South America :: Suriname
  • Introduction :: Suriname
  • Background:
    First explored by the Spaniards in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century, Suriname became a Dutch colony in 1667. With the abolition of African slavery in 1863, workers were brought in from India and Java. The Netherlands granted the colony independence in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared Suriname a socialist republic. It continued to exert control through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally forced a democratic election. In 1990, the military overthrew the civilian leadership, but a democratically elected government - a four-party coalition - returned to power in 1991. The coalition expanded to eight parties in 2005 and ruled until August 2010, when voters returned former military leader Desire BOUTERSE and his opposition coalition to power. President BOUTERSE was reelected unopposed in 2015.
  • Geography :: Suriname
  • Location:
    Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana
    Geographic coordinates:
    4 00 N, 56 00 W
    Map references:
    South America
    total: 163,820 sq km
    land: 156,000 sq km
    water: 7,820 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 93
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than Georgia
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,907 km
    border countries (3): Brazil 515 km, French Guiana 556 km, Guyana 836 km
    386 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    tropical; moderated by trade winds
    mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
    mean elevation: 246 m
    lowest point: unnamed location in the coastal plain -2 m
    highest point: Juliana Top 1,230 m
    Natural resources:
    timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 0.5% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.4% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 94.6% (2011 est.)
    other: 4.9% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    570 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
  • People and Society :: Suriname
  • Population:
    609,569 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    noun: Surinamer(s)
    adjective: Surinamese
    Ethnic groups:
    Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 27.4%, "Maroon" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 21.7%, Creole (mixed white and black) 15.7%, Javanese 13.7%, mixed 13.4%, other 7.6%, unspecified 0.6% (2012 est.)
    Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is the native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
    Protestant 23.6% (includes Evangelical 11.2%, Moravian 11.2%, Reformed .7%, Lutheran .5%), Hindu 22.3%, Roman Catholic 21.6%, Muslim 13.8%, other Christian 3.2%, Winti 1.8%, Jehovah's Witness 1.2%, other 1.7%, none 7.5%, unspecified 3.2% (2012 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Suriname is a pluralistic society consisting primarily of Creoles (persons of mixed African and European heritage), the descendants of escaped African slaves known as Maroons, and the descendants of Indian and Javanese (Indonesian) contract workers. The country overall is in full, post-industrial demographic transition, with a low fertility rate, a moderate mortality rate, and a rising life expectancy. However, the Maroon population of the rural interior lags behind because of lower educational attainment and contraceptive use, higher malnutrition, and significantly less access to electricity, potable water, sanitation, infrastructure, and health care.

    Some 350,000 people of Surinamese descent live in the Netherlands, Suriname's former colonial ruler. In the 19th century, better-educated, largely Dutch-speaking Surinamese began emigrating to the Netherlands. World War II interrupted the outflow, but it resumed after the war when Dutch labor demands grew - emigrants included all segments of the Creole population. Suriname still is strongly influenced by the Netherlands because most Surinamese have relatives living there and it is the largest supplier of development aid. Other emigration destinations include French Guiana and the United States. Suriname's immigration rules are flexible, and the country is easy to enter illegally because rainforests obscure its borders. Since the mid-1980s, Brazilians have settled in Suriname's capital, Paramaribo, or eastern Suriname, where they mine gold. This immigration is likely to slowly re-orient Suriname toward its Latin American roots.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 23.38% (male 72,642/female 69,899)
    15-24 years: 17.2% (male 53,427/female 51,438)
    25-54 years: 44.09% (male 136,889/female 131,868)
    55-64 years: 8.78% (male 26,435/female 27,066)
    65 years and over: 6.55% (male 17,437/female 22,468) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 51.1
    youth dependency ratio: 40.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 10.8
    potential support ratio: 9.3 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 31 years
    male: 30.6 years
    female: 31.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Population growth rate:
    0.95% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Birth rate:
    14.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Death rate:
    6.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Net migration rate:
    0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated along the nothern coastal strip; the remainder of the country is sparsely populated
    urban population: 66.1% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    239,000 PARAMARIBO (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    120 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 22.1 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 25.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 18.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 73.3 years
    male: 70.8 years
    female: 75.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Total fertility rate:
    1.86 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    47.6% (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 98.1% of population
    rural: 88.4% of population
    total: 94.8% of population
    unimproved: urban: 1.9% of population
    rural: 11.6% of population
    total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    6.2% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    1.23 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 88.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 61.4% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 79.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 38.6% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 20.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    1.4% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    5,600 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    26.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    6.4% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Education expenditures:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 94.4%
    male: 96.1%
    female: 92.7% (2018)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 13.4%
    male: 9%
    female: 21.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
  • Government :: Suriname
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
    conventional short form: Suriname
    local long form: Republiek Suriname
    local short form: Suriname
    former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana
    etymology: name may derive from the indigenous "Surinen" people who inhabited the area at the time of European contact
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    name: Paramaribo
    geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: the name may be the corruption of a Carib (Kalina) village or tribe named Parmirbo
    Administrative divisions:
    10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica
    25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
    history: previous 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote of the total membership; amended 1992
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Suriname
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020)
    election results: Desire Delano BOUTERSE reelected president unopposed; National Assembly vote - NA
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 25 May 2020 (next to be held May 2025)
    election results: percent of vote by party - VHP 41.1%, NDP 29.4%, ABOP 17.6%, NPS 7.8%, other 3.9%; seats by party - VHP 21, NDP 15, ABOP 9, NPS 4, other 2
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges); note - appeals beyond the High Court are referred to the Caribbean Court of Justice; human rights violations can be appealed to the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights with judgments issued by the Inter-American Court on Human Rights
    judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president in consultation with the National Assembly, the State Advisory Council, and the Order of Private Attorneys; judges serve for life
    subordinate courts: cantonal courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alternative Combination or A-Com (coalition includes ABOP, KTPI, Party for Democracy and Development)
    Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Celsius WATERBERG]
    Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Angelique DEL CASTILLO]
    General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK}
    National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE]
    National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND]
    Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD]
    Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA]
    People's Alliance (Pertjaja Luhur) or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO]
    Progressive Workers' and Farmers' Union or PALU [Jim HOK]
    Progressive Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI]
    Reform and Renewal Movement or HVB
    Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN]
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Niermala Sakoentala BADRISING (since 21 July 2017)
    chancery: 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 460, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878
    consulate(s) general: Miami
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Karen Lynn WILLIAMS (since 20 November 2018)
    telephone: [597] 472-900
    embassy: 165 Kristalstraat, Paramaribo
    mailing address: US Department of State, PO Box 1821, Paramaribo
    FAX: [597] 410-972
    Flag description:
    five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red (quadruple width), white, and green (double width); a large, yellow, five-pointed star is centered in the red band; red stands for progress and love, green symbolizes hope and fertility, white signifies peace, justice, and freedom; the star represents the unity of all ethnic groups; from its yellow light the nation draws strength to bear sacrifices patiently while working toward a golden future
    National symbol(s):
    royal palm, faya lobi (flower); national colors: green, white, red, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "God zij met ons Suriname!" (God Be With Our Suriname)
    lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY

    note: adopted 1959; originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893 and contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo

  • Economy :: Suriname
  • Economy - overview:

    Suriname’s economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of oil and gold accounting for approximately 85% of exports and 27% of government revenues. This makes the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. The worldwide drop in international commodity prices and the cessation of alumina mining in Suriname significantly reduced government revenue and national income during the past few years. In November 2015, a major US aluminum company discontinued its mining activities in Suriname after 99 years of operation. Public sector revenues fell, together with exports, international reserves, employment, and private sector investment.

    Economic growth declined annually from just under 5% in 2012 to -10.4% in 2016. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. Suriname began instituting macro adjustments between September 2015 and 2016; these included another 20% currency devaluation in November 2015 and foreign currency interventions by the Central Bank until March 2016, after which time the Bank allowed the Surinamese dollar (SRD) to float. By December 2016, the SRD had lost 46% of its value against the dollar. Depreciation of the Surinamese dollar and increases in tariffs on electricity caused domestic prices in Suriname to rise 22.0% year-over-year by December 2017.

    Suriname's economic prospects for the medium-term will depend on its commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and on the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The government's over-reliance on revenue from the extractive sector colors Suriname's economic outlook. Following two years of recession, the Fitch Credit Bureau reported a positive growth of 1.2% in 2017 and the World Bank predicted 2.2% growth in 2018. Inflation declined to 9%, down from 55% in 2016 , and increased gold production helped lift exports. Yet continued budget imbalances and a heavy debt and interest burden resulted in a debt-to-GDP ratio of 83% in September 2017. Purchasing power has fallen rapidly due to the devalued local currency. The government has announced its intention to pass legislation to introduce a new value-added tax in 2018. Without this and other measures to strengthen the country’s fiscal position, the government may face liquidity pressures.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $8.688 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.526 billion (2016 est.)
    $8.988 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 162
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $3.419 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    -5.1% (2016 est.)
    -2.6% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $14,900 (2017 est.)
    $14,800 (2016 est.)
    $15,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 114
    Gross national saving:
    46.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    55.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    53.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 27.6% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 52.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 26.5% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 68.9% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -60.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 11.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 31.1% (2017 est.)
    services: 57.4% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, bananas, seabob shrimp, yellow-fin tuna, vegetables
    gold mining, oil, lumber, food processing, fishing
    Industrial production growth rate:
    1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Labor force:
    144,000 (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 11.2%
    industry: 19.5%
    services: 69.3% (2010)
    Unemployment rate:
    8.9% (2017 est.)
    9.7% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Population below poverty line:
    70% (2002 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 560.7 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 827.8 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    16.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -7.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Public debt:
    69.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    75.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    22% (2017 est.)
    55.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Current account balance:
    -$2 million (2017 est.)
    -$169 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    $2.028 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.449 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 38%, Hong Kong 21.9%, Belgium 10.1%, UAE 7.2%, Guyana 6.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
    $1.293 billion (2017 est.)
    $1.203 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Imports - commodities:
    capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
    Imports - partners:
    US 30.6%, Netherlands 14.8%, Trinidad and Tobago 11.4%, China 7.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $424.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $381.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Debt - external:
    $1.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.436 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Exchange rates:
    Surinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar -
    7.53 (2017 est.)
    6.229 (2016 est.)
    6.229 (2015 est.)
    3.4167 (2014 est.)
    3.3 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Suriname
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 87.2% (2016)
    electrification - urban areas: 96.4% (2016)
    electrification - rural areas: 69.3% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    1.967 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Electricity - consumption:
    1.75 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 204
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    504,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 149
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    61% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    38% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Crude oil - production:
    17,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Crude oil - imports:
    820 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    84.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    7,571 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    13,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    14,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    10,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2011 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 198
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    2.075 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
  • Communications :: Suriname
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 88,098
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 15 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 144
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 752,270
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: international facilities are good; state-owned fixed-line teledensity and broadband services below regional average for Latin America and Caribbean, but mobile penetration is above regional average; fixed-line effective along the coastline and poor in the interior; competition in the mobile sector (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 15 per 100 and mobile-cellular teledensity 126 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network is in place (2018)
    international: country code - 597; landing point for the SG-SCS submarine cable linking South America with the Caribbean; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 265,964
    percent of population: 45.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 73,176
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Military and Security :: Suriname
  • Military and security forces:
    Suriname Army (National Leger, NL): Army, Navy, Air Force, Military Police (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2019)
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the Suriname Army is comprised of approximately 1,800 active personnel (ground, air, naval, and military police) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the Suriname Army inventory includes a mix of equipment from several foreign suppliers, including Brazil, China, India, and the US; since 2010, Suriname has received small quantities of military hardware from Colombia, France, India, and the US (2019 est.)
  • Transportation :: Suriname
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 259,682 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 29,324,319 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    PZ (2016)
    55 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 6 (2019)
    over 3,047 m: 1
    under 914 m: 5
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 49 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 45 (2013)
    50 km oil (2013)
    total: 4,304 km (2003)
    paved: 1,119 km (2003)
    unpaved: 3,185 km (2003)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    1,200 km (most navigable by ships with drafts up to 7 m) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Merchant marine:
    total: 10
    by type: general cargo 5, oil tanker 3, other 2 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Paramaribo, Wageningen
  • Transnational Issues :: Suriname
  • Disputes - international:

    area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks UN Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters

    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Suriname is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and men, women, and children subjected to forced labor; women and girls from Suriname, Guyana, Brazil, and the Dominican Republic are subjected to sex trafficking in the country, sometimes in interior mining camps; migrant workers in agriculture and on fishing boats and children working in informal urban sectors and gold mines are vulnerable to forced labor; traffickers from Suriname exploit victims in the Netherlands
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Suriname does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2014, Suriname was granted a waiver from an otherwise required downgrade to Tier 3 because its government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to bring itself into compliance with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; authorities increased the number of trafficking investigations, prosecutions, and convictions as compared to 2013, but resources were insufficient to conduct investigations in the country’s interior; more trafficking victims were identified in 2014 than in 2013, but protective services for adults and children were inadequate, with a proposed government shelter for women and child trafficking victims remaining unopened (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    growing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe via the Netherlands and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing