities:
    crude oil, machinery, chemicals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.349 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.094 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Imports - partners:
    China 8.8%, UAE 7.2%, US 7.1%, Australia 5.3%, Japan 4.8% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $52.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $42.55 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $22.08 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $21.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $10.66 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Exchange rates:
    Bahraini dinars (BHD) per US dollar -
    0.376 (2017 est.)
    0.376 (2016 est.)
    0.376 (2015 est.)
    0.376 (2014 est.)
    0.376 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Bahrain
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 41,317 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 98% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 98% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 93% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    17.07 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Electricity - consumption:
    26.09 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - exports:
    213 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Electricity - imports:
    205 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.928 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    99.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Crude oil - production:
    44,240 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Crude oil - exports:
    225,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Crude oil - imports:
    223,900 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    124.6 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    267,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    58,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    244,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    13,320 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Natural gas - production:
    21.07 billion cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Natural gas - consumption:
    15.5 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    92.03 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    37 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
  • Communications :: Bahrain
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 285,318 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 20 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 2,364,477 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 168 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: modern system; 20 per 100 fixed-line, 168 per 100 mobile-cellular; well developed LTE networks,  future 5G deployment (2017)
    domestic: modern fiber-optic integrated services; digital network with rapidly growing use of mobile-cellular telephones (2017)
    international: country code - 973; landing point for the Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) submarine cable network that provides links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, and US; tropospheric scatter to Qatar and UAE; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia; satellite earth station - 1 (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-run Bahrain Radio and Television Corporation (BRTC) operates 5 terrestrial TV networks and several radio stations; satellite TV systems provide access to international broadcasts; 1 private FM station directs broadcasts to Indian listeners; radio and TV broadcasts from countries in the region are available (2009)
    Internet country code:
    .bh
    Internet users:
    total: 1,351,326 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 98% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 213,633 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
  • Transportation :: Bahrain
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 42 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 5,313,756 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 240,107,004 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    A9C (2016)
    Airports:
    4 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 4 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    20 km gas, 54 km oil (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 4,122 km (2010)
    paved: 3,392 km (2010)
    unpaved: 730 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Merchant marine:
    total: 260 (2017)
    by type: container ship 3, general cargo 11, oil tanker 4, other 242 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Mina' Salman, Sitrah
  • Military and Security :: Bahrain
  • Military expenditures:
    4.59% of GDP (2015)
    4.42% of GDP (2014)
    4.14% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Military branches:
    Bahrain Defense Force (BDF): Royal Bahraini Army (RBA), Royal Bahraini Navy (RBN), Royal Bahraini Air Force (RBAF), Royal Bahraini Air Defense Force (RBADF) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; 15 years of age for NCOs, technicians, and cadets; no conscription (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Bahrain
  • Disputes - international:
    none