Europe :: Romania
  • Introduction :: Romania
  • Background:
    The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia - for centuries under the suzerainty of the Turkish Ottoman Empire - secured their autonomy in 1856; they were de facto linked in 1859 and formally united in 1862 under the new name of Romania. The country gained recognition of its independence in 1878. It joined the Allied Powers in World War I and acquired new territories - most notably Transylvania - following the conflict. In 1940, Romania allied with the Axis powers and participated in the 1941 German invasion of the USSR. Three years later, overrun by the Soviets, Romania signed an armistice. The post-war Soviet occupation led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU, who took power in 1965, and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power. Romania joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.
  • Geography :: Romania
  • Location:
    Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
    Geographic coordinates:
    46 00 N, 25 00 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 238,391 sq km
    land: 229,891 sq km
    water: 8,500 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Area - comparative:
    twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,844 km
    border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
    Coastline:
    225 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
    Terrain:
    central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 414 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Black Sea
    2544 highest point: Moldoveanu
    Natural resources:
    petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 60.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 39.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 28.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    31,490 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
    Natural hazards:
    earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
    Environment - current issues:
    soil erosion, desertification, and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria
  • People and Society :: Romania
  • Population:
    21,457,116 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Nationality:
    noun: Romanian(s)
    adjective: Romanian
    Ethnic groups:
    Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Romani 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)

    note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 5–11% of Romania's population

    Languages:
    Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romani 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)
    Religions:
    Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 14.31% (male 1,576,621 /female 1,493,082)
    15-24 years: 10.45% (male 1,151,312 /female 1,091,956)
    25-54 years: 46.11% (male 5,010,272 /female 4,883,090)
    55-64 years: 12.37% (male 1,244,669 /female 1,409,854)
    65 years and over: 16.76% (male 1,454,320 /female 2,141,940) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 48 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 22.8 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.2 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 41.6 years
    male: 40.2 years
    female: 43 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Population growth rate:
    -0.35% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 219
    Birth rate:
    8.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Death rate:
    12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Net migration rate:
    -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Population distribution:
    urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 54% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: -0.38% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.821 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    26.7 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    31 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 9.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 7.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 75.6 years (2018 est.)
    male: 72.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 79.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Total fertility rate:
    1.36 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Health expenditures:
    5.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 121
    Physicians density:
    2.67 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
    Hospital bed density:
    6.3 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 92.2% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 63.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 79.1% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 36.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 20.9% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    16,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <200 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    22.5% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Education expenditures:
    3.1% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 98.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 99.1% (2015 est.)
    female: 98.5% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 15 years (2015)
    male: 15 years (2015)
    female: 15 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 20.6% (2016 est.)
    male: 19.9% (2016 est.)
    female: 21.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
  • Government :: Romania
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Romania
    local long form: none
    local short form: Romania
    former: Kingdom of Romania, Romanian People's Republic, Socialist Republic of Romania
    etymology: the name derives from the Latin "Romanus" meaning "citizen of Rome" and was used to stress the common ancient heritage of Romania's three main regions - Moldavia, Transylvania, and Wallachia - during their gradual unification between the mid-19th century and early 20th century
    Government type:
    semi-presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Bucharest
    geographic coordinates: 44 26 N, 26 06 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea
    Independence:
    9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire;13 July 1878 (independence recognized by the Treaty of Berlin);26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed);30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)
    National holiday:
    Unification Day (unification of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991 (2016)
    amendments: initiated by the president of Romania through a proposal by the government, by at least one-fourths of deputies or senators in Parliament, or by petition of eligible voters representing at least half of Romania’s counties; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by both chambers or – if mediation is required - by three-fourths majority vote in a joint session, followed by approval in a referendum; articles including those on national sovereignty, form of government, political pluralism, and fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended 2003 (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Romania
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Klaus Werner IOHANNIS (since 21 December 2014)
    head of government: Prime Minister Viorica DANCILA (since 29 January 2018); Deputy Prime Ministers Gratiela GAVRILESCU (since 29 June 2017), Paul STANESCU (17 October 2017), Viorel STEFAN (since 29 January 2018), Ana BIRCHALL (since 29 January 2018); note - DANCILA is Romania's first woman prime minister
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 November 2014 with a runoff on 16 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2019); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of Parliament
    election results: Klaus IOHANNIS elected president in second round; percent of vote - Klaus IOHANNIS (PNL) 54.4%, Victor PONTA (PSD) 45.6%; Viorica DANCILA approved as prime minister 282-136
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of:
    Senate or Senat (136 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 2 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (329 seats; members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies - including 4 seats for diaspora - by party-list, proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
    Chamber of Deputies - last held on 11 December 2016 (next to be held by December 2020)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.7%, PNL 20.4%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 6%, PMP 5.7%, other 7.1%; seats by party - PSD 67, PNL 30, USR 13, UDMR 9, ALDE 9, PMP 8; composition - men 116, women 20, percent of women 14.7%
    Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PSD 45.5%, PNL 20%, USR 8.9%, UDMR 6.2%, ALDE 5.6%, PMP 5.4%, other 8.4%; seats by party - PSD 154, PNL 69, USR 30, UDMR 21, ALDE 20, PMP 18, minorities 17; composition men 261, women 68, percent of women 20.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 20.7%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, nonrenewable terms
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
    Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
    Civic Hungarian Party [Zsolt BIRO]
    Ecologist Party of Romania or PER [Danut POP]
    Greater Romania Party or PRM [Adrian POPESCU]
    M10 Party [Ioana CONSTANTIN]
    National Liberal Party or PNL [Ludovic ORBAN]
    New Romania Party or PNR [Sebastian POPESCU]
    Our Romania Alliance [Marian MUNTEANU]
    Party of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats or ALDE [Calin POPESCU TARICEANU]
    Popular Movement Party or PMP [Traian BASESCU]
    Romanian Social Party or PSRo [Mircea GEOANA]
    Save Romania Union Party or Partidul USR [Dan BARNA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Liviu DRAGNEA]
    United Romania Party or PRU [Robert BUGA]
    International organization participation:
    Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador George Cristian MAIOR (since 17 September 2015)
    chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
    FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Hans G. KLEMM (since 21 September 2015)
    embassy: 4-6, Dr. Liviu Librescu Blvd., District 1, Bucharest, 015118
    mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
    telephone: [40] (21) 200-3300
    FAX: [40] (21) 200-3442
    Flag description:
    three equal vertical bands of cobalt blue (hoist side), chrome yellow, and vermilion red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed

    note: now similar to the flag of Chad, whose blue band is darker; also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova

    National symbol(s):
    golden eagle; national colors: blue, yellow, red
    National anthem:
    name: "Desteapta-te romane!" (Wake up, Romanian!)
    lyrics/music: Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN

    note: adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution

  • Economy :: Romania
  • Economy - overview:

    Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment.

    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, Romania signed a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders, but GDP contracted until 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary standby agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability; no funds were drawn. In September 2013, Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on standby agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms. This agreement expired in September 2015, and no funds were drawn. Progress on structural reforms has been uneven, and the economy still is vulnerable to external shocks.

    Economic growth rebounded in the 2013-17 period, driven by strong industrial exports, excellent agricultural harvests, and, more recently, expansionary fiscal policies in 2016-2017 that nearly quadrupled Bucharest’s annual fiscal deficit, from +0.8% of GDP in 2015 to -3% of GDP in 2016 and an estimated -3.4% in 2017. Industry outperformed other sectors of the economy in 2017. Exports remained an engine of economic growth, led by trade with the EU, which accounts for roughly 70% of Romania trade. Domestic demand was the major driver, due to tax cuts and large wage increases that began last year and are set to continue in 2018.

    An aging population, emigration of skilled labor, significant tax evasion, insufficient health care, and an aggressive loosening of the fiscal package compromise Romania’s long-term growth and economic stability and are the economy's top vulnerabilities.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $483.4 billion (2017 est.)
    $452 billion (2016 est.)
    $431.2 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 41
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $211.9 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    6.9% (2017 est.)
    4.8% (2016 est.)
    3.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $24,600 (2017 est.)
    $22,900 (2016 est.)
    $21,700 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 83
    Gross national saving:
    21.1% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 70% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 7.7% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 22.6% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 41.4% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -43.6% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 4.2% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33.2% (2017 est.)
    services: 62.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
    Industries:
    electric machinery and equipment, auto assembly, textiles and footwear, light machinery, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining, mining, timber, construction materials
    Industrial production growth rate:
    5.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Labor force:
    8.951 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 42.8% (2014)
    industry: 28.9% (2014)
    services: 42.8% (2014)
    Unemployment rate:
    4.9% (2017 est.)
    5.9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Population below poverty line:
    22.4% (2012 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
    highest 10%: 7.6% (2014 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    27.3 (2012)
    28.2 (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Budget:
    revenues: 62.14 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 68.13 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    29.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Public debt:
    36.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds

    country comparison to the world: 145
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.3% (2017 est.)
    -1.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Central bank discount rate:
    1.75% (31 December 2017)
    1.75% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.57% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.71% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Stock of narrow money:
    $54.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $41.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Stock of broad money:
    $54.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $41.82 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $72.54 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $60.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $42.24 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $34.06 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    $42.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Current account balance:
    -$7.114 billion (2017 est.)
    -$3.93 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Exports:
    $64.58 billion (2017 est.)
    $57.72 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Exports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, agricultural products and foodstuffs, metals and metal products, chemicals, minerals and fuels, raw materials
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 23%, Italy 11.2%, France 6.8%, Hungary 4.7%, UK 4.1% (2017)
    Imports:
    $74.73 billion (2017 est.)
    $67.94 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, other manufactured goods, chemicals, agricultural products and foodstuffs, fuels and minerals, metals and metal products, raw materials
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $44.43 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $40 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 20%, Italy 10%, Hungary 7.5%, Poland 5.5%, France 5.3%, China 5%, Netherlands 4% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $95.97 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $93.71 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $94 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $76.93 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $6.822 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $5.963 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Exchange rates:
    lei (RON) per US dollar -
    4.077 (2017 est.)
    4.0592 (2016 est.)
    4.0592 (2015 est.)
    4.0057 (2014 est.)
    3.3492 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Romania
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    62.16 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Electricity - consumption:
    48.28 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - exports:
    11.22 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Electricity - imports:
    4.492 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    24.03 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    46.7% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    5.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    28% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    18.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Crude oil - production:
    77,910 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Crude oil - exports:
    1,049 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Crude oil - imports:
    145,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    600 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    228,100 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    182,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    80,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    40,940 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Natural gas - production:
    11.17 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Natural gas - consumption:
    10.44 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Natural gas - exports:
    1.078 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Natural gas - imports:
    728 million cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    60.78 million Mt (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
  • Communications :: Romania
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 3.89 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 18 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 22.55 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity is about 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile market served by five mobile network operators; mobile-cellular teledensity over 105 telephones per 100 persons (2016)
    international: country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber-Optic Cable System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    a mixture of public and private TV stations; there are 7 public TV stations (2 national, 5 regional) using terrestrial broadcasting and 187 private TV stations (out of which 171 offer local coverage) using terrestrial broadcasting, plus 11 public TV stations using satellite broadcasting and 86 private TV stations using satellite broadcasting; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations, having in total 20 public radio stations by terrestrial broadcasting plus 4 public radio stations by satellite broadcasting; there are 502 operational private radio stations using terrestrial broadcasting and 26 private radio stations using satellite broadcasting (2014)
    Internet country code:
    .ro
    Internet users:
    total: 12,852,696 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 59.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 4.78 million (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 22 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
  • Transportation :: Romania
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 5 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 51 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 3,636,642 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 4,691,280 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    YR (2016)
    Airports:
    45 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 26 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 10 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 11 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 19 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 5 (2013)
    under 914 m: 14 (2013)
    Heliports:
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    3726 km gas, 2451 km oil (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 11,268 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 10,781 km 1.435-m gauge (3,292 km electrified) (2014)
    narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2014)
    broad gauge: 60 km 1.524-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Roadways:
    total: 84,185 km (2012)
    paved: 49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways) (2012)
    unpaved: 34,312 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Waterways:
    1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Merchant marine:
    total: 114 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 13, oil tanker 7, other 94 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Constanta, Midia
    river port(s): Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)
  • Military and Security :: Romania
  • Military expenditures:
    1.42% of GDP (2016)
    1.45% of GDP (2015)
    1.35% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Military branches:
    Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force (2016)
    Military service age and obligation:
    conscription ended 2006; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2015)
  • Terrorism :: Romania
  • Transnational Issues :: Romania
  • Disputes - international:
    the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitationRomania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 238 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos