Africa :: Niger
  • Introduction :: Niger
  • Background:
    Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.
  • Geography :: Niger
  • Location:
    Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
    Geographic coordinates:
    16 00 N, 8 00 E
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 1.267 million sq km
    land: 1,266,700 sq km
    water: 300 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than twice the size of Texas
    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,834 km
    border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1608 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
    Terrain:
    predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 474 m
    elevation extremes: 200 m lowest point: Niger River
    2022 highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes
    Natural resources:
    uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 35.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 12.3% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.1% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 22.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 1% (2011 est.)
    other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,000 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin
    Natural hazards:
    recurring droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; contaminated water; inadequate potable water; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
  • People and Society :: Niger
  • Population:
    19,866,231 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Nationality:
    noun: Nigerien(s)
    adjective: Nigerien
    Ethnic groups:
    Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
    Languages:
    French (official), Hausa, Djerma
    Religions:
    Muslim 99.3%, Christian .3%, animist .2%, none .1% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Niger has the highest total fertility rate (TFR) of any country in the world, averaging close to 7 children per woman in 2016. A slight decline in fertility over the last few decades has stalled. This leveling off of the high fertility rate is in large part a product of the continued desire for large families. In Niger, the TFR is lower than the desired fertility rate, which makes it unlikely that contraceptive use will increase. The high TFR sustains rapid population growth and a large youth population – almost 70% of the populace is under the age of 25. Gender inequality, including a lack of educational opportunities for women and early marriage and childbirth, also contributes to high population growth.

    Because of large family sizes, children are inheriting smaller and smaller parcels of land. The dependence of most Nigeriens on subsistence farming on increasingly small landholdings, coupled with declining rainfall and the resultant shrinkage of arable land, are all preventing food production from keeping up with population growth.

    For more than half a century, Niger's lack of economic development has led to steady net outmigration. In the 1960s, Nigeriens mainly migrated to coastal West African countries to work on a seasonal basis. Some headed to Libya and Algeria in the 1970s to work in the booming oil industry until its decline in the 1980s. Since the 1990s, the principal destinations for Nigerien labor migrants have been West African countries, especially Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, while emigration to Europe and North America has remained modest. During the same period, Niger’s desert trade route town Agadez became a hub for West African and other sub-Saharan migrants crossing the Sahara to North Africa and sometimes onward to Europe.

    More than 60,000 Malian refugees have fled to Niger since violence between Malian government troops and armed rebels began in early 2012. Ongoing attacks by the Boko Haram Islamist insurgency, dating to 2013 in northern Nigeria and February 2015 in southeastern Niger, have pushed tens of thousands of Nigerian refugees and Nigerien returnees across the border to Niger and to displace thousands of locals in Niger’s already impoverished Diffa region.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 48.68% (male 4,878,031 /female 4,793,021)
    15-24 years: 19.36% (male 1,899,879 /female 1,945,806)
    25-54 years: 26.02% (male 2,581,597 /female 2,587,913)
    55-64 years: 3.3% (male 340,032 /female 315,142)
    65 years and over: 2.64% (male 268,072 /female 256,738) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 111.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 106.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 5.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 18.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 15.5 years
    male: 15.4 years
    female: 15.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 228
    Population growth rate:
    3.16% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Birth rate:
    43.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Death rate:
    11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Net migration rate:
    -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Population distribution:
    majority of the populace is located in the southernmost extreme of the country along the border with Nigeria and Benin
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 16.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 4.27% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.214 million NIAMEY (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    18.1 years (2012 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 79.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 83.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 56.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 55 years (2018 est.)
    female: 57.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Total fertility rate:
    6.35 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 1
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    18.9% (2017)
    Health expenditures:
    5.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Physicians density:
    0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 48.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 58.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 51.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 37.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 4.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 10.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 62.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 95.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    36,000 UNAIDS, AIDSinfo Online Database, 2017, 7/31/18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,800 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
    water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
    animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
    respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    5.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    31.7% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Education expenditures:
    6% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 19.1% (2015 est.)
    male: 27.3% (2015 est.)
    female: 11% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 5 years (2012)
    male: 6 years (2012)
    female: 5 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 0.5% (2011 est.)
    male: 0.8% (2011 est.)
    female: 0.2% (2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
  • Government :: Niger
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Niger
    conventional short form: Niger
    local long form: Republique du Niger
    local short form: Niger
    etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"

    note: pronounced nee-zher

    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Niamey
    geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communaute urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
    Independence:
    3 August 1960 (from France)
    National holiday:
    Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the president of the republic or by the National Assembly; consideration of amendments requires at least three-fourths majority vote by the Assembly; passage requires at least four-fifths majority vote; if disapproved, the proposed amendment is dropped or submitted to a referendum; constitutional articles on the form of government, the multiparty system, the separation of state and religion, disqualification of Assembly members, amendment procedures, and amnesty of participants in the 2010 coup cannot be amended; amended 2011 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Niger
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: unknown
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 with a runoff on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly
    election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president in second round; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election
    elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 1.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members)
    judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms
    subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA]
    Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR]
    Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU]
    Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO]
    National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU]
    Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE]
    Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU]
    Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE]
    Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU]
    Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA]
    Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri
    Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA]
    Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID]
    Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR]
    Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE]

    note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties

    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
    chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
    FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Eric P. WHITAKER (since 26 January 2018)
    embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
    mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
    telephone: [227] 20-72-26-61
    FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with a small orange disk centered in the white band; the orange band denotes the drier northern regions of the Sahara; white stands for purity and innocence; green symbolizes hope and the fertile and productive southern and western areas, as well as the Niger River; the orange disc represents the sun and the sacrifices made by the people

    note: similar to the flag of India, which has a blue spoked wheel centered in the white band

    National symbol(s):
    zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
    National anthem:
    name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
    lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

    note: adopted 1961

  • Economy :: Niger
  • Economy - overview:

    Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes approximately 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for over 80% of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the second least developed country in the world in 2016 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding.

    Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure, as well as due to increased security spending. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances.

    The Government of Niger plans to exploit oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources to sustain future growth. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the prolonged drop in oil prices has reduced profitability. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest more in irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility (ECF) agreement for the years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016. In February 2017, the IMF approved a new 3-year $134 million ECF. In June 2017, The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) granted Niger $1 billion over three years for IDA18, a program to boost the country’s development and alleviate poverty. A $437 million Millennium Challenge Account compact for Niger, commencing in FY18, will focus on large-scale irrigation infrastructure development and community-based, climate-resilient agriculture, while promoting sustainable increases in agricultural productivity and sales.

    Formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness. Although President ISSOUFOU is courting foreign investors, including those from the US, as of April 2017, there were no US firms operating in Niger. In November 2017, the National Assembly passed the 2018 Finance Law that was geared towards raising government revenues and moving away from international support.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $21.86 billion (2017 est.)
    $20.84 billion (2016 est.)
    $19.87 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 146
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $8.224 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    4.9% (2016 est.)
    4.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $1,200 (2017 est.)
    $1,100 (2016 est.)
    $1,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 224
    Gross national saving:
    22.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    21.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 70.2% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 9.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 38.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 16.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -34.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 41.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 19.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 38.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
    Industries:
    uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Labor force:
    6.5 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 17.5% (2012 est.)
    industry: 3.3% (2012 est.)
    services: 17.5% (2012 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    0.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 3
    Population below poverty line:
    45.4% (2014 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
    highest 10%: 26.8% (2014)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    34 (2014)
    50.5 (1995)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Budget:
    revenues: 1.757 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 2.171 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    21.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Public debt:
    45.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    45.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    0.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Central bank discount rate:
    4.25% (31 December 2015)
    4.25% (31 December 2014)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.4% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.3% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Stock of narrow money:
    $1.804 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.511 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Stock of broad money:
    $1.804 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.511 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.506 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.196 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$1.16 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.181 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Exports:
    $4.143 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.101 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Exports - commodities:
    uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
    Exports - partners:
    France 30.2%, Thailand 18.3%, Malaysia 9.9%, Nigeria 8.3%, Mali 5%, Switzerland 4.9% (2017)
    Imports:
    $6.613 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.031 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Imports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $1.314 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.186 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Imports - partners:
    France 28.8%, China 14.4%, Malaysia 5.7%, Nigeria 5.4%, Thailand 5.3%, US 5.1%, India 4.9% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $3.728 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.926 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Exchange rates:
    Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
    605.3 (2017 est.)
    593.01 (2016 est.)
    593.01 (2015 est.)
    591.45 (2014 est.)
    494.42 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Niger
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 15.2 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 15% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 62% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 4% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    458.2 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Electricity - consumption:
    1.072 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Electricity - imports:
    779.1 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    179,000 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    96.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    4.5% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Crude oil - production:
    13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    150 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    16,570 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    13,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    6,187 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    2,465 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 181
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
  • Communications :: Niger
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 114,352 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 8,778,884 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger (2016)
    domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned (2016)
    international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .ne
    Internet users:
    total: 805,702 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 4.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 8,650 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: less than 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
  • Transportation :: Niger
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 2 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,242 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 0 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    5U (2016)
    Airports:
    30 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 10 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 20 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2013)
    under 914 m: 2 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    464 km oil
    Roadways:
    total: 18,949 km (2010)
    paved: 3,912 km (2010)
    unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Waterways:
    300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Merchant marine:
    total: 2 (2017)
    by type: oil tanker 1, other 1 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 170
  • Military and Security :: Niger
  • Military expenditures:
    4% of GDP (2016)
    5.46% of GDP (2015)
    3.45% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Military branches:
    Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2017)
  • Terrorism :: Niger
  • Terrorist groups - home based:
    Islamic State in the Greater Sahara (ISGS) (also known as ISIS-GS):
    aim(s): replace regional governments with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    mostly concentrated along the Mali-Niger border region; targets primarily security forces (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS)-West Africa:
    aim(s): implement ISIS's strict interpretation of Sharia; replace the Nigerian Government with an Islamic state
    area(s) of operation:
    based primarily in the southeast along the border with Nigeria, with its largest presence in northeast Nigeria and the Lake Chad region; targets primarily regional military installations, especially in the southeastern Diffa region (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    al-Qa'ida-affiliated Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin (JNIM):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic state centered in Mali
    area(s) of operation:
    primarily based in northern and central Mali; targets Western and local interests in West Africa and Sahel; has claimed responsibility for attacks in Mali, Niger, and Burkina Faso
    note: pledged allegiance to al-Qa'ida and AQIM; holds Western hostages; wages attacks against security and peacekeeping forces in Mali (April 2018)
    Boko Haram:
    aim(s): establish an Islamic caliphate across Africa
    area(s) of operation: conducts kidnappings, bombings, and assaults; responsible for displacing thousands of people and contributing to food insecurity
    note: violently opposes any political or social activity associated with Western society, including voting, attending secular schools, and wearing Western dress (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Niger
  • Disputes - international:
    Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo regionlocation of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolvedonly Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundariesthe dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 118,868 (Nigeria), 57,719 (Mali) (2018)
    IDPs: 144,000 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2017)