East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Philippines
  • Introduction :: Philippines
  • Background:

    The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century; they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. A 20-year rule by Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power" movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts that prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992. His administration was marked by increased stability and by progress on economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2") demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Her presidency was marred by several corruption allegations but the Philippine economy was one of the few to avoid contraction following the 2008 global financial crisis, expanding each year of her administration. Benigno AQUINO III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010 and was succeeded by Rodrigo DUTERTE in May 2016.

    The Philippine Government faces threats from several groups, some of which are on the US Government's Foreign Terrorist Organization list. Manila has waged a decades-long struggle against ethnic Moro insurgencies in the southern Philippines, which has led to a peace accord with the Moro National Liberation Front and ongoing peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. The decades-long Maoist-inspired New People's Army insurgency also operates through much of the country. In 2017, Philippine armed forces battled an ISIS-Philippines siege in Marawi City, driving DUTERTE to declare martial law in the region. The Philippines faces increased tension with China over disputed territorial and maritime claims in the South China Sea.

  • Geography :: Philippines
  • Location:
    Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
    Geographic coordinates:
    13 00 N, 122 00 E
    Map references:
    Southeast Asia
    Area:
    total: 300,000 sq km
    land: 298,170 sq km
    water: 1,830 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Area - comparative:
    slightly less than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    36,289 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea as wide as 285 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    continental shelf: to the depth of exploitation
    Climate:
    tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
    Terrain:
    mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 442 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Philippine Sea
    2954 highest point: Mount Apo
    Natural resources:
    timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 41% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 18.2% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 17.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 25.9% (2011 est.)
    other: 33.1% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    16,270 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated where good farmlands lie; highest concentrations are northwest and south-central Luzon, the southeastern extension of Luzon, and the islands of the Visayan Sea, particularly Cebu and Negros; Manila is home to one-eighth of the entire national population
    Natural hazards:

    astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms each year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis

    volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Taal (311 m), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (2,462 m), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo, and Ragang; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

    Environment - current issues:
    uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; illegal mining and logging; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds; coastal erosion; dynamite fishing; wildlife extinction
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
    Geography - note:

    note 1: for decades, the Philippine archipelago was reported as having 7,107 islands; in 2016, the national mapping authority reported that hundreds of new islands had been discovered and increased the number of islands to 7,641 - though not all of the new islands have been verified; the country is favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait

    note 2: Philippines is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

    note 3: the Philippines sits astride the Pacific typhoon belt and an average of 9 typhoons make landfall on the islands each year - with about 5 of these being destructive; the country is the most exposed in the world to tropical storms

  • People and Society :: Philippines
  • Population:
    105,893,381 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Nationality:
    noun: Filipino(s)
    adjective: Philippine
    Ethnic groups:
    Tagalog 28.1%, Bisaya/Binisaya 11.4%, Cebuano 9.9%, Ilocano 8.8%, Hiligaynon/Ilonggo 8.4%, Bikol/Bicol 6.8%, Waray 4%, other local ethnicity 26.1%, other foreign ethnicity .1% (2010 est.)
    Languages:
    unspecified Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol, Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 80.6%, Protestant 8.2% (includes Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches 2.7%, National Council of Churches in the Philippines 1.2%, other Protestant 4.3%), Muslim 5.6%, tribal religions .2%, other 1.9%, none .1% (2010 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 33.07% (male 17,870,983 /female 17,151,096)
    15-24 years: 19.17% (male 10,360,704 /female 9,934,798)
    25-54 years: 37.11% (male 19,987,460 /female 19,312,673)
    55-64 years: 6.04% (male 2,932,572 /female 3,462,832)
    65 years and over: 4.61% (male 2,001,964 /female 2,878,299) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 58.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 51 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.2 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 13.8 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 23.7 years
    male: 23.3 years
    female: 24.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 169
    Population growth rate:
    1.55% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Birth rate:
    23.4 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Death rate:
    6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Net migration rate:
    -2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated where good farmlands lie; highest concentrations are northwest and south-central Luzon, the southeastern extension of Luzon, and the islands of the Visayan Sea, particularly Cebu and Negros; Manila is home to one-eighth of the entire national population
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 46.9% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    13.482 million MANILA (capital), 1.745 million Davao, 956,000 Cebu City, 894,000 Zamboanga, 837,000 Antipolo (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.84 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    22.8 years (2017 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    114 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 23.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 17.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 69.6 years (2018 est.)
    male: 66.1 years (2018 est.)
    female: 73.3 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Total fertility rate:
    2.99 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    55.1% (2013)
    Health expenditures:
    4.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Hospital bed density:
    1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 93.7% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 90.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 91.8% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 6.3% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 9.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 8.2% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 77.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 70.8% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 73.9% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 22.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 29.2% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 26.1% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    68,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <1000 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2016)
    water contact diseases: leptospirosis (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    6.4% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    21.5% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Education expenditures:
    2.7% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 96.3% (2015 est.)
    male: 95.8% (2015 est.)
    female: 96.8% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2013)
    male: 12 years (2013)
    female: 13 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 7.7% (2016 est.)
    male: 6.8% (2016 est.)
    female: 9.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 140
  • Government :: Philippines
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
    conventional short form: Philippines
    local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
    local short form: Pilipinas
    etymology: named in honor of King PHILLIP II of Spain by Spanish explorer Ruy LOPEZ de VILLALOBOS, who visited some of the islands in 1543
    Government type:
    presidential republic
    Capital:
    name: Manila
    geographic coordinates: 14 36 N, 120 58 E
    time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:

    80 provinces and 39 chartered cities

    provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu, Compostela, Cotabato, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union, Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay;

    chartered cities: Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Baguio, Butuan, Cagayan de Oro, Caloocan, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Davao, General Santos, Iligan, Iloilo, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Lucena, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Mandaue, Manila, Marikina, Muntinlupa, Naga, Navotas, Olongapo, Ormoc, Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, San Juan, Santiago, Tacloban, Taguig, Valenzuela, Zamboanga

    (2012)
    Independence:
    4 July 1946 (from the US)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of independence from the US
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest ratified 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by Congress if supported by three-fourths of the membership, by a constitutional convention called by Congress, or by public petition; passage by either of the three proposal methods requires a majority vote in a national referendum; note - the constitution has not been amended since its enactment in 1987 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Philippines
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Rodrigo DUTERTE (since 30 June 2016); Vice President Leni ROBREDO (since 30 June 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Rodrigo DUTERTE (since 30 June 2016); Vice President Leni ROBREDO (since 30 June 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with the consent of the Commission of Appointments, an independent body of 25 Congressional members including the Senate president (ex officio chairman), appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on separate ballots by simple majority popular vote for a single 6-year term; election last held on 9 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2022)
    election results: Rodrigo DUTERTE elected president; percent of vote - Rodrigo DUTERTE (PDP-Laban) 39%, Manuel "Mar" ROXAS (LP) 23.5%, Grace POE (independent) 21.4%, Jejomar BINAY (UNA) 12.7%, Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO (PRP) 3.4%; Leni ROBREDO elected vice president; percent of vote Leni ROBREDO (LP) 35.1%, Bongbong MARCOS (independent) 34.5%, Alan CAYETANO 14.4%, Francis ESCUDERO (independent) 12%, Antonio TRILLANES (independent) 2.1%, Gregorio HONASAN (UNA) 1.9%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of:
    Senate or Senado (24 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by majority vote; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years)
    House of Representatives or Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (297 seats; 238 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 59 representing minorities directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - elections last held on 9 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2019)
    House of Representatives - elections last held on 9 May 2016 (next to be held in May 2019)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - LP 31.3%, NPC 10.1%, UNA 7.6%, Akbayan 5.0%, other 30.9%, independent 15.1%; seats by party - LP 6, NPC 3, UNA 4, Akbayan 1, other 10
    House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - LP 41.7%, NPC 17.0%, UNA 6.6%, NUP 9.7%, NP 9.4%, independent 6.0%, others 10.1%; seats by party - LP 115, NPC 42, NUP 23, NP 24, UNA 11, other 19, independent 4, party-list 59
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 14 associate justices)
    judge selection and term of office: justices are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council, a constitutionally created, 6-member body that recommends Supreme Court nominees; justices serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeals; Sandiganbayan (special court for corruption cases of government officials); Court of Tax Appeals; regional, metropolitan, and municipal trial courts; sharia courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Akbayon [Machris CABREROS]
    Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]
    Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Ferdinand Martin ROMUALDEZ]
    Liberal Party or LP [Francis PANGILINAN]
    Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel "Manny" VILLAR]
    Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUNGCO, Jr.]
    National Unity Party or NUP [Albert GARCIA]
    PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL III]
    People's Reform Party or PRP [Narcisco SANTIAGO]
    Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA]
    United Nationalist Alliance or UNA
    International organization participation:
    ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CD, CICA (observer), CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS (observer), OPCW, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Jose Manuel del Gallego ROMUALDEZ (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-7614
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), San Francisco, Tamuning (Guam)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sung KIM (since 6 December 2016)
    embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila 1000
    mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
    telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
    FAX: [63] (2) 301-2017
    Flag description:
    two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red; a white equilateral triangle is based on the hoist side; the center of the triangle displays a yellow sun with eight primary rays; each corner of the triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star; blue stands for peace and justice, red symbolizes courage, the white equal-sided triangle represents equality; the rays recall the first eight provinces that sought independence from Spain, while the stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897

    note: in wartime the flag is flown upside down with the red band at the top

    National symbol(s):
    three stars and sun, Philippine eagle; national colors: red, white, blue, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Lupang Hinirang" (Chosen Land)
    lyrics/music: Jose PALMA (revised by Felipe PADILLA de Leon)/Julian FELIPE

    note: music adopted 1898, original Spanish lyrics adopted 1899, Filipino (Tagalog) lyrics adopted 1956; although the original lyrics were written in Spanish, later English and Filipino versions were created; today, only the Filipino version is used

  • Economy :: Philippines
  • Economy - overview:

    The economy has been relatively resilient to global economic shocks due to less exposure to troubled international securities, lower dependence on exports, relatively resilient domestic consumption, large remittances from about 10 million overseas Filipino workers and migrants, and a rapidly expanding services industry. During 2017, the current account balance fell into the negative range, the first time since the 2008 global financial crisis, in part due to an ambitious new infrastructure spending program announced this year. However, international reserves remain at comfortable levels and the banking system is stable.

    Efforts to improve tax administration and expenditures management have helped ease the Philippines' debt burden and tight fiscal situation. The Philippines received investment-grade credit ratings on its sovereign debt under the former AQUINO administration and has had little difficulty financing its budget deficits. However, weak absorptive capacity and implementation bottlenecks have prevented the government from maximizing its expenditure plans. Although it has improved, the low tax-to-GDP ratio remains a constraint to supporting increasingly higher spending levels and sustaining high and inclusive growth over the longer term.

    Economic growth has accelerated, averaging over 6% per year from 2011 to 2017, compared with 4.5% under the MACAPAGAL-ARROYO government; and competitiveness rankings have improved. Although 2017 saw a new record year for net foreign direct investment inflows, FDI to the Philippines has continued to lag regional peers, in part because the Philippine constitution and other laws limit foreign investment and restrict foreign ownership in important activities/sectors - such as land ownership and public utilities.

    Although the economy grew at a rapid pace under the AQUINO government, challenges to achieving more inclusive growth remain. Wealth is concentrated in the hands of the rich. The unemployment rate declined from 7.3% to 5.7% between 2010 and 2017; while there has been some improvement, underemployment remains high at around 17% to 18% of the employed population. At least 40% of the employed work in the informal sector. Poverty afflicts more than a fifth of the total population but is as high as 75% in some areas of the southern Philippines. More than 60% of the poor reside in rural areas, where the incidence of poverty (about 30%) is more severe - a challenge to raising rural farm and non-farm incomes. Continued efforts are needed to improve governance, the judicial system, the regulatory environment, the infrastructure, and the overall ease of doing business.

    2016 saw the election of President Rodrigo DUTERTE, who has pledged to make inclusive growth and poverty reduction his top priority. DUTERTE believes that illegal drug use, crime and corruption are key barriers to economic development. The administration wants to reduce the poverty rate to 17% and graduate the economy to upper-middle income status by the end of President DUTERTE’s term in 2022. Key themes under the government’s Ten-Point Socioeconomic Agenda include continuity of macroeconomic policy, tax reform, higher investments in infrastructure and human capital development, and improving competitiveness and the overall ease of doing business. The administration sees infrastructure shortcomings as a key barrier to sustained economic growth and has pledged to spend $165 billion on infrastructure by 2022. Although the final outcome has yet to be seen, the current administration is shepherding legislation for a comprehensive tax reform program to raise revenues for its ambitious infrastructure spending plan and to promote a more equitable and efficient tax system. However, the need to finance rehabilitation and reconstruction efforts in the southern region of Mindanao following the 2017 Marawi City siege may compete with other spending on infrastructure.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $877.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $822.2 billion (2016 est.)
    $769.3 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 29
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $313.6 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    6.7% (2017 est.)
    6.9% (2016 est.)
    6.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $8,400 (2017 est.)
    $8,000 (2016 est.)
    $7,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 148
    Gross national saving:
    24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    24% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 73.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 11.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.1% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 31% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -40.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 9.6% (2017 est.)
    industry: 30.6% (2017 est.)
    services: 59.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, fish, livestock, poultry, bananas, coconut/copra, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, pineapple, cassava
    Industries:
    semiconductors and electronics assembly, business process outsourcing, food and beverage manufacturing, construction, electric/gas/water supply, chemical products, radio/television/communications equipment and apparatus, petroleum and fuel, textile and garments, non-metallic minerals, basic metal industries, transport equipment
    Industrial production growth rate:
    7.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Labor force:
    42.78 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 56.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 18.3% (2017 est.)
    services: 56.3% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    5.7% (2017 est.)
    5.5% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Population below poverty line:
    21.6% (2017 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 29.5% (2015 est.)
    highest 10%: 29.5% (2015 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    44.4 (2015 est.)
    46 (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Budget:
    revenues: 49.07 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 56.02 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    15.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -2.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Public debt:
    39.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
    39% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    1.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Central bank discount rate:
    3.56% (31 December 2017)
    3.56% (31 December 2016)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    5.63% (31 December 2017 est.)
    5.64% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 130
    Stock of narrow money:
    $71.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $61.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Stock of broad money:
    $71.13 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $61.62 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $209.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $184.6 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $352.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $290.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $286.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Current account balance:
    -$2.518 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.199 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Exports:
    $48.2 billion (2017 est.)
    $57.41 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Exports - commodities:
    semiconductors and electronic products, machinery and transport equipment, wood manufactures, chemicals, processed food and beverages, garments, coconut oil, copper concentrates, seafood, bananas/fruits
    Exports - partners:
    Japan 16.4%, US 14.6%, Hong Kong 13.7%, China 11%, Singapore 6.1%, Thailand 4.3%, Germany 4.1%, South Korea 4% (2017)
    Imports:
    $1.876 billion (2017 est.)
    $84.11 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Imports - commodities:
    electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment, iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $81.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $80.69 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Imports - partners:
    China 18.1%, Japan 11.4%, South Korea 8.8%, US 7.4%, Thailand 7.1%, Indonesia 6.7%, Singapore 5.9% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $76.18 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $74.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $78.79 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $64.51 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $47.82 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $43.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    Exchange rates:
    Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar -
    50.4 (2017 est.)
    47.493 (2016 est.)
    47.493 (2015 est.)
    45.503 (2014 est.)
    44.395 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Philippines
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 20.6 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 88% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 94% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 82% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    94.37 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - consumption:
    77.79 billion kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    22.73 million kW (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    68.9% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    16% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 99
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    15.2% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Crude oil - production:
    4,359 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 81
    Crude oil - exports:
    3,860 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Crude oil - imports:
    202,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    138.5 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    208,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    455,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    40,080 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    267,200 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 27
    Natural gas - production:
    3.942 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Natural gas - consumption:
    3.809 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 177
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    98.54 billion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    105.7 million Mt (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Communications :: Philippines
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 4,163,282 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 4 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 115,824,982 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 111 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 13
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate (2016)
    domestic: telecommunications infrastructure includes the following platforms: fixed line, mobile cellular, cable TV, over-the-air TV, radio and Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), fiber-optic cable, and satellite for redundant international connectivity (2016)
    international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together provide connectivity to the US, and to countries like Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, Japan, Brunei, and Malaysia, among others; multiple international gateways (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    multiple national private TV and radio networks; multi-channel satellite and cable TV systems available; more than 400 TV stations; about 1,500 cable TV providers with more than 2 million subscribers, and some 1,400 radio stations; the Philippines adopted Japan’s Integrated Service Digital Broadcast – Terrestrial standard for digital terrestrial television in November 2013 and is scheduled to complete the switch from analog to digital broadcasting by the end of 2023 (2016)
    Internet country code:
    .ph
    Internet users:
    total: 56,956,436 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 55.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,399,291 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
  • Transportation :: Philippines
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 11 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 158 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 32,230,986 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 484,190,968 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    RP (2016)
    Airports:
    247 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 89 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 4 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 8 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 33 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 34 (2017)
    under 914 m: 10 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 158 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 56 (2013)
    under 914 m: 99 (2013)
    Heliports:
    2 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    530 km gas, 138 km oil (non-operational), 185 km refined products (2017)
    Railways:
    total: 77 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 49 km 1.435-m guage (2017)
    narrow gauge: 28 km 1.067-m gauge (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Roadways:
    total: 216,387 km (2014)
    paved: 61,093 km (2014)
    unpaved: 155,294 km (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Waterways:
    3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Merchant marine:
    total: 1,508 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 64, container ship 33, general cargo 627, oil tanker 184, other 600 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Batangas, Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila
    container port(s) (TEUs): Manila (4,523,339) (2016)
  • Military and Security :: Philippines
  • Military expenditures:
    1.28% of GDP (2016)
    1.14% of GDP (2015)
    1.09% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Military branches:
    Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    17-23 years of age (officers 20-24) for voluntary military service; no conscription; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens with either 72 college credit hours (enlisted) or a baccalaureate degree (officers) (2013)
    Maritime threats:
    the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery against ships; during 2017, 22 attacks were reported in and around the Philippines including 19 ships that were boarded, one fired upon, 10 crewman kidnapped for ransom, and two killed; an emerging threat area lies in the Celebes and Sulu Seas between the Philippines and Malaysia where it is believed the pirates involved are associated with the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) terrorist organization; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been murdered or cast adrift
  • Terrorism :: Philippines
  • Terrorist groups - home based:
    Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG):
    aim(s): establish an Islamic State in the Philippines' Mindanao Island and the Sulu Archipelago, and ultimately, an Islamic caliphate across Southeast Asia
    area(s) of operation:
    southern Philippines in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago region (April 2018)
    Communist Party of the Philippines/New People's Army (CPP/NPA):
    aim(s): destabilize the Philippines' economy to inspire the populace to revolt against the government and, ultimately, overthrow the Philippine Government
    area(s) of operation:
    operates throughout most of the country, primarily in rural regions, with its strongest presence in the Sierra Madre Mountains, rural Luzon, Visayas, and parts of northern and eastern Mindanao; maintains cells in Manila, Davao City, and other metropolitan areas (April 2018)
    Islamic State of Iraq and ash-Sham (ISIS) network in Philippines:
    aim(s): replace the Philippine Government with an Islamic state and implement ISIS's strict interpretation of sharia
    area(s) of operation:
    Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago region (April 2018)
    Terrorist groups - foreign based:
    Jemaah Islamiyah (JI):
    aim(s): enhance its networks in the Philippines and, ultimately, overthrow the Philippine Government and establish a pan-Islamic state across Southeast Asia
    area(s) of operation:
    maintains an operational and recruitment presence, especially in the south (April 2018)
  • Transnational Issues :: Philippines
  • Disputes - international:
    Philippines claims sovereignty over Scarborough Reef (also claimed by China together with Taiwan) and over certain of the Spratly Islands, known locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnamthe 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of the disputantsin March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic activities in the Spratly IslandsPhilippines retains a dormant claim to Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a sovereignty claim on his behalfmaritime delimitation negotiations continue with Palau
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    IDPs: 445,000 (government troops fighting the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the Abu Sayyaf Group, and the New People's Army; clan feuds; natural disasters) (2017)
    stateless persons: 2,678 (2017); note - stateless persons are descendants of Indonesian migrants
    Illicit drugs:
    domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas where Manila's control is limited