Central America :: Dominican Republic
  • Introduction :: Dominican Republic
  • Background:
    The Taino - indigenous inhabitants of Hispaniola prior to the arrival of the Europeans - divided the island into five chiefdoms and territories. Christopher COLUMBUS explored and claimed the island on his first voyage in 1492; it became a springboard for Spanish conquest of the Caribbean and the American mainland. In 1697, Spain recognized French dominion over the western third of the island, which in 1804 became Haiti. The remainder of the island, by then known as Santo Domingo, sought to gain its own independence in 1821 but was conquered and ruled by the Haitians for 22 years; it finally attained independence as the Dominican Republic in 1844. In 1861, the Dominicans voluntarily returned to the Spanish Empire, but two years later they launched a war that restored independence in 1865. A legacy of unsettled, mostly non-representative rule followed, capped by the dictatorship of Rafael Leonidas TRUJILLO from 1930 to 1961. Juan BOSCH was elected president in 1962 but was deposed in a military coup in 1963. In 1965, the US led an intervention in the midst of a civil war sparked by an uprising to restore BOSCH. In 1966, Joaquin BALAGUER defeated BOSCH in the presidential election. BALAGUER maintained a tight grip on power for most of the next 30 years when international reaction to flawed elections forced him to curtail his term in 1996. Since then, regular competitive elections have been held in which opposition candidates have won the presidency. Former President Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna (first term 1996-2000) won elected to a new term in 2004 following a constitutional amendment allowing presidents to serve more than one term, and was later reelected to a second consecutive term. In 2012, Danilo MEDINA Sanchez became president; he was reelected in 2016.
    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC SUMMARY: PDF
  • Geography :: Dominican Republic
  • Location:
    Caribbean, eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east of Haiti
    Geographic coordinates:
    19 00 N, 70 40 W
    Map references:
    Central America and the Caribbean
    Area:
    total: 48,670 sq km
    land: 48,320 sq km
    water: 350 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Area - comparative:
    slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
    Land boundaries:
    total: 376 km
    border countries (1): Haiti 376 km
    Coastline:
    1,288 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
    Climate:
    tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation; seasonal variation in rainfall
    Terrain:
    rugged highlands and mountains interspersed with fertile valleys
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 424 m
    elevation extremes: -46 m lowest point: Lago Enriquillo
    3098 highest point: Pico Duarte
    Natural resources:
    nickel, bauxite, gold, silver, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 51.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 16.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 24.8% (2011 est.)
    forest: 40.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 7.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    3,070 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    coastal development is significant, especially in the southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley, where population density is highest; smaller population clusters exist in the interior mountains (Cordillera Central)
    Natural hazards:
    lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding; periodic droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    water shortages; soil eroding into the sea damages coral reefs; deforestation
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (eastern two-thirds makes up the Dominican Republic, western one-third is Haiti); the second largest country in the Antilles (after Cuba); geographically diverse with the Caribbean's tallest mountain, Pico Duarte, and lowest elevation and largest lake, Lago Enriquillo
  • People and Society :: Dominican Republic
  • Population:
    10,298,756 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Nationality:
    noun: Dominican(s)
    adjective: Dominican
    Ethnic groups:
    mixed 70.4% (mestizo/indio 58%, mulatto 12.4%), black 15.8%, white 13.5%, other 0.3% (2014 est.)

    note: respondents self-identified their race; the term "indio" in the Dominican Republic is not associated with people of indigenous ancestry but people of mixed ancestry or skin color between light and dark

    Languages:
    Spanish (official)
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 27.56% (male 1,442,926 /female 1,395,809)
    15-24 years: 18.52% (male 969,467 /female 937,765)
    25-54 years: 40.28% (male 2,112,813 /female 2,035,902)
    55-64 years: 7.71% (male 397,821 /female 396,172)
    65 years and over: 5.92% (male 286,300 /female 323,781) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 57.8 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 47.3 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.5 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 9.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 27.3 years
    male: 27.1 years
    female: 27.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Population growth rate:
    0.99% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Birth rate:
    18.9 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Death rate:
    6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Net migration rate:
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Population distribution:
    coastal development is significant, especially in the southern coastal plains and the Cibao Valley, where population density is highest; smaller population clusters exist in the interior mountains (Cordillera Central)
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 81.1% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.06% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    3.172 million SANTO DOMINGO (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    21.3 years (2013 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    92 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 22.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 20.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 69.7 years (2018 est.)
    female: 73.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Total fertility rate:
    2.28 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    69.5% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    4.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Physicians density:
    1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.6 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 85.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 81.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 84.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 14.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 18.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 15.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 86.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 75.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 84% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 13.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 24.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 16% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    67,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    2,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2016)

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    27.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    4% (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 91.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 91.2% (2015 est.)
    female: 92.3% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2014)
    male: 13 years (2014)
    female: 14 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 13.4% (2016 est.)
    male: 8.5% (2016 est.)
    female: 21.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Government :: Dominican Republic
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Dominican Republic
    conventional short form: The Dominican
    local long form: Republica Dominicana
    local short form: La Dominicana
    etymology: the country name derives from the capital city of Santo Domingo (Saint Dominic)
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Santo Domingo
    geographic coordinates: 18 28 N, 69 54 W
    time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    10 regions (regiones, singular - region); Cibao Nordeste, Cibao Noroeste, Cibao Norte, Cibao Sur, El Valle, Enriquillo, Higuamo, Ozama, Valdesia, Yuma
    Independence:
    27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 27 February (1844)
    Constitution:
    history: many previous (38 total); latest proclaimed 13 June 2015 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by a special session of the National Congress called the National Revisory Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority approval by at least one-half of those present in both houses of the Assembly; passage of amendments to constitutional articles such as fundamental rights and guarantees, territorial composition, nationality, or the procedures for constitutional reform also requires approval in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Dominican Republic
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 2 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age can vote; note - members of the armed forces and national police by law cannot vote
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (since 16 August 2012); Vice President Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (since 16 August 2012)
    cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by absolute vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 4-year term (eligible for consecutive terms); election last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: Danilo MEDINA Sanchez reelected president in first round; percent of vote - Danilo MEDINA Sanchez (PLD) 61.7%, Luis Rodolfo ABINADER Corona (PRM) 35%, other 3.3%; Margarita CEDENO DE FERNANDEZ (PLD) reelected vice president
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of:
    Senate or Senado (32 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)
    House of Representatives or Camara de Diputados (190 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020)
    House of Representatives - last held on 15 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2020)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 26, PRM 2, BIS 1, PLRD 1, PRD 1, PRSC 1
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLD 106, PRM 42, PRSC 18, PRD 16, PLRD 3, other 5
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia (consists of a minimum of 16 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges); note - the Constitutional Court was established in 2010 by constitutional amendment
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary comprised of the president, the leaders of both chambers of congress, the president of the Supreme Court, and a non-governing party congressional representative; Supreme Court judges appointed for 7-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 9-year terms
    subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; justices of the peace; special courts for juvenile, labor, and land cases; Contentious Administrative Court for cases filed against the government
    Political parties and leaders:
    Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna]
    Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado]
    Institutional Social Democratic Bloc or BIS
    Liberal Reformist Party or PRL (formerly the Liberal Party of the Dominican Republic or PLRD)
    Modern Revolutionary Party or PRM [Andres BAUTISTA Garcia]
    National Progressive Front or FNP [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO]
    Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Federico ANTUN]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AOSIS, BCIE, Caricom (observer), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, MINUSMA, NAM, OAS, OIF (observer), OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA (associated member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Tomas PEREZ Vazquez(since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 1715 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-6280
    FAX: [1] (202) 265-8057
    consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)
    consulate(s): San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert COPLEY (since 21 July 2017)
    embassy: Av. Republica de Colombia # 57, Santo Domingo
    mailing address: Unit 5500, APO AA 34041-5500
    telephone: [1] (809) 567-7775
    FAX: [1] (809) 686-7437
    Flag description:
    a centered white cross that extends to the edges divides the flag into four rectangles - the top ones are ultramarine blue (hoist side) and vermilion red, and the bottom ones are vermilion red (hoist side) and ultramarine blue; a small coat of arms featuring a shield supported by a laurel branch (left) and a palm branch (right) is at the center of the cross; above the shield a blue ribbon displays the motto, DIOS, PATRIA, LIBERTAD (God, Fatherland, Liberty), and below the shield, REPUBLICA DOMINICANA appears on a red ribbon; in the shield a bible is opened to a verse that reads "Y la verdad nos hara libre" (And the truth shall set you free); blue stands for liberty, white for salvation, and red for the blood of heroes
    National symbol(s):
    palmchat (bird); national colors: red, white, blue
    National anthem:
    name: "Himno Nacional" (National Anthem)
    lyrics/music: Emilio PRUD'HOMME/Jose REYES

    note: adopted 1934; also known as "Quisqueyanos valientes" (Valient Sons of Quisqueye); the anthem never refers to the people as Dominican but rather calls them "Quisqueyanos," a reference to the indigenous name of the island

  • Economy :: Dominican Republic
  • Economy - overview:

    The Dominican Republic was for most of its history primarily an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco, but over the last three decades the economy has become more diversified as the service sector has overtaken agriculture as the economy's largest employer, due to growth in construction, tourism, and free trade zones. The mining sector has also played a greater role in the export market since late 2012 with the commencement of the extraction phase of the Pueblo Viejo Gold and Silver mine, one of the largest gold mines in the world.

    For the last 20 years, the Dominican Republic has been one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America. The economy rebounded from the global recession in 2010-16, and the fiscal situation is improving. A tax reform package passed in November 2012, a reduction in government spending, and lower energy costs helped to narrow the central government budget deficit from 6.6% of GDP in 2012 to 2.6% in 2016, and public debt is declining. Marked income inequality, high unemployment, and underemployment remain important long-term challenges; the poorest half of the population receives less than one-fifth of GDP, while the richest 10% enjoys nearly 40% of GDP.

    The economy is highly dependent upon the US, the destination for approximately half of exports and the source of 40% of imports. Remittances from the US amount to about 7% of GDP, equivalent to about a third of exports and two-thirds of tourism receipts. The Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in March 2007, boosting investment and manufacturing exports.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $173 billion (2017 est.)
    $165.4 billion (2016 est.)
    $155.2 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 72
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $76.09 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.6% (2017 est.)
    6.6% (2016 est.)
    7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $17,000 (2017 est.)
    $16,400 (2016 est.)
    $15,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 102
    Gross national saving:
    21.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 69.3% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 12.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 24.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -28.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 5.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33% (2017 est.)
    services: 61.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cocoa, tobacco, sugarcane, coffee, cotton, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas; cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, eggs
    Industries:
    tourism, sugar processing, gold mining, textiles, cement, tobacco, electrical components, medical devices
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Labor force:
    4.732 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 64.7% (2014 est.)
    industry: 20.8% (2014)
    services: 64.7% (2014)
    Unemployment rate:
    5.1% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Population below poverty line:
    30.5% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 37.4% (2013 est.)
    highest 10%: 37.4% (2013 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    47.1 (2013 est.)
    45.7 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Budget:
    revenues: 11.33 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 13.62 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    14.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Public debt:
    37.2% of GDP (2017 est.)
    34.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.3% (2017 est.)
    1.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    13.91% (31 December 2017 est.)
    15.08% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Stock of narrow money:
    $7.011 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.491 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Stock of broad money:
    $7.011 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.491 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $35.42 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $33.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$165 million (2017 est.)
    -$815 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Exports:
    $10.12 billion (2017 est.)
    $9.86 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Exports - commodities:
    gold, silver, cocoa, sugar, coffee, tobacco, meats, consumer goods
    Exports - partners:
    US 50.3%, Haiti 9.1%, Canada 8.2%, India 5.6% (2017)
    Imports:
    $17.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $17.48 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and pharmaceuticals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $6.873 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.134 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Imports - partners:
    US 41.4%, China 13.9%, Mexico 4.5%, Brazil 4.3% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $29.16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $27.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $37.15 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $33.56 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $408.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $387.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Exchange rates:
    Dominican pesos (DOP) per US dollar -
    47.42 (2017 est.)
    46.078 (2016 est.)
    46.078 (2015 est.)
    45.052 (2014 est.)
    43.556 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Dominican Republic
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 300,000 (2013)
    electrification - total population: 98% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 99% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 97% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    15.53 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - consumption:
    13.25 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.732 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    80.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    16.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    5.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Crude oil - imports:
    27,440 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    27,060 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    114,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    84,370 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.108 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Natural gas - imports:
    1.108 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    22 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
  • Communications :: Dominican Republic
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1,329,852 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 8,769,127 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: relatively efficient system based on island-wide microwave radio relay network (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 13 per 100 persons; multiple providers of mobile-cellular service with a subscribership of over 80 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 1-809; 1-829; 1-849; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1), Antillas 1, AMX-1, and the Fibralink submarine cables that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    combination of state-owned and privately owned broadcast media; 1 state-owned TV network and a number of private TV networks; networks operate repeaters to extend signals throughout country; combination of state-owned and privately owned radio stations with more than 300 radio stations operating (2015)
    Internet country code:
    .do
    Internet users:
    total: 6,504,998 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 61.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
  • Transportation :: Dominican Republic
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,463 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    HI (2016)
    Airports:
    36 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 16 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 20 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    27 km gas, 103 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 496 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 354 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    narrow gauge: 142 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Roadways:
    total: 19,705 km (2002)
    paved: 9,872 km (2002)
    unpaved: 9,833 km (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Merchant marine:
    total: 23 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 2, other 21 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Puerto Haina, Puerto Plata, Santo Domingo
    oil terminal(s): Punta Nizao oil terminal
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Andres LNG terminal (Boca Chica)
  • Military and Security :: Dominican Republic
  • Military expenditures:
    0.64% of GDP (2016)
    0.67% of GDP (2015)
    0.67% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Military branches:
    Army (Ejercito Nacional, EN), Navy (Marina de Guerra, MdG, includes naval infantry), Dominican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Dominicana, FAD) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    17-21 years of age for voluntary military service; recruits must have completed primary school and be Dominican Republic citizens; women may volunteer (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Dominican Republic
  • Disputes - international:
    Haitian migrants cross the porous border into the Dominican Republic to find workillegal migrants from the Dominican Republic cross the Mona Passage each year to Puerto Rico to find better work
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 133,770 (2016); note - a September 2013 Constitutional Court ruling revoked the citizenship of those born after 1929 to immigrants without proper documentation, even though the constitution at the time automatically granted citizenship to children born in the Dominican Republic and the 2010 constitution provides that constitutional provisions cannot be applied retroactively; the decision overwhelmingly affected people of Haitian descent whose relatives had come to the Dominican Republic since the 1890s as a cheap source of labor for sugar plantations; a May 2014 law passed by the Dominican Congress regularizes the status of those with birth certificates but will require those without them to prove they were born in the Dominican Republic and to apply for naturalization; the government has issued documents to thousands of individuals who may claim citizenship under this law, but no official estimate has been released

    note: revised estimate includes only individuals born to parents who were both born abroad; it does not include individuals born in the country to one Dominican-born and one foreign-born parent or subsequent generations of individuals of foreign descent; the estimate, as such, does not include all stateless persons (2015)

    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; has become a transshipment point for ecstasy from the Netherlands and Belgium destined for US and Canada; substantial money laundering activity in particular by Colombian narcotics traffickers; significant amphetamine consumption