North America :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Introduction :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Background:
    First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of France's once vast North American possessions. They attained the status of an overseas collectivity in 2003.
  • Geography :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Location:
    Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)
    Geographic coordinates:
    46 50 N, 56 20 W
    Map references:
    North America
    Area:
    total: 242 sq km
    land: 242 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

    country comparison to the world: 214
    Area - comparative:
    one and half times the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    120 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    Climate:
    cold and wet, with considerable mist and fog; spring and autumn are often windy
    Terrain:
    mostly barren rock
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    240 highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne
    Natural resources:
    fish, deepwater ports
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 8.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 8.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 12.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 78.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island
    Natural hazards:
    persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard
    Environment - current issues:
    overfishing; recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment
    Geography - note:
    vegetation scanty; the islands are actually part of the northern Appalachians along with Newfoundland
  • People and Society :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Population:
    5,471 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 227
    Nationality:
    noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
    adjective: French
    Ethnic groups:
    Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)
    Languages:
    French (official)
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 14.88% (male 420 /female 394)
    15-24 years: 8.99% (male 255 /female 237)
    25-54 years: 41.44% (male 1,109 /female 1,158)
    55-64 years: 13.69% (male 389 /female 360)
    65 years and over: 21% (male 489 /female 660) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Median age:
    total: 47.2 years
    male: 46.7 years
    female: 47.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Population growth rate:
    -1.13% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    Birth rate:
    7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Death rate:
    10.2 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Net migration rate:
    -8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is found on Saint Pierre Island; a small settlement is located on the north end of Miquelon Island
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 90.2% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    6,000 SAINT-PIERRE (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 6.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 80.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 78.4 years (2018 est.)
    female: 83.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Total fertility rate:
    1.57 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
  • Government :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
    conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
    local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
    local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
    etymology: Saint-Pierre is named after Saint PETER, the patron saint of fishermen; Miquelon may be a corruption of the Basque name Mikelon
    Dependency status:
    overseas collectivity of France
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (Territorial Council); overseas collectivity of France
    Capital:
    name: Saint-Pierre
    geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
    time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
    Administrative divisions:
    none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 2 communes at the second order - Saint Pierre, Miquelon
    Independence:
    none (overseas collectivity collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
    National holiday:
    Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790)
    Constitution:
    history: 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2018)
    amendments: amendment procedures of France's constitution apply (2018)
    Citizenship:
    see France
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Emmanuel MACRON (since 14 May 2017); represented by Prefect Thierry DEVIMEUX (since 17 January 2018)
    head of government: President of Territorial Council Stephane LENORMAND (since 24 October 2017)
    cabinet: Le Cabinet du Prefet
    elections/appointments: French president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 April and 6 May 2017 (next to be held in 2022); prefect appointed by French president on the advice of French Ministry of Interior
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Territorial Council or Conseil Territorial (19 seats - Saint Pierre 15, Miquelon 4; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed to serve 6-year terms);
    Saint Pierre and Miquelon indirectly elects 1 senator to the French Senate by an electoral college to serve a 6-year term and directly elects 1 deputy to the French National Assembly by absolute majority vote to serve a 5-year term
    elections: Territorial Council - last held on 19 March 2017 (next to be held in March 2023)
    French Senate - last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held no later than September 2020)
    French National Assembly - last held on 17 June 2012 (next to be held by June 2017)
    election results: Territorial Council - percent of vote by party - AD 70.2%, Cap sur l'Avenir 29.8%; seats by party - AD 17, Cap sur l'Avenir 2
    French Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 1 (affiliated with UMP)
    French National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Ensemble pour l'Avenir 1 (affiliated with PRG)
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur d'Appel (composition NA)
    judge selection and term of office: judge selection and tenure NA
    subordinate courts: NA
    Political parties and leaders:
    Archipelago Tomorrow or AD (affiliated with UMP)
    Cap sur l'Avenir [Annick GIRARDIN] (affiliated with Left Radical Party)
    Togerther for the Future (Ensemble pour l'Avenir) (affiliated with PRG)SPM ensemble
    International organization participation:
    UPU, WFTU (NGOs)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)
    Flag description:
    a yellow three-masted sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a blue background with scattered, white, wavy lines under the ship; a continuous black-over-white wavy line divides the ship from the white wavy lines; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the blue on the main portion of the flag symbolizes the Atlantic Ocean and the stylized ship represents the Grande Hermine in which Jacques Cartier "discovered" the islands in 1536

    note: the flag of France used for official occasions

    National symbol(s):
    16th-century sailing ship
    National anthem:

    note: as a collectivity of France, "La Marseillaise" is official (see France)

  • Economy :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Economy - overview:

    The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. The services sector accounted for 86% of GDP in 2010, the last year data is available for. Government employment accounts for than 46% of the GDP, and 78% of the population is working age.

    The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector. Trade is the second largest sector in terms of value added created, where it contributes significantly to economic activity. The extractive industries and energy sector is the third largest sector of activity in the archipelago, attributable in part to the construction of a new thermal power plant in 2015.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $261.3 million (2015 est.)
    $215.3 million (2006 est.)

    note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million

    country comparison to the world: 218
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $261.3 million (2015 est.) (2015 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:

    NA

    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $46,200 (2006 est.)
    $34,900 (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2% (2006 est.)
    industry: 15% (2006 est.)
    services: 83% (2006 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish
    Industries:
    fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    NA
    Labor force:
    4,429 (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 224
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 41% (1996 est.)
    industry: 41% (1996)
    services: 41% (1996)
    Unemployment rate:
    8.7% (2015 est.)
    9.9% (2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Budget:
    revenues: 70 million (1996 est.)
    expenditures: 60 million (1996 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    26.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    3.8% (of GDP) (1996 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 10
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.5% (2015)
    4.5% (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Exports:
    $6.641 million (2010 est.)
    $5.5 million (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    Exports - commodities:
    fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts
    Imports:
    $95.35 million (2010 est.)
    $68.2 million (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Imports - commodities:
    meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials
    Debt - external:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Electricity - production:
    47 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Electricity - consumption:
    43.71 million kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    27,600 kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    97.8% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2.2% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    630 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    625 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 203
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 191
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 201
  • Communications :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 4,800 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: adequate
    international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system
    Broadcast media:
    2 TV stations with a third repeater station, all part of the French Overseas Network; radio stations on St. Pierre and on Miquelon are part of the French Overseas Network (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .pm
    Internet users:
    total: 4,500 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 79.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 216
  • Transportation :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Airports:
    2 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 206
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 2 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 117 km (2009)
    paved: 80 km (2009)
    unpaved: 37 km (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 215
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Saint-Pierre
  • Military and Security :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of France
  • Transnational Issues :: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Disputes - international:
    none