Europe :: Finland
  • Introduction :: Finland
  • Background:
    Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It gained complete independence in 1917. During World War II, Finland successfully defended its independence through cooperation with Germany and resisted subsequent invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, Finland transformed from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is among the highest in Western Europe. A member of the EU since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro single currency at its initiation in January 1999. In the 21st century, the key features of Finland's modern welfare state are high quality education, promotion of equality, and a national social welfare system - currently challenged by an aging population and the fluctuations of an export-driven economy.
  • Geography :: Finland
  • Location:
    Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
    Geographic coordinates:
    64 00 N, 26 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 338,145 sq km
    land: 303,815 sq km
    water: 34,330 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Area - comparative:
    slightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,563 km
    border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1309 km
    1,250 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
    cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
    mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
    mean elevation: 164 m
    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
    Natural resources:
    timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 7.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 7.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 72.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    690 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated
    Natural hazards:
    severe winters in the north
    Environment - current issues:
    limited air pollution in urban centers; some water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
  • People and Society :: Finland
  • Population:
    5,571,665 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    noun: Finn(s)
    adjective: Finnish
    Ethnic groups:
    Finn, Swede, Russian, Estonian, Romani, Sami
    Finnish (official) 87.6%, Swedish (official) 5.2%, Russian 1.4%, other 5.8% (2018 est.)
    Lutheran 69.8%, Greek Orthodox 1.1%, other 1.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2018 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 16.41% (male 467,220/female 447,005)
    15-24 years: 10.95% (male 312,179/female 297,717)
    25-54 years: 37.37% (male 1,064,326/female 1,017,545)
    55-64 years: 13.02% (male 357,687/female 367,610)
    65 years and over: 22.26% (male 543,331/female 697,045) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 62.4
    youth dependency ratio: 25.8
    elderly dependency ratio: 36.6
    potential support ratio: 2.7 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 42.8 years
    male: 41.3 years
    female: 44.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Population growth rate:
    0.3% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Birth rate:
    10.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Death rate:
    10.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Net migration rate:
    2.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated
    urban population: 85.5% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.42% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.305 million HELSINKI (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    28.8 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    3 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 2.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 222
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.3 years
    male: 78.4 years
    female: 84.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Total fertility rate:
    1.74 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    85.5% (2015)

    note: percent of women aged 18-49

    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    9.2% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    3.81 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    4,000 (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    22.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Education expenditures:
    6.9% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 19 years
    male: 19 years
    female: 20 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 17%
    male: 17.3%
    female: 16.8% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
  • Government :: Finland
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Finland
    conventional short form: Finland
    local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
    local short form: Suomi/Finland
    etymology: name may derive from the ancient Fenni peoples who are first described as living in northeastern Europe in the first centuries A.D.
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: Helsinki
    geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the name may derive from the Swedish "helsing," an archaic name for "neck" ("hals"), and which may refer to a narrowing of the Vantaa River that flows into the Gulf of Finland at Helsinki; "fors" refers to "rapids," so "helsing fors" meaning becomes "the narrows' rapids"
    Administrative divisions:
    19 regions (maakunnat, singular - maakunta (Finnish); landskapen, singular - landskapet (Swedish)); Aland (Swedish), Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Etela-Karjala (Finnish), Sodra Karelen (Swedish) [South Karelia]; Etela-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Sodra Osterbotten (Swedish) [South Ostrobothnia]; Etela-Savo (Finnish), Sodra Savolax (Swedish) [South Savo]; Kanta-Hame (Finnish), Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish); Kainuu (Finnish), Kajanaland (Swedish); Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Mellersta Osterbotten (Swedish) [Central Ostrobothnia]; Keski-Suomi (Finnish), Mellersta Finland (Swedish) [Central Finland]; Kymenlaakso (Finnish), Kymmenedalen (Swedish); Lappi (Finnish), Lappland (Swedish); Paijat-Hame (Finnish), Paijanne-Tavastland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish), Birkaland (Swedish) [Tampere]; Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Osterbotten (Swedish) [Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish), Norra Karelen (Swedish) [North Karelia]; Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish), Norra Osterbotten (Swedish) [North Ostrobothnia]; Pohjois-Savo (Finnish), Norra Savolax (Swedish) [North Savo]; Satakunta (Finnish and Swedish); Uusimaa (Finnish), Nyland (Swedish) [Newland]; Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish), Egentliga Finland (Swedish) [Southwest Finland]
    6 December 1917 (from Russia)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
    history: previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000
    amendments: proposed by Parliament; passage normally requires simple majority vote in two readings in the first parliamentary session and at least two-thirds majority vote in a single reading by the newly elected Parliament; proposals declared "urgent" by five-sixths of Parliament members can be passed by at least two-thirds majority vote in the first parliamentary session only; amended several times, last in 2012
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Finland
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 6 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
    head of government: Prime Minister Sanna MARIN (since 10 December 2019)
    cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 28 January 2018 (next to be held in January 2024); prime minister appointed by Parliament
    election results: Sauli NIINISTO reelected president; percent of vote Sauli NIINISTO (independent) 62.7%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 12.4%, Laura HUHTASAARI (PS) 6.9%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (independent) 6.2%, Matti VANHANEN (Kesk) 4.1%, other 7.7%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)
    elections: last held on 14 April 2019 (next to be held on April 2023) (e.g. 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party/coalition - SDP 17.7%, Finn Party 17.5%, Kok 17.0%. Centre Party  13.8%, Green League 11.5%, Left Alliance 8.2%; seats by party/coalition -SDP 40, Finn Party 39, Kok 38, Centre Party 31, Green League 20, Left Alliance 16; composition men 107, women 93, percent of women 46.5% (e.g. 2019)
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges, including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note - Finland has a dual judicial system - courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction and administrative courts with jurisdiction for litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 68
    subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labor, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights
    Political parties and leaders:
    Aland Coalition (a coalition of several political parties on the Aland Islands)
    Center Party or Kesk [Katri KULMUNI]
    Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
    Finns Party or PS [Jussi HALLA-AHO]
    Green League or Vihr [Pekka HAAVISTO]
    Left Alliance or Vas [Li ANDERSSON]
    National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
    Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
    Swedish People's Party or SFP [Anna-Maja HENRIKSSON]
    International organization participation:
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Mikko Tapani HAUTALA (since 17 September 2020)
    chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
    FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Robert "Bob" Frank PENCE (since 24 May 2018)
    telephone: [358] (9) 6162-50
    embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
    mailing address: APO AE 09723
    FAX: [358] (9) 6162-5135
    Flag description:
    white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag); the blue represents the thousands of lakes scattered across the country, while the white is for the snow that covers the land in winter
    National symbol(s):
    lion; national colors: blue, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Maamme" (Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Johan Ludvig RUNEBERG/Fredrik PACIUS

    note: in use since 1848; although never officially adopted by law, the anthem has been popular since it was first sung by a student group in 1848; Estonia's anthem uses the same melody as that of Finland

  • Economy :: Finland
  • Economy - overview:

    Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita GDP almost as high as that of Austria and the Netherlands and slightly above that of Germany and Belgium. Trade is important, with exports accounting for over one-third of GDP in recent years. The government is open to, and actively takes steps to attract, foreign direct investment.

    Finland is historically competitive in manufacturing, particularly in the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Finland excels in export of technology as well as promotion of startups in the information and communications technology, gaming, cleantech, and biotechnology sectors. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the cold climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export industry, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population.

    Finland had been one of the best performing economies within the EU before 2009 and its banks and financial markets avoided the worst of global financial crisis. However, the world slowdown hit exports and domestic demand hard in that year, causing Finland’s economy to contract from 2012 to 2014. The recession affected general government finances and the debt ratio. The economy returned to growth in 2016, posting a 1.9% GDP increase before growing an estimated 3.3% in 2017, supported by a strong increase in investment, private consumption, and net exports. Finnish economists expect GDP to grow a rate of 2-3% in the next few years.

    Finland's main challenges will be reducing high labor costs and boosting demand for its exports. In June 2016, the government enacted a Competitiveness Pact aimed at reducing labor costs, increasing hours worked, and introducing more flexibility into the wage bargaining system. As a result, wage growth was nearly flat in 2017. The Government was also seeking to reform the health care system and social services. In the long term, Finland must address a rapidly aging population and decreasing productivity in traditional industries that threaten competitiveness, fiscal sustainability, and economic growth.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $244.9 billion (2017 est.)
    $238.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $232.4 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 62
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $252.8 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.8% (2017 est.)
    2.5% (2016 est.)
    0.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $44,500 (2017 est.)
    $43,400 (2016 est.)
    $42,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 38
    Gross national saving:
    23.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 54.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 22.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 22.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 38.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -38.2% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 69.1% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
    metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Labor force:
    2.473 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 4%
    industry: 20.7%
    services: 75.3% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    8.5% (2017 est.)
    8.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 6.7%
    highest 10%: 45.2% (2013)
    revenues: 134.2 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 135.6 billion (2017 est.)

    note: Central Government Budget data; these numbers represent a significant reduction from previous official reporting

    Taxes and other revenues:
    53.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Public debt:
    61.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    62.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 72
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.8% (2017 est.)
    0.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Current account balance:
    $1.806 billion (2017 est.)
    -$819 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    $67.73 billion (2017 est.)
    $51.9 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 14.2%, Sweden 10.1%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.8%, China 5.7%, Russia 5.7%, UK 4.5% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    electrical and optical equipment, machinery, transport equipment, paper and pulp, chemicals, basic metals; timber
    $65.26 billion (2017 est.)
    $58.18 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Imports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, computers, electronic industry products, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 17.7%, Sweden 15.8%, Russia 13.1%, Netherlands 8.7% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $10.51 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Debt - external:
    $150.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $147.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Finland
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    66.54 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Electricity - consumption:
    82.79 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Electricity - exports:
    3.159 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Electricity - imports:
    22.11 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    16.27 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    17% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    23% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Crude oil - imports:
    236,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    310,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    217,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    166,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    122,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Natural gas - consumption:
    2.35 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Natural gas - exports:
    4 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Natural gas - imports:
    2.322 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    NA cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    46.01 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
  • Communications :: Finland
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 323,000
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 7.15 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 129 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: excellent service; one of the most progressive in Europe; one of the highest broadband and mobile penetrations rates in the region; for 2025 and 2030 FttP (fiber to the home) and DOCSIS3.1 (new generation of cable services for high speed connections) technologies; subscribers are migrating from 3G to LTE and 5G networks; astute regulatory measures have encouraged market competition and company investment (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 6 per 100 subscription and 129 per 100 mobile-cellular (2018)
    international: country code - 358; landing points for Botnia, BCS North-1 & 2, SFL, SFS-4, C-Lion1, Eastern Lights, Baltic Sea Submarine Cable, FEC, and EESF-2 & 3 submarine cables that provide links to many Finland points, Estonia, Sweden, Germany, and Russia; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) (2019)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    a mix of 3 publicly operated TV stations and numerous privately owned TV stations; several free and special-interest pay-TV channels; cable and satellite multi-channel subscription services are available; all TV signals are broadcast digitally; Internet television, such as Netflix and others, is available; public broadcasting maintains a network of 13 national and 25 regional radio stations; a large number of private radio broadcasters and access to Internet radio
    Internet country code:



    note - Aland Islands assigned .ax

    Internet users:
    total: 4,922,163
    percent of population: 88.89% (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 1.737 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 31 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
  • Military and Security :: Finland
  • Military and security forces:
    Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army (Maavoimat), Navy (Merivoimat), Air Force (Ilmavoimat); Ministry of the Interior: Border Guard (Rajavartiolaitos) (2019)
    note: the Border Guard becomes part of the FDF in wartime
    Military expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2019)
    1.4% of GDP (2018)
    1.4% of GDP (2017)
    1.4% of GDP (2016)
    1.5% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    estimates for the size of the Finnish Defense Forces (FDF) vary; approximately 23,000 total active duty personnel (16,000 Army; 4,000 Navy; 3,000 Air Force) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the inventory of the Finnish Defense Forces consists of a wide mix of mostly modern Western and domestically-produced weapons systems, as well as a limited quantity of Soviet-era equipment, particularly artillery and armored personnel carriers; since 2010, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the US are the leading foreign suppliers of armaments to Finland; the Finish defense industry produces a variety of military equipment, including wheeled armored vehicles and naval vessels (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    180 Lebanon (UNIFIL) (April 2020)
    Military service age and obligation:
    at age 18, all Finnish men are obligated to serve 6-12 months of service within a branch of the military or the Border Guard, and women may volunteer for service; after completing their initial conscript obligation, individuals enter the reserves and remain eligible for mobilization until the age of 60 (2019)
  • Transportation :: Finland
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2020)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 77
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 13,364,839 (2018)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 957.64 million mt-km (2018)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    OH (2016)
    148 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 74 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 10 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 21 (2017)
    under 914 m: 14 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 74 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 71 (2013)
    1288 km gas transmission pipes, 1976 km distribution pipes (2016)
    total: 5,926 km (2016)
    broad gauge: 5,926 km 1.524-m gauge (3,270 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    total: 454,000 km (2012)
    highways: 78,000 km (50,000 paved, including 700 km of expressways; 28,000 unpaved) (2012)
    private and forest roads: 350,000 km (2012)
    urban: 26,000 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    8,000 km (includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia; water transport used frequently in the summer and widely replaced with sledges on the ice in winter; there are 187,888 lakes in Finland that cover 31,500 km); Finland also maintains 8,200 km of coastal fairways (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Merchant marine:
    total: 269
    by type: bulk carrier 8, container ship 1, general cargo 79, oil tanker 4, other 177 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma
  • Transnational Issues :: Finland
  • Disputes - international:

    various groups in Finland advocate restoration of Karelia and other areas ceded to the former Soviet Union, but the Finnish Government asserts no territorial demands

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 8,523 (Iraq) (2018)
    stateless persons: 2,759 (2018)