Central Asia :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Introduction :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Background:
    A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, most of the territory of the present-day Kyrgyz Republic was formally annexed to the Russian Empire in 1876. The Kyrgyz staged a major revolt against the Tsarist Empire in 1916 in which almost one-sixth of the Kyrgyz population was killed. The Kyrgyz Republic became a Soviet republic in 1936 and achieved independence in 1991 when the USSR dissolved. Nationwide demonstrations in 2005 and 2010 resulted in the ouster of the country’s first two presidents, Askar AKAEV and Kurmanbek BAKIEV. Interim President Rosa OTUNBAEVA led a transitional government and following a nation-wide election, President Almazbek ATAMBAEV was sworn in as president in 2011. In 2017, ATAMBAEV became the first Kyrgyz president to step down after serving one full six-year term as required in the country’s constitution. Former prime minister and ruling Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan member Sooronbai JEENBEKOV replaced him after winning an October 2017 presidential election that was the most competitive in the country’s history, although international and local election observers noted cases of vote buying and abuse of public resources. The president holds substantial powers as head of state even though the prime minister oversees the Kyrgyz Government and selects most cabinet members. The president represents the country internationally and can sign or veto laws, call for new elections, and nominate Supreme Court judges, cabinet members for posts related to security or defense, and numerous other high-level positions. Continuing concerns for the Kyrgyz Republic include the trajectory of democratization, endemic corruption, a history of tense, at times violent, interethnic relations, border security vulnerabilities, and potential terrorist threats.
  • Geography :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Location:
    Central Asia, west of China, south of Kazakhstan
    Geographic coordinates:
    41 00 N, 75 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 199,951 sq km
    land: 191,801 sq km
    water: 8,150 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than South Dakota
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,573 km
    border countries (4): China 1063 km, Kazakhstan 1212 km, Tajikistan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1314 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan Mountains; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
    Terrain:
    peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range and associated valleys and basins encompass the entire country
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 2,988 m
    elevation extremes: 132 m lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya)
    7439 highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy)
    Natural resources:
    abundant hydropower; gold, rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 55.4% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 48.3% (2011 est.)
    forest: 5.1% (2011 est.)
    other: 39.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    10,233 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
    Natural hazards:
    major flooding during snow melt; prone to earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices; air pollution due to rapid increase of traffic
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; 94% of the country is 1,000 m above sea level with an average elevation of 2,750 m; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
  • People and Society :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Population:
    5,849,296 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Nationality:
    noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
    adjective: Kyrgyzstani
    Ethnic groups:
    Kyrgyz 73.2%, Uzbek 14.6%, Russian 5.8%, Dungan 1.1%, other 5.3% (includes Uyghur, Tajik, Turk, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German) (2017 est.)
    Languages:
    Kyrgyz (official) 71.4%, Uzbek 14.4%, Russian (official) 9%, other 5.2% (2009 est.)
    Religions:
    Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.4% (male 912,455 /female 865,910)
    15-24 years: 16.28% (male 483,799 /female 468,653)
    25-54 years: 39.94% (male 1,146,221 /female 1,189,763)
    55-64 years: 7.95% (male 202,754 /female 262,412)
    65 years and over: 5.43% (male 121,221 /female 196,108) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 54.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 48.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.6 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.1 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 26.8 years
    male: 25.7 years
    female: 27.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Population growth rate:
    1.02% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Birth rate:
    21.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Death rate:
    6.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Net migration rate:
    -5.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    Population distribution:
    the vast majority of Kyrgyzstanis live in rural areas; densest population settlement is to the north in and around the capital, Bishkek, followed by Osh in the west; the least densely populated area is the east, southeast in the Tien Shan mountains
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 36.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 2.03% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    996,000 BISHKEK (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    23.2 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    76 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 29 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 20.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 71.2 years (2018 est.)
    male: 67.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 75.6 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Total fertility rate:
    2.59 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    42% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    6.5% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Physicians density:
    1.85 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    4.5 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 96.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 86.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 90% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 13.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 10% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 95.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 93.3% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 4.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 6.7% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    7,600 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    16.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    2.8% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Education expenditures:
    6% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.5% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.6% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2014)
    male: 13 years (2014)
    female: 13 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 15.5% (2016 est.)
    male: 12.7% (2016 est.)
    female: 20.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
  • Government :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
    conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
    local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
    local short form: Kyrgyzstan
    former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "kyrg" (forty) and "-yz" (tribes) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) creating the meaning "Land of the Forty Tribes"; the name refers to the forty clans united by the legendary Kyrgyz hero, MANAS
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Bishkek
    geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
    time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    7 provinces (oblustar, singular - oblus) and 2 cities* (shaarlar, singular - shaar); Batken Oblusu, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblusu (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblusu, Naryn Oblusu, Osh Oblusu, Osh Shaary*, Talas Oblusu, Ysyk-Kol Oblusu (Karakol)

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    Independence:
    31 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1993; latest adopted by referendum 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010; note - constitutional amendments that bolstered some presidential powers and transferred others from the president to the prime minister passed in a referendum in December 2016, effective December 2017 (2018)
    amendments: proposed as a draft law by the majority of the Supreme Council membership or by petition of 300,000 voters; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the Council membership in each of at least three readings of the draft two months apart; the draft may be submitted to a referendum if approved by two-thirds of the Council membership; adoption requires the signature of the president; amended 2017 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Kyrgyzstan
    dual citizenship recognized: yes, but only if a mutual treaty on dual citizenship is in force
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (since 24 November 2017)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mukhammedkalyy ABYLGAZIEV (since 20 April 2018); First Deputy Prime Minister Kubatbek BORONOV (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Jengish RAZAKOV (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Altynay OMURBEKOVA (since 20 April 2018); Deputy Prime Minister Zamirbek ASKAROV (since 20 April 2018)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council; defense and security committee chairs appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 6-year term; election last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in October 2023); prime minister nominated by the majority party or majority coalition in the Supreme Council, appointed by the president upon approval by the Supreme Council
    election results: Sooronbay JEENBEKOV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Sooronbay JEENBEKOV (SDPK) 54.2%, Omurbek BABANOV (Respublika) 33.5%, Adakhan MADUMAROV (Butun Kyrgyzstan) 6.6%, Temir SARIYEV (Akshumar) 2.5%, other 3.2%; note - Sapar ISAKOV elected prime minister; Supreme Council vote - 97 to 5
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Supreme Council or Jogorku Kenesh (120 seats; parties directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; members selected from party lists to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 4 October 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - SDPK 27.4%, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 20.1%, Kyrgyzstan Party 12.9%, Onuguu-Progress 9.3%, Bir Bol 8.5%, Ata-Meken 7.7%, other 14.1%; seats by party - SDPK 38, Respublika-Ata-Jurt 28, Kyrgyzstan Party 18, Onuguu-Progress 13, Bir Bol 12, Ata-Meken 11; composition - men 97, women 23, percent of women 19.2%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 25 judges); Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court (consists of the chairperson, deputy chairperson, and 9 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president; Supreme Court judges serve for 10 years, Constitutional Court judges serve for 15 years; mandatory retirement at age 70 for judges of both courts
    subordinate courts: Higher Court of Arbitration; oblast (provincial) and city courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Ata-Jurt (Homeland) [Kamchybek TASHIEV]
    Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAEV]
    Bir Bol (Stay United) [Altynbek SULAIMANOV]
    Butun Kyrgyzstan (United Kyrgyzstan) [Adakhan MADUMAROV]
    Kyrgyzstan Party [Almazbek BAATYRBEKOV]
    Onuguu-Progress [Bakyt TOROBAEV]
    Respublika (Republic) [Ruslan KAZAKBAEV]
    Respublika-Ata-Jurt (Republic-Homeland) [Ruslan KAZAKBAEV] (parliamentary faction)
    Social-Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or SDPK [Almazbek ATAMBAEV]
    International organization participation:
    ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAEU, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (compliant country), FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Kadyr TOKTOGULOV (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 449-9822
    FAX: [1] (202) 449-8275
    honorary consulate(s): Maple Valley (WA)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Alan MELTZER (since 4 August 2017)
    embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [996] (312) 597-000
    FAX: [996] (312) 597-744
    Flag description:
    red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of a "tunduk" - the crown of a traditional Kyrgyz yurt; red symbolizes bravery and valor, the sun evinces peace and wealth
    National symbol(s):
    white falcon; national colors: red, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Kyrgyz Respublikasynyn Mamlekettik Gimni" (National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic)
    lyrics/music: Djamil SADYKOV and Eshmambet KULUEV/Nasyr DAVLESOV and Kalyi MOLDOBASANOV

    note: adopted 1992

  • Economy :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Economy - overview:

    Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked, mountainous, lower middle income country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only cotton is exported in any quantity. Other exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and - in some years - electricity. The country has sought to attract foreign investment to expand its export base, including construction of hydroelectric dams, but a difficult investment climate and an ongoing legal battle with a Canadian firm over the joint ownership structure of the nation’s largest gold mine deter potential investors. Remittances from Kyrgyz migrant workers, predominantly in Russia and Kazakhstan, are equivalent to more than one-quarter of Kyrgyzstan’s GDP.

    Following independence, Kyrgyzstan rapidly implemented market reforms, such as improving the regulatory system and instituting land reform. In 1998, Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. The government has privatized much of its ownership shares in public enterprises. Despite these reforms, the country suffered a severe drop in production in the early 1990s and has again faced slow growth in recent years as the global financial crisis and declining oil prices have dampened economies across Central Asia. The Kyrgyz government remains dependent on foreign donor support to finance its annual budget deficit of approximately 3 to 5% of GDP.

    Kyrgyz leaders hope the country’s August 2015 accession to the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) will bolster trade and investment, but slowing economies in Russia and China and low commodity prices continue to hamper economic growth. Large-scale trade and investment pledged by Kyrgyz leaders has been slow to develop. Many Kyrgyz entrepreneurs and politicians complain that non-tariff measures imposed by other EAEU member states are hurting certain sectors of the Kyrgyz economy, such as meat and dairy production, in which they have comparative advantage. Since acceding to the EAEU, the Kyrgyz Republic has continued harmonizing its laws and regulations to meet EAEU standards, though many local entrepreneurs believe this process as disjointed and incomplete. Kyrgyzstan’s economic development continues to be hampered by corruption, lack of administrative transparency, lack of diversity in domestic industries, and difficulty attracting foreign aid and investment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $23.15 billion (2017 est.)
    $22.14 billion (2016 est.)
    $21.22 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 144
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $7.565 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.6% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $3,700 (2017 est.)
    $3,600 (2016 est.)
    $3,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 183
    Gross national saving:
    27.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    18.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 85.4% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 33.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 39.7% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -79% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 14.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 31.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 54.2% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
    Industries:
    small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, lumber, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Labor force:
    2.841 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 39.5% (2005 est.)
    industry: 12.5% (2005 est.)
    services: 39.5% (2005 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    7.1% (2017 est.)
    7.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Population below poverty line:
    32.1% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 22.9% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    33.4 (2007)
    29 (2001)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Budget:
    revenues: 2.169 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.409 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    28.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Public debt:
    56% of GDP (2017 est.)
    55.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.2% (2017 est.)
    0.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Central bank discount rate:
    5% (31 December 2016)
    8% (31 December 2015)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    18.49% (31 December 2017 est.)
    22.23% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Stock of narrow money:
    $1.698 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Stock of broad money:
    $1.698 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.856 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.444 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $165 million (31 December 2012 est.)
    $165 million (31 December 2011 est.)
    $79 million (31 December 2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Current account balance:
    -$306 million (2017 est.)
    -$792 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Exports:
    $1.84 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.544 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Exports - commodities:
    gold, cotton, wool, garments, meat; mercury, uranium, electricity; machinery; shoes
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 59.1%, Uzbekistan 9.4%, Kazakhstan 5.1%, Russia 4.9%, UK 4% (2017)
    Imports:
    $4.187 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.644 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Imports - commodities:
    oil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.177 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.97 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Imports - partners:
    China 32.6%, Russia 24.8%, Kazakhstan 16.4%, Turkey 4.8%, US 4.2% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $8.164 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.182 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $6.003 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.21 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $709.3 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $655.5 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Exchange rates:
    soms (KGS) per US dollar -
    68.35 (2017 est.)
    69.914 (2016 est.)
    69.914 (2015 est.)
    64.462 (2014 est.)
    53.654 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    12.8 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Electricity - consumption:
    10.68 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Electricity - exports:
    184 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Electricity - imports:
    729 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.89 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    20.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    79.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Crude oil - production:
    1,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Crude oil - exports:
    20 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - imports:
    100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    40 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    1,776 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    33,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    2,698 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    31,960 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Natural gas - production:
    30 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Natural gas - consumption:
    180 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Natural gas - imports:
    160 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    9.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
  • Communications :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 362,288 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 7,369,927 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 127 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is being upgraded; loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development are being used to install a digital network, digital radio-relay stations, and fiber-optic links; a combination of grants and loans from the World Bank are being used to develop regional digital connectivity infrastructure under the Digital Central Asia and South Asia Project (2018) (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas; 3 mobile-cellular service providers with growing coverage; mobile-cellular subscribership up to over 130 per 100 persons (2016) (2016)
    international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat); connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-funded public TV broadcaster KTRK has nationwide coverage; also operates Ala-Too 24 news channel which broadcasts 24/7; ELTR is a state-owned station with national reach; the switchover to digital TV in 2017 resulted in private TV station growth; approximately 20 stations primarily rebroadcast programs from Russian channels; 3 Russian TV stations also broadcast; 1 state-funded radio station and about 10 significant private radio stations (2018)
    Internet country code:
    .kg
    Internet users:
    total: 1,976,006 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 34.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 258,013 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
  • Transportation :: Kyrgyzstan
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 625,294 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 69,290 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    EX (2016)
    Airports:
    28 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 18 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)
    under 914 m: 3 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 10 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 8 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    3566 km gas (2018), 16 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 424 km (2018)
    broad gauge: 424 km 1.520-m gauge (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Roadways:
    total: 34,000 km (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 94
    Waterways:
    600 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Ports and terminals:
    lake port(s): Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)(Lake Ysyk-Kol)
  • Military and Security :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Military expenditures:
    3.15% of GDP (2016)
    3.45% of GDP (2015)
    3.38% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Military branches:
    Land Forces, Air Defense Forces, National Guard, State Border Service, and State Committee on Defense Affairs (GKDO) (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary male military service in the Armed Forces or Interior Ministry; 1-year service obligation, with optional fee-based 3-year service in the call-up mobilization reserve; women may volunteer at age 19; 16-17 years of age for military cadets, who cannot take part in military operations (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Kyrgyzstan
  • Disputes - international:
    Kyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstandisputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistandelimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes over enclaves and other areas
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 855 (2017); note - most stateless people were born in Kyrgyzstan, have lived there many years, or married Kyrgyz citizens; in 2009, Kyrgyzstan adopted a national action plan to speed up the exchange of old Soviet passports for Kyrgyz ones; between 2014 and 2016, Kyrgyzstan has resolved nearly 9,000 stateless cases; stateless people are unable to register marriages and births, to travel within the country or abroad, to own property, or to receive social benefits
    Illicit drugs:
    limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe; major consumer of opiates