South Asia :: Nepal
  • Introduction :: Nepal
  • Background:

    During the late 18th-early 19th centuries, the principality of Gorkha united many of the other principalities and states of the sub-Himalayan region into a Nepalese Kingdom. Nepal retained its independence following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16 and the subsequent peace treaty laid the foundations for two centuries of amicable relations between Britain and Nepal. (The Brigade of Gurkhas continues to serve in the British Army to the present day.) In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system that brought political parties into the government. That arrangement lasted until 1960, when political parties were again banned, but was reinstated in 1990 with the establishment of a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy.

    An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and the re-assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. A peace accord in 2006 led to the promulgation of an interim constitution in 2007. Following a nationwide Constituent Assembly (CA) election in 2008, the newly formed CA declared Nepal a federal democratic republic, abolished the monarchy, and elected the country's first president. After the CA failed to draft a constitution by a May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then-Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then-Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which the Nepali Congress won the largest share of seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister. Nepal's new constitution came into effect in September 2015, at which point the CA became the Parliament. Khagda Prasad Sharma OLI served as the first post-constitution prime minister from October 2015-August 2016, when a new coalition led by Maoist leader Pushpa Kamal DAHAL (aka "Prachanda") took over the premiership. The constitution provided for a transitional period during which three sets of elections – local, provincial, and national – needed to take place. The first local elections in 20 years occurred in three phases between May and September 2017, while state and federal elections proceeded in two phases in November and December 2017. A coalition led by OLI and DAHAL swept the elections, and OLI was sworn in as prime minister in February 2018.

  • Geography :: Nepal
  • Location:
    Southern Asia, between China and India
    Geographic coordinates:
    28 00 N, 84 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 147,181 sq km
    land: 143,351 sq km
    water: 3,830 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than New York state
    Land boundaries:
    total: 3,159 km
    border countries (2): China 1389 km, India 1770 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
    Terrain:
    Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south; central hill region with rugged Himalayas in north
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 2,565 m
    elevation extremes: 70 m lowest point: Kanchan Kalan
    8848 highest point: Mount Everest (highest peak in Asia and highest point on earth above sea level)
    Natural resources:
    quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 28.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 15.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.2% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 25.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    13,320 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
    Natural hazards:
    severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); forest degradation; soil erosion; contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); unmanaged solid-waste; wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest mountains - on the borders with China and India respectively
  • People and Society :: Nepal
  • Population:
    29,717,587 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Nationality:
    noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
    adjective: Nepali
    Ethnic groups:
    Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19% (2011 est.)

    note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census

    Languages:
    Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)

    note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English

    Religions:
    Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecified 0.2% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 29.54% (male 4,578,768 /female 4,198,913)
    15-24 years: 21.52% (male 3,250,614 /female 3,145,807)
    25-54 years: 37.18% (male 4,987,071 /female 6,061,616)
    55-64 years: 6.42% (male 917,342 /female 991,937)
    65 years and over: 5.34% (male 785,893 /female 799,626) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 61.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 52.5 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 8.8 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 11.3 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 24.5 years
    male: 23.2 years
    female: 25.8 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Population growth rate:
    1.09% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Birth rate:
    19.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Death rate:
    5.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Net migration rate:
    -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is divided nearly equally between a concentration in the southern-most plains of the Tarai region and the central hilly region; overall density is quite low
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 19.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.15% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.33 million KATHMANDU (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.82 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    20.8 years (2016 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    258 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 26.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 28.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 25.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 71.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 70.6 years (2018 est.)
    female: 72 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Total fertility rate:
    2.07 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    52.6% (2017)
    Health expenditures:
    5.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Physicians density:
    0.6 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    3 beds/1,000 population (2012)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 90.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 91.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 91.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 9.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 8.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 8.4% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 56% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 43.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 45.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 44% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 56.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 54.2% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    31,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,300 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    4.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    27% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 14
    Education expenditures:
    3.7% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 63.9% (2015 est.)
    male: 76.4% (2015 est.)
    female: 53.1% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 12 years (2015)
    male: 12 years (2015)
    female: 13 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 3.5% (2008 est.)
    male: 4.2% (2008 est.)
    female: 2.9% (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
  • Government :: Nepal
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
    conventional short form: Nepal
    local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
    local short form: Nepal
    etymology: the Newar people of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding areas apparently gave their name to the country; the terms "Nepal," "Newar," "Nepar," and "Newal" are phonetically different forms of the same word
    Government type:
    federal parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Kathmandu
    geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
    time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti
    Independence:
    1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)
    National holiday:
    Constitution Day, 20 September (2015); note - marks the promulgation of Nepal’s constitution in 2015 and replaces the previous 28 May Republic Day as the official national day in Nepal; the Gregorian day fluctuates based on Nepal’s Hindu calendar
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest approved by the Second Constituent Assembly 16 September 2015, signed by the president and effective 20 September 2015 (2017)
    amendments: proposed as a bill by either house of the Federal Parliament; bills affecting a state border or powers delegated to a state must be submitted to the affected state assembly; passage of such bills requires a majority vote of that state assembly membership; bills not requiring state assembly consent require at least two-thirds majority vote by the membership of both houses of the Federal Parliament; parts of the constitution on the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence, and sovereignty vested in the people cannot be amended; amended January 2016 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: yes
    citizenship by descent only: yes
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    head of government: Prime Minister Khadga Prasad (KP) Sharma OLI (since 15 February 2018); deputy prime ministers (vacant); note - Prime Minister Sher Bahadur DEUBA resigned on 15 February 2018
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister; cabinet dominated by the CPN-UML and MC
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college of the Federal Parliament and of the state assemblies for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 March 2018 (next to be held in 2023); prime minister indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament
    election results: Bidhya Devi BHANDARI reelected president; electoral vote - Bidhya Devi BHANDARI (CPN-UML 39,275, Kumari Laxmi RAI (NC) 11,730
    head of state: President Bidhya Devi BANDHARI (since 29 October 2015); Vice President Nanda Bahadar PUN (since 31 October 2015)
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of:
    National Assembly (59 seats; 56 members, including at least 3 women, 1 Dalit, 1 member with disabilities, or 1 minority indirectly elected by an electoral college of state and municipal government leaders, and 3 members, including 1 woman, nominated by the president of Nepal on the recommendation of the government; members serve 6-year terms with renewal of one-third of the membership every 2 years)
    House of Representatives (275 seats; 165 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 110 members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    first election for the National Assembly held on 7 February 2018 (next to be held in 2024)
    first election for House of Representatives held on 26 November and 7 December 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results:
    National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-ML 27, CPN-MC 13, NC 12, FSFN 2, RJPN 2; composition - men 37, women 22, percent of women 37.3%
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPN-UML 121, NC 63, CPN-MC 53, RJPN 17, FSFN 16, other 4, independent 1; composition - men 185, women 90, percent of women 32.7%; note - total Federal Parliament percent of women 33.5%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 20 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council, a 5-member,high-level advisory body headed by the prime minister; other judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, a 5-member advisory body headed by the chief justice; the chief justice term of office is 6 years; judges serve until age 65
    subordinate courts: High Court; Court of Appeal; district courts

    note: Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution

    Political parties and leaders:

    note: the Election Commission of Nepal granted ballot access under the proportional system to 88 political parties for the November-December 2017 House of Representatives election to the Federal Parliament; of these, the following 9 parties and 1 independent won seats

    International organization participation:
    ADB, BIMSTEC, CD, CP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Arjun Kumar KARKI (since 18 May 2015)
    chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
    consulate(s) general: Cleveland (OH), New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Randy BERRY (since 25 October 2018)
    embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal
    mailing address: US Embassy, Maharajgunj Chakrapath, Kathmandu, Nepal 44600
    telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
    FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272
    Flag description:
    crimson red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies

    note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

    National symbol(s):
    rhododendron blossom; national color: red
    National anthem:
    name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
    lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG

    note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king

  • Economy :: Nepal
  • Economy - overview:

    Nepal is among the least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 30% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for almost two-thirds of the population but accounting for less than a third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain.

    Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity. Nepal has signed trade and investment agreements with India, China, and other countries, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment. The United States and Nepal signed a $500 million Millennium Challenge Corporation Compact in September 2017 which will expand Nepal’s electricity infrastructure and help maintain transportation infrastructure.

    Massive earthquakes struck Nepal in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Although political gridlock and lack of capacity have hindered post-earthquake recovery, government-led reconstruction efforts have progressively picked up speed, although many hard hit areas still have seen little assistance. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, inconsistent electricity supply, and underdeveloped transportation infrastructure.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $79.19 billion (2017 est.)
    $73.39 billion (2016 est.)
    $72.96 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 95
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $24.88 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    7.9% (2017 est.)
    0.6% (2016 est.)
    3.3% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $2,700 (2017 est.)
    $2,500 (2016 est.)
    $2,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 195
    Gross national saving:
    45.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    40.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    44% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 78% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 33.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 8.7% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 9.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -42% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 27% (2017 est.)
    industry: 13.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 59.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
    Industries:
    tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production
    Industrial production growth rate:
    12.4% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 7
    Labor force:
    16.81 million (2017 est.)

    note: severe lack of skilled labor

    country comparison to the world: 37
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 19% (2015 est.)
    industry: 12% (2015 est.)
    services: 19% (2015 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    3.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Population below poverty line:
    25.2% (2011 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
    highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    32.8 (2010)
    47.2 (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Budget:
    revenues: 5.925 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 5.945 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    23.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Public debt:
    26.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    27.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Fiscal year:
    16 July - 15 July
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    9.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Central bank discount rate:
    7% (30 July 2017)
    7% (30 July 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    11.3% (31 December 2017 est.)
    8.9% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Stock of narrow money:
    $5.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.857 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Stock of broad money:
    $5.505 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.857 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $21.99 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $17.94 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $17.57 billion (31 October 2017 est.)
    $19.4 billion (31 October 2016 est.)
    $11.37 billion (31 October 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Current account balance:
    -$93 million (2017 est.)
    $1.339 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Exports:
    $818.7 million (2017 est.)
    $761.6 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Exports - commodities:
    clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, jute goods
    Exports - partners:
    India 53.1%, US 11.8%, Turkey 7.2% (2017)
    Imports:
    $11.03 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.757 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $9.091 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $8.506 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Imports - partners:
    India 70.2%, China 7.5% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $5.849 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $4.321 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $103 million (31 July 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
    104 (2017 est.)
    107.38 (2016 est.)
    107.38 (2015 est.)
    102.41 (2014 est.)
    99.53 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Nepal
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 6.6 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 76% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 97% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 72% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    4.083 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Electricity - consumption:
    4.777 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - exports:
    2.69 million kWh (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Electricity - imports:
    2.175 billion kWh (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    972,500 kW (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    5.5% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    94.5% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (FY 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    32,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    30,590 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    4.926 million Mt (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 126
  • Communications :: Nepal
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 861,299 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 32,120,305 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: mountainous topography hinders development of telecom infrastructure; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network (2016)
    domestic: mobile service has been extended to all 75 districts covering 90% of Nepal’s land area; disparity between high coverage in cities and coverage available in underdeveloped rural regions (2016)
    international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    state operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 88 independent TV channels are registered with only 25 in regular operation; 672 FM radio stations are licensed with 588 operational (2016)
    Internet country code:
    .np
    Internet users:
    total: 5,716,419 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 19.7% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 224,184 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
  • Transportation :: Nepal
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 15 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 510,341 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,536,371 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    9N (2016)
    Airports:
    47 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 11 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 36 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 6 (2013)
    under 914 m: 29 (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 53 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 53 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Roadways:
    total: 27,990 km (2016)
    paved: 11,890 km (2016)
    unpaved: 16,100 km (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 97
  • Military and Security :: Nepal
  • Military expenditures:
    1.52% of GDP (2016)
    1.54% of GDP (2015)
    1.63% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Military branches:
    Nepal Army (2018)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)
  • Terrorism :: Nepal
  • Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    Indian Mujahedeen (IM):
    aim(s): enhance networks in Nepal to carry out attacks against Indians in Nepal and India
    area(s) of operation:
    maintains active hubs of small, loosely connected networks (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Nepal
  • Disputes - international:
    joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani RiverIndia has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of illegal cross-border activities
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 13,509 (Tibet/China) (2016), 9,804 (Bhutan) (2017)
    IDPs: 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region; 2015 earthquakes) (2016)
    stateless persons: undetermined (2016); note - the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to address the large number of individuals lacking citizenship certificates in Nepal; smaller numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotshampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless
    Illicit drugs:
    illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West