Europe :: Moldova
  • Introduction :: Moldova
  • Background:

    A large portion of present day Moldovan territory became a province of the Russian Empire in 1812 and then unified with Romania in 1918 in the aftermath of World War I. This territory was then incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although Moldova has been independent from the Soviet Union since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, whose population is roughly equally composed of ethnic Ukrainians, Russians, and Moldovans.

    Years of Communist Party rule in Moldova post-independence ultimately ended with election-related violent protests and a rerun of parliamentary elections in 2009. Since then, a series of pro-European ruling coalitions have governed Moldova. As a result of the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats. Infighting among coalition members led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of four governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PDM). A political impasse ended in January 2016 when a new parliamentary majority led by PDM, joined by defectors from the Communists and PLDM, supported PDM member Pavel FILIP as prime minister.

    Moldova remains Europe's poorest economy, but has made steps toward expanding its market access by signing and ratifying an Association Agreement with the EU in 2014, which fully entered into force in July 2016 after ratification by all EU member states. Igor DODON won Moldova's first direct presidential election in over 20 years in November 2016.

  • Geography :: Moldova
  • Location:
    Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
    Geographic coordinates:
    47 00 N, 29 00 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 33,851 sq km
    land: 32,891 sq km
    water: 960 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than Maryland
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,885 km
    border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1202 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    moderate winters, warm summers
    Terrain:
    rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 139 m
    elevation extremes: 2 m lowest point: Dniester (Nistru)
    430 highest point: Dealul Balanesti
    Natural resources:
    lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 74.9% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 55.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 9.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 10.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 11.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    2,283 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti
    Natural hazards:
    landslides
    Environment - current issues:
    heavy use of agricultural chemicals, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion and declining soil fertility from poor farming methods
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
  • People and Society :: Moldova
  • Population:
    3,437,720 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Nationality:
    noun: Moldovan(s)
    adjective: Moldovan
    Ethnic groups:
    Moldovan 75.1%, Romanian 7%, Ukrainian 6.6%, Gagauz 4.6%, Russian 4.1%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 0.8% (2014 est.)
    Languages:
    Moldovan/Romanian 80.2% (official) (56.7% identify their mother tongue as Moldovan, which is virtually the same as Romanian; 23.5% identify Romanian as their mother tongue), Russian 9.7%, Gagauz 4.2% (a Turkish language), Ukrainian 3.9%, Bulgarian 1.5%, Romani 0.3%, other 0.2% (2014 est.)

    note: data represent mother tongue

    Religions:
    Orthodox 90.1%, other Christian 2.6%, other 0.1%, agnostic (2014 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 18.29% (male 324,002 /female 304,737)
    15-24 years: 11.84% (male 210,988 /female 196,063)
    25-54 years: 43.29% (male 752,758 /female 735,471)
    55-64 years: 13.5% (male 213,410 /female 250,755)
    65 years and over: 13.08% (male 176,252 /female 273,284) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 34.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 21.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 13.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 7.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 37 years
    male: 35.3 years
    female: 38.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Population growth rate:
    -1.06% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 226
    Birth rate:
    11.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Death rate:
    12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Net migration rate:
    -9.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Population distribution:
    pockets of agglomeration exist throughout the country, the largest being in the center of the country around the capital of Chisinau, followed by Tiraspol and Balti
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 42.6% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.07% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    510,000 CHISINAU (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    24 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 11.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 13.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 9.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 67.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 75.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Total fertility rate:
    1.57 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    59.5% (2012)
    Health expenditures:
    10.3% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Physicians density:
    3.2 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    5.8 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 96.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 81.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 3.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 18.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 87.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 67.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 76.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 12.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 32.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    15,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    18.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    2.2% (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Education expenditures:
    6.7% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 99.4% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 12 years (2015)
    male: 11 years (2015)
    female: 12 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.2% (2016 est.)
    male: 10.9% (2016 est.)
    female: 11.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
  • Government :: Moldova
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
    conventional short form: Moldova
    local long form: Republica Moldova
    local short form: Moldova
    former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)
    geographic coordinates: 47 00 N,
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)

    28 51 E
    Administrative divisions:

    32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala)

    raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni;

    municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau;

    autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia;

    territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)

    Independence:
    27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994 (2016)
    amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by at least one-third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, the Moldovan Constitutional Court decision returned the country to direct presidential elections, reversing a 2000 constitutional amendment that allowed Parliament to select the president (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Moldova
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Igor DODON (since 23 December 2016); note – in 2017-18, DODON was temporarily suspended 4 times by the Moldovan Constitutional Court for rejecting ministerial appointments and for refusing to sign a law; Parliamentary Chairman, Andrian CANDU, has assumed some of the presidential functions
    head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament
    elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2020); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament
    election results: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote - Igor DODON (PSRM) 52.2%, Maia SANDU (PAS) 47.8%; Pavel FILIP (PDM) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; 51 members directly elected in single-seat constituenceis by simple majority vote and 50 members directly elected in a single, nationwide constitutency by closed party-list proportional representation vote; all members serve 4-year terms
    elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next originally scheduled for late November 2018 but delayed until 24 February 1919 by Parliament)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PDM 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PDM 19, PL 13; composition - men 83, women 18, percent of women 17.8%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistracy (an 11-member body of judicial officials); all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy for 6-year terms; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    represented in Parliament:
    Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN];
    Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Vladimir PLAHOTNIUC];
    European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA];
    Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Viorel CIBOTARU];
    Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU];
    Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Zinaida GRECEANII];
    not represented in Parliament, participated in recent elections (2014-2016):
    Action and Solidarity Party or PAS [Maia SANDU];
    Anti-Mafia Movement or MPA [Sergiu MOCANU];
    Centrist Union of Moldova or UCM [Mihai PETRACHE];
    Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Victor CIOBANU];
    Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA];
    Democracy at Home Party or PDA [Vasile COSTIUC];
    Democratic Action Party or PAD [Mihai GODEA];
    Dignity and Truth Platform or PPDA [Andrei NASTASE];
    Ecologist Green Party or PVE [Anatolie PROHNITCHI];
    Law and Justice Party or PLD [Nicolae ALEXEI];
    "Motherland" Party or PP [Emilian CIOBU];
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO];
    Our Home Moldova or PCNM [Grigore PETRENCO];
    Our Party or PN [Renato USATII];
    Party of National Unity [Anatol SALARU];
    People’s Party of Moldova or PPRM [Alexandru OLEINIC];
    Regions Party of Moldova or PRM [Alexandr KALININ];
    Shor Party or PS [Ilan SHOR];
    Socialist People’s Party of Moldova or PPSM [Victor STEPANIUC]
    International organization participation:
    BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Cristina BALAN (since 22 June 2018)
    chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador James D. PETTIT (since 30 January 2015)
    embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
    FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of Prussian blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; emblem in center of flag is of a Roman eagle of dark gold (brown) outlined in black with a red beak and talons carrying a yellow cross in its beak and a green olive branch in its right talons and a yellow scepter in its left talons; on its breast is a shield divided horizontally red over blue with a stylized aurochs head, star, rose, and crescent all in black-outlined yellow; based on the color scheme of the flag of Romania - with which Moldova shares a history and culture - but Moldova's blue band is lighter; the reverse of the flag displays a mirrored image of the coat of arms

    note: one of only three national flags that differ on their obverse and reverse sides - the others are Paraguay and Saudi Arabia

    National symbol(s):
    aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
    lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

    note: adopted 1994

  • Economy :: Moldova
  • Economy - overview:

    Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, wheat, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.2 billion - almost 15% of GDP - from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Israel, Russia, and elsewhere.

    With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $6 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. In 2018, Moldova awarded a tender to Romanian Transgaz to construct a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. Moldova also seeks to connect with the European power grid by 2022.

    The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2017, largely driven by increased consumption, increased revenue from agricultural exports, and improved tax collection. During fall 2014, Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU (AA/DCFTA), connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. The EU AA/DCFTA has contributed to significant growth in Moldova’s exports to the EU. In 2017, the EU purchased over 65% of Moldova’s exports, a major change from 20 years previously when the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) received over 69% of Moldova’s exports. A $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; the subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu and a minor recession. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption, which limits business growth and deters foreign investment, and Russian restrictions on imports of Moldova’s agricultural products. The government’s push to restore stability and implement meaningful reform led to the approval in 2016 of a $179 million three-year IMF program focused on improving the banking and fiscal environments, along with additional assistance programs from the EU, World Bank, and Romania. Moldova received two IMF tranches in 2017, totaling over $42.5 million.

    Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, energy import dependence, Russian political and economic pressure, heavy dependence on agricultural exports, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $23.72 billion (2017 est.)
    $22.69 billion (2016 est.)
    $21.75 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 143
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $9.556 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    -0.4% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $6,700 (2017 est.)
    $6,400 (2016 est.)
    $6,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 162
    Gross national saving:
    13.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    14.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 85.8% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.9% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.4% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 42.5% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -70.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 17.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 20.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 62% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
    Industries:
    sugar processing, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Labor force:
    1.295 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 55.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 12% (2017 est.)
    services: 55.7% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    4.1% (2017 est.)
    4.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Population below poverty line:
    9.6% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 22.1% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    26.8 (2015 est.)
    26.8 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Budget:
    revenues: 2.886 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.947 billion (2017 est.)

    note: National Public Budget

    Taxes and other revenues:
    30.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Public debt:
    31.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
    35.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    6.6% (2017 est.)
    6.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Central bank discount rate:
    6.5% (31 December 2017)
    9% (31 December 2016)

    note: this is the basic rate on short-term operations

    country comparison to the world: 60
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    10.36% (31 December 2017 est.)
    14.28% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Stock of narrow money:
    $2.026 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.406 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Stock of broad money:
    $2.026 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.406 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $2.135 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.942 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $18.42 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $9.723 million (31 December 2015 est.)
    $50.47 million (31 December 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Current account balance:
    -$602 million (2017 est.)
    -$268 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Exports:
    $1.858 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.045 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Exports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
    Exports - partners:
    Romania 24.6%, Russia 13.7%, Italy 9.1%, Germany 6.2%, Ukraine 5.3%, UK 4.6%, Poland 4.6% (2017)
    Imports:
    $4.427 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.02 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Imports - commodities:
    mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $2.803 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.206 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Imports - partners:
    Romania 15.5%, Ukraine 11.4%, Russia 10.6%, China 10.4%, Germany 8.9%, Italy 6.9%, Turkey 6.1% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $6.549 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $6.138 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $3.701 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.581 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $252.7 million (31 December 2017)
    $206.1 million (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Exchange rates:
    Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar -
    18.49 (2017 est.)
    19.924 (2016 est.)
    19.924 (2015 est.)
    19.83 (2014 est.)
    14.036 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Moldova
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    5.741 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Electricity - consumption:
    3.669 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Electricity - imports:
    4 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    3.001 million kW (2017 est.)

    note: excludes Transnistria

    country comparison to the world: 98
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    85.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    13.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    1.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Crude oil - imports:
    20 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    354 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    21,720 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    780 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    21,920 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Natural gas - production:
    100,000 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Natural gas - consumption:
    965 million cu m (2016 est.)

    note: excludes breakaway Transnistria

    country comparison to the world: 91
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Natural gas - imports:
    2.712 billion cu m (2017 est.)

    note: excludes breakaway Transnistria

    country comparison to the world: 48
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    4.976 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
  • Communications :: Moldova
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1,143,852 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 33 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 3,662,968 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country (2016)
    domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 105 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio station; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .md
    Internet users:
    total: 2,492,444 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 71% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 584,330 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 17 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
  • Transportation :: Moldova
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 12 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,005,942 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 489,630 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    ER (2016)
    Airports:
    7 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 5 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 2 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    1916 km gas (2014)
    Railways:
    total: 1,171 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Roadways:
    total: 9,352 km (2012)
    paved: 8,835 km (2012)
    unpaved: 517 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Waterways:
    558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut Rivers) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Merchant marine:
    total: 172 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 5, container ship 2, general cargo 130, oil tanker 8, other 27 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 68
  • Military and Security :: Moldova
  • Military expenditures:
    0.37% of GDP (2017)
    0.44% of GDP (2016)
    0.35% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Military branches:
    National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces during wartime (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation; note - the ultimate abolition of military conscription has been announced (2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Moldova
  • Disputes - international:
    Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
    stateless persons: 4,569 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity