Africa :: Chad
  • Introduction :: Chad
  • Background:
    Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare, as well as invasions by Libya, before peace was restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and insurgents. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007. The capital experienced a significant insurrection in early 2008, but has had no significant rebel threats since then, in part due to Chad's 2010 rapprochement with Sudan, which previously used Chadian rebels as proxies. In late 2015, the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region following multiple attacks by the terrorist group Boko Haram throughout the year; Boko Haram also launched several bombings in N'Djamena in mid-2015. DEBY in 2016 was reelected to his fifth term in an election that was peaceful but flawed. In December 2015, Chad completed a two-year rotation on the UN Security Council. In January 2017, DEBY completed a one-year term as President of the African Union.
  • Geography :: Chad
  • Location:
    Central Africa, south of Libya
    Geographic coordinates:
    15 00 N, 19 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 1.284 million sq km
    land: 1,259,200 sq km
    water: 24,800 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Area - comparative:
    almost nine times the size of New York state; slightly more than three times the size of California
    Land boundaries:
    total: 6,406 km
    border countries (6): Cameroon 1116 km, Central African Republic 1556 km, Libya 1050 km, Niger 1196 km, Nigeria 85 km, Sudan 1403 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    tropical in south, desert in north
    Terrain:
    broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 543 m
    elevation extremes: 160 m lowest point: Djourab
    3445 highest point: Emi Koussi
    Natural resources:
    petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 39.6% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 3.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 35.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 9.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 51.3% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    300 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
    Natural hazards:
    hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues
    Environment - current issues:
    inadequate supplies of potable water; improper waste disposal in rural areas and poor farming practices contribute to soil and water pollution; desertification
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
    Geography - note:

    note: Chad is the largest of Africa's 16 landlocked countries

    note: not long ago - geologically speaking - what is today the Sahara was green savannah teeming with wildlife; during the African Humid Period, roughly 11,000 to 5,000 years ago, a vibrant animal community, including elephants, giraffes, hippos, and antelope lived there; the last remnant of the "Green Sahara" exists in the Lakes of Ounianga (oo-nee-ahn-ga) in northern Chad, a series of 18 interconnected freshwater, saline, and hypersaline lakes now protected as a World Heritage site

    note: Lake Chad, the most significant water body in the Sahel, is a remnant of a former inland sea, paleolake Mega-Chad; at its greatest extent, sometime before 5000 B.C., Lake Mega-Chad was the largest of four Saharan paleolakes that existed during the African Humid Period; it covered an area of about 400,000 sq km (150,000 sq mi), roughly the size of today's Caspian Sea

  • People and Society :: Chad
  • Population:
    15,833,116 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Nationality:
    noun: Chadian(s)
    adjective: Chadian
    Ethnic groups:
    Sara (Ngambaye/Sara/Madjingaye/Mbaye) 30.5%, Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma 9.8%, Arab 9.7%, Wadai/Maba/Masalit/Mimi 7%, Gorane 5.8%, Masa/Musseye/Musgum 4.9%, Bulala/Medogo/Kuka 3.7%, Marba/Lele/Mesme 3.5%, Mundang 2.7%, Bidiyo/Migaama/Kenga/Dangleat 2.5%, Dadjo/Kibet/Muro 2.4%, Tupuri/Kera 2%, Gabri/Kabalaye/Nanchere/Somrai 2%, Fulani/Fulbe/Bodore 1.8%, Karo/Zime/Peve 1.3%, Baguirmi/Barma 1.2%, Zaghawa/Bideyat/Kobe 1.1%, Tama/Assongori/Mararit 1.1%, Mesmedje/Massalat/Kadjakse 0.8%, other Chadian ethnicities 3.4%, Chadians of foreign ethnicities 0.9%, foreign nationals 0.3%, unspecified 1.7% (2014-15 est.)
    Languages:
    French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), Sara more than 120 different languages and dialects
    Religions:
    Muslim 52.1%, Protestant 23.9%, Roman Catholic 20%, animist 0.3%, other Christian 0.2%, none 2.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2014-15 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Despite the start of oil production in 2003, 40% of Chad’s population lives below the poverty line. The population will continue to grow rapidly because of the country’s very high fertility rate and large youth cohort – more than 65% of the populace is under the age of 25 – although the mortality rate is high and life expectancy is low. Chad has the world’s third highest maternal mortality rate. Among the primary risk factors are poverty, anemia, rural habitation, high fertility, poor education, and a lack of access to family planning and obstetric care. Impoverished, uneducated adolescents living in rural areas are most affected. To improve women’s reproductive health and reduce fertility, Chad will need to increase women’s educational attainment, job participation, and knowledge of and access to family planning. Only about a quarter of women are literate, less than 5% use contraceptives, and more than 40% undergo genital cutting.

    As of October 2017, more than 320,000 refugees from Sudan and more than 75,000 from the Central African Republic strain Chad’s limited resources and create tensions in host communities. Thousands of new refugees fled to Chad in 2013 to escape worsening violence in the Darfur region of Sudan. The large refugee populations are hesitant to return to their home countries because of continued instability. Chad was relatively stable in 2012 in comparison to other states in the region, but past fighting between government forces and opposition groups and inter-communal violence have left nearly 60,000 of its citizens displaced in the eastern part of the country.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 48.12% (male 3,856,001 /female 3,763,622)
    15-24 years: 19.27% (male 1,532,687 /female 1,518,940)
    25-54 years: 26.95% (male 2,044,795 /female 2,222,751)
    55-64 years: 3.25% (male 228,930 /female 286,379)
    65 years and over: 2.39% (male 164,257 /female 214,754) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 100.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 95.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 4.9 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 20.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 15.8 years
    male: 15.3 years
    female: 16.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 226
    Population growth rate:
    3.23% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Birth rate:
    43 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Death rate:
    10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Net migration rate:
    -3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Population distribution:
    the population is unevenly distributed due to contrasts in climate and physical geography; the highest density is found in the southwest, particularly around Lake Chad and points south; the dry Saharan zone to the north is the least densely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 23.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.88% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.323 million N'DJAMENA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.83 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.79 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    17.9 years (2014/15 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    856 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 71.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 77.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 65.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 57.5 years (2018 est.)
    male: 55.7 years (2018 est.)
    female: 59.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 214
    Total fertility rate:
    5.9 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    5.7% (2014/15)
    Health expenditures:
    3.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Physicians density:
    0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 71.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 44.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 50.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 28.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 55.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 49.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 31.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 6.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 12.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 68.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 93.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 87.9% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    110,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    3,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    6.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    28.8% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Education expenditures:
    2.9% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic (2016 est.)
    total population: 22.3% (2016 est.)
    male: 31.3% (2016 est.)
    female: 14% (2016 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 7 years (2011)
    male: 9 years (2011)
    female: 6 years (2011)
  • Government :: Chad
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Chad
    conventional short form: Chad
    local long form: Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
    local short form: Tchad/Tshad
    etymology: named for Lake Chad, which lies along the country's western border; the word "tsade" means "large body of water" or "lake" in several local native languages
    note: the only country whose name is composed of a single syllable with a single vowel
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: N'Djamena
    geographic coordinates: 12 06 N, 15 02 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    23 regions (regions, singular - region); Barh el Gazel, Batha, Borkou, Chari-Baguirmi, Ennedi-Est, Ennedi-Ouest, Guera, Hadjer-Lamis, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental, Logone Oriental, Mandoul, Mayo-Kebbi Est, Mayo-Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Sila, Tandjile, Tibesti, Ville de N'Djamena, Wadi Fira
    Independence:
    11 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest approved 30 April 2018 by the National Assembly, entered into force 4 May 2018 (2018)
    amendments: proposed as a revision by the president of the republic after a Council of Ministers (cabinet) decision or by the National Assembly; approval for consideration of a revision requires at least three-fifths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires approval by referendum or at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly; amended 2005, 2013 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: both parents must be citizens of Chad
    dual citizenship recognized: Chadian law does not address dual citizenship
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990)
    head of government: President Idriss DEBY Itno, Lt. Gen. (since 4 December 1990); prime minister position eliminated under the 2018 constitution
    cabinet: Council of Ministers; members appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 10 April 2016 (next to be held in April 2021); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY Itno reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Idriss DEBY (MPS) 61.6%, Saleh KEBZABO (UNDR) 12.8%, Laokein Kourayo MEDAR (CTPD) 10.7%, Djimrangar DADNADJI (CAP-SUR) 5.1%, other 9.8%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly (188 seats; 163 directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 25 directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round if needed; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections: last held on 13 February and 6 May 2011 (next to be held in 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPS 117, UNDR 10, RDP 9, RNDT/Le Reveil 8, URD 8, Viva-RNDP 5, FAR 4, CTPD 2, PDSA 2, PUR 2, UDR 2, other minor parties 19

    note: the National Assembly mandate was extended to 2019, reportedly due to a lack of funding for the scheduled 2015 election

    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, 3 chamber presidents, and 12 judges or councilors and divided into 3 chambers); Constitutional Council (consists of 3 judges and 6 jurists)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice selected by the president; councilors - 8 designated by the president and 7 by the speaker of the National Assembly; chief justice and councilors appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges - 2 appointed by the president and 1 by the speaker of the National Assembly; jurists - 3 each by the president and by the speaker of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: High Court of Justice; Courts of Appeal; tribunals; justices of the peace
    Political parties and leaders:
    Chadian Convention for Peace and Development or CTPD [Laoukein Kourayo MEDAR]
    Federation Action for the Republic or FAR [Ngarledjy YORONGAR]
    Framework of Popular Action for Solidarity and Unity of the Republic or CAP-SUR [Joseph Djimrangar DADNADJI]
    National Rally for Development and Progress or Viva-RNDP [Dr. Nouradine Delwa Kassire COUMAKOYE]
    National Union for Democracy and Renewal or UNDR [Saleh KEBZABO]
    Party for Liberty and Development or PLD [Ahmat ALHABO]
    Party for Unity and Reconciliation
    Patriotic Salvation Movement or MPS [Idriss DEBY]Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Mahamat Allahou TAHER]RNDT/Le Reveil [Albert Pahimi PADACKE]
    Social Democratic Party for a Change-over of Power or PDSA
    Union for Renewal and Democracy or URD [Sande NGARYIMBE]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ngote Gali KOUTOU (since 22 June 2018)
    chancery: 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 652-1312
    FAX: [1] (202) 758-0431
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI (since September 2016)
    embassy: Chagoua Round Point, N'Djamena
    mailing address: B. P. 413, N'Djamena
    telephone: [235] 2251-5017
    FAX: [235] 2253-9102
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold, and red; the flag combines the blue and red French (former colonial) colors with the red and yellow (gold) of the Pan-African colors; blue symbolizes the sky, hope, and the south of the country, which is relatively well-watered; gold represents the sun, as well as the desert in the north of the country; red stands for progress, unity, and sacrifice

    note: almost identical to the flag of Romania but with a darker shade of blue; also similar to the flags of Andorra and Moldova, both of which have a national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; design based on the flag of France

    National symbol(s):
    goat (north), lion (south); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "La Tchadienne" (The Chadian)
    lyrics/music: Louis GIDROL and his students/Paul VILLARD

    note: adopted 1960

  • Economy :: Chad
  • Economy - overview:

    Chad’s landlocked location results in high transportation costs for imported goods and dependence on neighboring countries. Oil and agriculture are mainstays of Chad’s economy. Oil provides about 60% of export revenues, while cotton, cattle, livestock, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. The services sector contributes less than one-third of GDP and has attracted foreign investment mostly through telecommunications and banking.

    Nearly all of Chad’s fuel is provided by one domestic refinery, and unanticipated shutdowns occasionally result in shortages. The country regulates the price of domestic fuel, providing an incentive for black market sales.

    Although high oil prices and strong local harvests supported the economy in the past, low oil prices now stress Chad’s fiscal position and have resulted in significant government cutbacks. Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most of its public and private sector investment. Investment in Chad is difficult due to its limited infrastructure, lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption. Chad obtained a three-year extended credit facility from the IMF in 2014 and was granted debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative in April 2015.

    In 2018, economic policy will be driven by efforts that started in 2016 to reverse the recession and to repair damage to public finances and exports. The government is implementing an emergency action plan to counterbalance the drop in oil revenue and to diversify the economy. Chad’s national development plan (NDP) cost just over $9 billion with a financing gap of $6.7 billion. The NDP emphasized the importance of private sector participation in Chad’s development, as well as the need to improve the business environment, particularly in priority sectors such as mining and agriculture.

    The Government of Chad reached a deal with Glencore and four other banks on the restructuring of a $1.45 billion oil-backed loan in February 2018, after a long negotiation. The new terms include an extension of the maturity to 2030 from 2022, a two-year grace period on principal repayments, and a lower interest rate of the London Inter-bank Offer Rate (Libor) plus 2% - down from Libor plus 7.5%. The original Glencore loan was to be repaid with crude oil assets, however, Chad's oil sales were hit by the downturn in the price of oil. Chad had secured a $312 million credit from the IMF in June 2017, but release of those funds hinged on restructuring the Glencore debt. Chad had already cut public spending to try to meet the terms of the IMF program, but that prompted strikes and protests in a country where nearly 40% of the population lives below the poverty line. Multinational partners, such as the African Development Bank, the EU, and the World Bank are likely to continue budget support in 2018, but Chad will remain at high debt risk, given its dependence on oil revenue and pressure to spend on subsidies and security.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $28.62 billion (2017 est.)
    $29.55 billion (2016 est.)
    $31.58 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 134
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $9.872 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    -3.1% (2017 est.)
    -6.4% (2016 est.)
    1.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,300 (2017 est.)
    $2,500 (2016 est.)
    $2,700 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 202
    Gross national saving:
    15.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    7.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 75.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 4.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 24.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 35.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -39.4% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 52.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 14.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 33.1% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, sorghum, millet, peanuts, sesame, corn, rice, potatoes, onions, cassava (manioc, tapioca), cattle, sheep, goats, camels
    Industries:
    oil, cotton textiles, brewing, natron (sodium carbonate), soap, cigarettes, construction materials
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Labor force:
    5.654 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 20% (2006 est.)
    industry and services: 20% (2006 est.)
    Unemployment rate:

    NA

    Population below poverty line:
    46.7% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
    highest 10%: 30.8% (2003)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    43.3 (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Budget:
    revenues: 1.337 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 1.481 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    13.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Public debt:
    52.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    52.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    -0.9% (2017 est.)
    -1.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Central bank discount rate:
    4.25% (31 December 2009)
    4.75% (31 December 2008)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    15.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    15.5% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Stock of narrow money:
    $1.397 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Stock of broad money:
    $1.397 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.241 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $2.681 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.387 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$558 million (2017 est.)
    -$926 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Exports:
    $2.464 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.187 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Exports - commodities:
    oil, livestock, cotton, sesame, gum arabic, shea butter
    Exports - partners:
    US 38.7%, China 16.6%, Netherlands 15.7%, UAE 12.2%, India 6.3% (2017)
    Imports:
    $2.16 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.988 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and transportation equipment, industrial goods, foodstuffs, textiles
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $22.9 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $20.92 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Imports - partners:
    China 19.9%, Cameroon 17.2%, France 17%, US 5.4%, India 4.9%, Senegal 4.5% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $1.724 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.281 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $4.5 billion (2006 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
    605.3 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Chad
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 10,477,071 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 4% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 14% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 1% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    215 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Electricity - consumption:
    200 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    47,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    100% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Crude oil - production:
    110,200 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Crude oil - exports:
    105,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    1.5 billion bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    2,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    2,215 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    300,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
  • Communications :: Chad
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 14,000 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 6,231,009 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 52 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: inadequate system of radio telephone communication stations with high maintenance costs and low telephone density; Chad remains one of the least developed on the continent, while telecom infrastructure is particularly poor, with penetration rates in all sectors – fixed, mobile and internet –well below African averages;  the country’s first 3G/4G mobile licence was awarded in April 2014 (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line connections less than 1 per 100 persons,  with mobile-cellular subscribership base of about 52 per 100 persons (2017)
    international: country code - 235; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    1 state-owned TV station; 2 privately-owned TV stations; state-owned radio network, Radiodiffusion Nationale Tchadienne (RNT), operates national and regional stations; over 10 private radio stations; some stations rebroadcast programs from international broadcasters (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .td
    Internet users:
    total: 592,623 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 10,470 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
  • Transportation :: Chad
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 1 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 28,332 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: mt-km (2015)
    Airports:
    59 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 50 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 14 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 22 (2013)
    under 914 m: 11 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    582 km oil (2013)
    Roadways:
    total: 40,000 km (2011)

    note: consists of 25,000 km of national and regional roads and 15,000 km of local roads; 206 km of urban roads are paved

    country comparison to the world: 88
    Waterways:
    (Chari and Legone Rivers are navigable only in wet season) (2012)
  • Military and Security :: Chad
  • Military expenditures:
    2.79% of GDP (2016)
    2.03% of GDP (2015)
    2.82% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Military branches:
    Chadian National Army (Armee Nationale du Tchad, ANT): Ground Forces (l'Armee de Terre, AdT), Chadian Air Force (l'Armee de l'Air Tchadienne, AAT), National Gendarmerie, National and Nomadic Guard of Chad (GNNT) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    20 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service, with a 3-year service obligation; 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary service; no minimum age restriction for volunteers with consent from a parent or guardian; women are subject to 1 year of compulsory military or civic service at age 21; while provisions for military service have not been repealed, they have never been fully implemented (2015)
  • Terrorism :: Chad
  • Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    Boko Haram:
    aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate across Africa
    area(s) of operation:
    conducts kidnappings, bombings, and assaults, including in the capital, N'Djamena
    note: violently opposes any political or social activity associated with Western society, including voting, attending secular schools, and wearing Western dress (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)-West Africa:
    aim(s): implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; replace the Nigerian Government with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation: based primarily in Northeast Nigeria along the border with Niger, with its largest presence in northeast Nigeria and the Lake Chad region; targets primarily regional military installations (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Chad
  • Disputes - international:
    since 2003, ad hoc armed militia groups and the Sudanese military have driven hundreds of thousands of Darfur residents into ChadChad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violenceonly Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty, which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 336,295 (Sudan), 100,496 (Central African Republic), 11,288 (Nigeria) (2018)
    IDPs: 129,010 (majority are in the east) (2018)