Africa :: Mozambique
  • Introduction :: Mozambique
  • Background:
    Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in 2015. RENAMO’s residual armed forces have intermittently engaged in a low-level insurgency since 2012, although a late December 2016 ceasefire held throughout 2017.
  • Geography :: Mozambique
  • Location:
    Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
    Geographic coordinates:
    18 15 S, 35 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 799,380 sq km
    land: 786,380 sq km
    water: 13,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Area - comparative:
    slightly more than five times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of California
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,783 km
    border countries (6): Malawi 1498 km, South Africa 496 km, Eswatini 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1402 km
    Coastline:
    2,470 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    tropical to subtropical
    Terrain:
    mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 345 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Indian Ocean
    2436 highest point: Monte Binga
    Natural resources:
    coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 56.3% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 6.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 49.6% (2011 est.)
    forest: 43.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 0% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,180 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas
    Natural hazards:
    severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
    Environment - current issues:
    increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; soil erosion; deforestation; water pollution caused by artisanal mining; pollution of surface and coastal waters; wildlife preservation (elephant poaching for ivory)
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    the Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
  • People and Society :: Mozambique
  • Population:
    27,233,789 (July 2018 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 50
    Nationality:
    noun: Mozambican(s)
    adjective: Mozambican
    Ethnic groups:
    African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
    Languages:
    Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 30.3%, Muslim 19.2%, Protestant 19.2%, Zionist Christian 10.6%, Evangelical/Pentecostal 9.3% (includes Anglican), other 1.4%, none 9.3% (2015 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Mozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.

    Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 44.52% (male 6,097,116 /female 6,028,416)
    15-24 years: 21.6% (male 2,905,254 /female 2,977,732)
    25-54 years: 27.62% (male 3,525,755 /female 3,995,264)
    55-64 years: 3.37% (male 442,990 /female 475,900)
    65 years and over: 2.88% (male 359,624 /female 425,738) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 93.5 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 87.5 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 17.3 years
    male: 16.7 years
    female: 17.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 220
    Population growth rate:
    2.46% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Birth rate:
    37.8 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Death rate:
    11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Net migration rate:
    -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Population distribution:
    three large populations clusters are found along the southern coast between Maputo and Inhambane, in the central area between Beira and Chimoio along the Zambezi River, and in and around the northern cities of Nampula, Cidade de Nacala, and Pemba; the northwest and southwest are the least populated areas
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 36% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.35% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.635 million Matola, 1.102 million MAPUTO (capital), 775,000 Nampula (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    18.9 years (2011 est.)
    median age at first birth among women 25-29
    Maternal mortality rate:
    489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 54.1 years (2018 est.)
    male: 53.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 54.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 218
    Total fertility rate:
    5.02 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    27.1% (2015)
    Health expenditures:
    7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Physicians density:
    0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 80.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 37% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 51.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 19.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 63% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 42.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 10.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 20.5% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 89.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    12.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    2.1 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    70,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    7.2% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    15.6% (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Education expenditures:
    6.5% of GDP (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 58.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 73.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 10 years (2014)
    male: 10 years (2014)
    female: 9 years (2014)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 7.4% (2015 est.)
    male: 7.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 7.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
  • Government :: Mozambique
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
    conventional short form: Mozambique
    local long form: Republica de Mocambique
    local short form: Mocambique
    former: Portuguese East Africa, People's Republic of Mozambique
    etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Maputo
    geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
    Independence:
    25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004 (2018)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or supported by at least one-third of the Assembly of the Republic membership; passage of amendments affecting constitutional provisions including the independence and sovereignty of the state, the republican form of government, basic rights and freedoms, and universal suffrage requires at least a two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly and approval in a referendum; referenda not required for passage of other amendments; amended 2007, 2018 (2018)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Mozambique
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)
    head of government: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015); Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president elected directly by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held on 15 October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president in first round; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote and 2 members representing Mozambicans abroad appointed by the elected party; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.2%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by the president of the republic; vice president appointed by the president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and ratified by the Assembly of the Republic; other judges elected by the Assembly; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the Assembly, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO]
    Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYUSI]
    Mozambican National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos DOS SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
    FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
    embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
    mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
    telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
    FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book; green represents the riches of the land, white peace, black the African continent, yellow the country's minerals, and red the struggle for independence; the rifle symbolizes defense and vigilance, the hoe refers to the country's agriculture, the open book stresses the importance of education, and the star represents Marxism and internationalism

    note: one of only two national flags featuring a firearm, the other is Guatemala

    National symbol(s):
    national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
    lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown

    note: adopted 2002

  • Economy :: Mozambique
  • Economy - overview:

    At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP, in purchasing power parity terms, from $4 billion in 1993 to about $37 billion in 2017. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, about half the population remains below the poverty line and subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force.

    Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2016, information surfaced revealing that the Mozambican Government was responsible for over $2 billion in government-backed loans secured between 2012-14 by state-owned defense and security companies without parliamentary approval or national budget inclusion; this prompted the IMF and international donors to halt direct budget support to the Government of Mozambique. An international audit was performed on Mozambique’s debt in 2016-17, but debt restructuring and resumption of donor support have yet to occur.

    Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade leading up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances, but the sizable external debt burden, donor withdrawal, elevated inflation, and currency depreciation contributed to slower growth in 2016-17.

    Two major International consortiums, led by American companies ExxonMobil and Anadarko, are seeking approval to develop massive natural gas deposits off the coast of Cabo Delgado province, in what has the potential to become the largest infrastructure project in Africa. . The government predicts sales of liquefied natural gas from these projects could generate several billion dollars in revenues annually sometime after 2022.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $37.09 billion (2017 est.)
    $35.76 billion (2016 est.)
    $34.46 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 122
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $12.59 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3.7% (2017 est.)
    3.8% (2016 est.)
    6.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $1,300 (2017 est.)
    $1,200 (2016 est.)
    $1,200 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 222
    Gross national saving:
    16.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    -1.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 69.7% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 27.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 13.9% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 38.3% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -70.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 23.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 19.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
    Industries:
    aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Labor force:
    12.9 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 21.7% (2015 est.)
    industry: 3.9% (2015 est.)
    services: 21.7% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    24.5% (2017 est.)
    25% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Population below poverty line:
    46.1% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
    highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    45.6 (2008)
    47.3 (2002)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Budget:
    revenues: 3.356 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.054 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    26.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -5.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Public debt:
    102.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    121.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    15.3% (2017 est.)
    19.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 212
    Central bank discount rate:
    19% (4 November 2017)
    23.25% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    27.86% (31 December 2017 est.)
    21.18% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Stock of narrow money:
    $3.817 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Stock of broad money:
    $3.817 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $3.411 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $4.337 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.242 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$2.824 billion (2017 est.)
    -$4.28 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Exports:
    $4.725 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.328 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Exports - commodities:
    aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
    Exports - partners:
    India 28.1%, Netherlands 24.4%, South Africa 16.7% (2017)
    Imports:
    $5.223 billion (2017 est.)
    $4.733 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $3.361 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.081 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Imports - partners:
    South Africa 36.8%, China 7%, UAE 6.8%, India 6.2%, Portugal 4.4% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $10.91 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.48 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Exchange rates:
    meticais (MZM) per US dollar -
    64.4 (2017 est.)
    63.067 (2016 est.)
    63.067 (2015 est.)
    39.983 (2014 est.)
    31.367 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Mozambique
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 15.7 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 39% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 66% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 27% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    19.58 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Electricity - consumption:
    13.86 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Electricity - exports:
    12.88 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Electricity - imports:
    10.55 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    2.556 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    14% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    85.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    23,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    21,890 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Natural gas - production:
    5.695 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Natural gas - consumption:
    1.895 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Natural gas - exports:
    3.8 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
  • Communications :: Mozambique
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 80,545 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 11,875,506 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 45 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: the mobile segment has shown strong growth since the introduction of competition in 2003; poor fixed-line infrastructure means most Internet access is through mobile accounts (2016)
    domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; three mobile-cellular operators provide coverage that includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 70 per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a number of privately owned and community-operated stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .mz
    Internet users:
    total: 4,543,284 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 17.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 41,653 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
  • Transportation :: Mozambique
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 16 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 686,892 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 5,138,916 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    C9 (2016)
    Airports:
    98 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 21 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2017)
    under 914 m: 4 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 77 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 9 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 29 (2013)
    under 914 m: 38 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    972 km gas, 278 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 4,787 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Roadways:
    total: 31,083 km (2015)
    paved: 7,365 km (2015)
    unpaved: 23,718 km (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Waterways:
    460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Merchant marine:
    total: 27 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 10, other 17 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
  • Military and Security :: Mozambique
  • Military expenditures:
    1.03% of GDP (2016)
    0.99% of GDP (2015)
    1.02% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Military branches:
    Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Mozambique
  • Disputes - international:
    South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 10,598 (Democratic Republic of Congo) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center