Europe :: Portugal
  • Introduction :: Portugal
  • Background:

    Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, and for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.

  • Geography :: Portugal
  • Location:
    Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
    Geographic coordinates:
    39 30 N, 8 00 W
    Map references:
    total: 92,090 sq km
    land: 91,470 sq km
    water: 620 sq km

    note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

    country comparison to the world: 112
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Virginia
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,224 km
    border countries (1): Spain 1224 km
    1,793 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
    the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains
    mean elevation: 372 m
    lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
    Natural resources:
    fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 39.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 11.9% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 7.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 20% (2011 est.)
    forest: 37.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 22.5% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    5,400 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities
    Natural hazards:

    Azores subject to severe earthquakes

    volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

    Environment - current issues:
    soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in urban centers and coastal areas
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification
    Geography - note:
    Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
  • People and Society :: Portugal
  • Population:
    10,302,674 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
    adjective: Portuguese
    Ethnic groups:
    white homogeneous Mediterranean population; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990, Eastern Europeans have migrated to Portugal
    Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)
    Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3% (2011 est.)

    note: represents population 15 years of age and older

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 13.58% (male 716,102/female 682,582)
    15-24 years: 10.94% (male 580,074/female 547,122)
    25-54 years: 41.49% (male 2,109,693/female 2,164,745)
    55-64 years: 13.08% (male 615,925/female 731,334)
    65 years and over: 20.92% (male 860,198/female 1,294,899) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.8
    youth dependency ratio: 20.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 35.5
    potential support ratio: 2.8 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 44.6 years
    male: 42.7 years
    female: 46.5 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Population growth rate:
    -0.25% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Birth rate:
    8.1 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 221
    Death rate:
    10.8 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Net migration rate:
    0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Population distribution:
    concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities
    urban population: 66.3% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 0.47% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.957 million LISBON (capital), 1.313 million Porto (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    30.2 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    8 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 152
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 2.6 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 2.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.1 years
    male: 77.9 years
    female: 84.4 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Total fertility rate:
    1.41 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    73.9% (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    9% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    5.12 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density:
    3.4 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 99.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 99.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0.3% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.5% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    41,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <500 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Education expenditures:
    4.9% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 96.1%
    male: 97.4%
    female: 95.1% (2018)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 16 years
    male: 16 years
    female: 16 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 20.3%
    male: 19.8%
    female: 20.9% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
  • Government :: Portugal
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
    conventional short form: Portugal
    local long form: Republica Portuguesa
    local short form: Portugal
    etymology: name derives from the Roman designation "Portus Cale" meaning "Port of Cale"; Cale was an ancient Celtic town and port in present-day northern Portugal
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    name: Lisbon
    geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

    note: Portugal has two time zones, including the Azores (UTC-1)

    etymology: Lisbon is one of Europe's oldest cities (the second oldest capital city after Athens) and the origin of the name is lost in time; it may have been founded as an ancient Celtic settlement that subsequently maintained close commercial relations with the Phoenicians (beginning about 1200 B.C.); the name of the settlement may have been derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River that runs through the city, Lisso or Lucio; the Romans named the city "Olisippo" when they took it from the Carthaginians in 205 B.C.; under the Visigoths the city name became "Ulixbona," under the Arabs it was "al-Ushbuna"; the medieval version of "Lissabona" became today's Lisboa

    Administrative divisions:
    18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
    1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 1 December 1640 (independence reestablished following 60 years of Spanish rule); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)
    National holiday:
    Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis DE CAMOES (1524-80) died
    history: several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976
    amendments: proposed by the Assembly of the Republic; adoption requires two-thirds majority vote of Assembly members; amended several times, last in 2005
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Portugal
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years; 6 years if from a Portuguese-speaking country
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (since 9 March 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Antonio Luis Santos da COSTA (since 24 November 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 January 2016 (next to be held in January 2021); following legislative elections the leader of the majority party or majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
    election results: Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA elected president in the first round; percent of vote - Marcelo REBELO DE SOUSA (PSD) 52%, Antonio Sampaio da NOVOA (independent) 22.9%, Marisa MATIAS (BE) 10.1%, Maria de BELEM (independent) 4.2%, other 10.8%

    note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president

    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; 226 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by closed-list proportional representation vote and 4 members - 2 each in 2 constituencies representing Portuguese living abroad - directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms) (e.g. 2019)
    elections: last held on 6 October 2019 (next to be held 2023) (e.g. 2019)
    election results: percent of vote by party - PS 36.4%, PSD 27.8%, B.E. 9.5%, CDU 6.5%, other 20.8%; seats by party - PS 108, PSD 79,  B.E. 19, CDU 12, other 12; composition - men 158, women 72, percent of women 31.3% (e.g. 2019)
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges can serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party (Partido do Centro Democratico Social-Partido Popular) or CDS-PP [Assuncao CRISTAS]
    Ecologist Party "The Greens" or "Os Verdes" (Partido Ecologista-Os Verdes) or PEV [Heloisa APOLONIA]
    People-Animals-Nature Party (Pessoas-Animais-Natureza) or PAN [Andre SILVA]
    Portuguese Communist Party (Partido Comunista Portugues) or PCP [Jeronimo DE SOUSA]
    Social Democratic Party (Partido Social Democrata) or PSD (original name Partido Popular Democratico) or PPD [Rui RIO]
    Socialist Party (Partido Socialista) or PS [Antonio COSTA]
    The Left Bloc (Bloco de Esquerda) or BE or O Bloco [Catarina MARTINS]
    Unitary Democratic Coalition (Coligacao Democratica Unitaria) or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes PCP and PEV)
    International organization participation:
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Domingos Teixeira de Abreu FEZAS VITAL (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-3007
    FAX: [1] (202) 223-3926
    consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, San Francisco
    consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Newark (NJ), Providence (RI)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador George E. GLASS (since 25 August 2017)
    telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
    embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
    mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
    FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
    consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
    Flag description:
    two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation
    National symbol(s):
    armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic); national colors: red, green
    National anthem:
    name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
    lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL

    note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event

  • Economy :: Portugal
  • Economy - overview:

    Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country joined the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members.

    The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. After the global financial crisis in 2008, Portugal’s economy contracted in 2009 and fell into recession from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Portugal successfully exited its EU-IMF program in May 2014, and its economic recovery gained traction in 2015 because of strong exports and a rebound in private consumption. GDP growth accelerated in 2016, and probably reached 2.5 % in 2017. Unemployment remained high, at 9.7% in 2017, but has improved steadily since peaking at 18% in 2013.

    The center-left minority Socialist government has unwound some unpopular austerity measures while managing to remain within most EU fiscal targets. The budget deficit fell from 11.2% of GDP in 2010 to 1.8% in 2017, the country’s lowest since democracy was restored in 1974, and surpassing the EU and IMF projections of 3%. Portugal exited the EU’s excessive deficit procedure in mid-2017.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $314.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $305.9 billion (2016 est.)
    $301 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 55
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $218 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.7% (2017 est.)
    1.6% (2016 est.)
    1.8% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $30,500 (2017 est.)
    $29,600 (2016 est.)
    $29,100 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 67
    Gross national saving:
    16.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    16.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    15.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 65.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 17.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 43.1% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -42.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 22.1% (2017 est.)
    services: 75.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish
    textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper and pulp, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, automobiles and auto parts, base metals, minerals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism, plastics, financial services, optics
    Industrial production growth rate:
    3.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Labor force:
    5.233 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 8.6%
    industry: 23.9%
    services: 67.5% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    8.9% (2017 est.)
    11.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
    Population below poverty line:
    19% (2015 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 2.6%
    highest 10%: 25.9% (2015 est.)
    revenues: 93.55 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 100 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    42.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Public debt:
    125.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    129.9% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 9
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.6% (2017 est.)
    0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Current account balance:
    $993 million (2017 est.)
    $1.218 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    $61 billion (2017 est.)
    $54.76 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Exports - partners:
    Spain 25.2%, France 12.5%, Germany 11.3%, UK 6.6%, US 5.2%, Netherlands 4% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals
    $74.73 billion (2017 est.)
    $64.98 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Imports - commodities:
    agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semiconductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials
    Imports - partners:
    Spain 32%, Germany 13.7%, France 7.4%, Italy 5.5%, Netherlands 5.4% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $26.11 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $19.4 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Debt - external:
    $449 billion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $447 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.7525 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Portugal
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    56.9 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - consumption:
    46.94 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - exports:
    9.701 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Electricity - imports:
    4.616 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    20.56 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    41% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    25% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    35% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 180
    Crude oil - imports:
    285,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    323,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    247,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    143,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    78,700 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    Natural gas - consumption:
    6.258 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Natural gas - imports:
    6.541 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    54.97 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
  • Communications :: Portugal
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 5,073,458
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 49 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 11,859,548
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities; FttP in 2020; 3G universal and 4G upgrades; regulator release 700MHz spectrum for 5G use; DSL moves to fiber services; FttP for over 5 million customers in 2020 providing national coverage; fiber subscriber base grows 24% in 2018; development in M-payment solutions (2020)
    domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations; fixed-line 49 per 100 persons and mobile-cellular 115 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 351; landing points for the Ella Link, BUGIO, EIG, SAT-3/WASC, SeaMeWe-3, Equino, MainOne, Tat TGN-Western Europe, WACS, ACE, Atlantis2 and Columbus-III submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP), the publicly owned TV broadcaster, operates 4 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 7,629,560
    percent of population: 70.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,784,684
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
  • Military and Security :: Portugal
  • Military expenditures:
    1.52% of GDP (2019 est.)
    1.43% of GDP (2018)
    1.25% of GDP (2017)
    1.27% of GDP (2016)
    1.33% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Military and security forces:
    Portuguese Armed Forces: Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP); Portuguese National Republican Guard (Guarda Nacional Republicana, GNR) (2019)
    note: the GNR is a national gendarmerie force comprised of military personnel with law enforcement, internal security, civil defense, disaster response, and coast guard duties; it is responsible to the Minister of Internal Administration and to the Minister of National Defense; in the event of war or crisis, it may be placed under the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-30 years of age for voluntary or contract military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1992, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; contract service lasts for an initial period from two to six years, and can be extended to a maximum of 20 years of service. Voluntary military service lasts 12 months; reserve obligation to age 35 (2017)
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the Portuguese Armed Forces have approximately 26,000 active duty personnel (13,000 Army; 7,500 Navy; 6,000 Air Force); 25,000 National Republican Guard (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    the Portuguese Armed Forces inventory includes mostly European and US-origin weapons systems along with a smaller mix of domestically-produced equipment; since 2010, Germany and the US are the leading suppliers of armaments to Portugal; Portugal's defense industry is primarily focused on shipbuilding (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    190 Afghanistan (NATO); 200 Central African Republic (MINUSCA/EUTM); up to 120 Baltic States (NATO) (April 2020)
  • Transportation :: Portugal
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 12 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 122 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 12,635,233 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 343,971,094 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    CR, CS (2016)
    64 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 43 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 7 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 8 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 15 (2017)
    under 914 m: 8 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 21 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 20 (2013)
    1344 km gas, 11 km oil, 188 km refined products (2013)
    total: 3,075 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 108.1 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 2,439 km 1.668-m gauge (1,633.4 km electrified) (2014)
    other: 528 km (gauge unspecified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    total: 82,900 km (2008)
    paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways) (2008)
    unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Merchant marine:
    total: 624
    by type: bulk carrier 65, container ship 249, general cargo 99, oil tanker 21, other 190 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines
    container port(s) (TEUs): Sines (1,669,057) (2017)
    LNG terminal(s) (import): Sines
  • Transnational Issues :: Portugal
  • Disputes - international:

    Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 14 (2018)
    Illicit drugs:
    seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin