Central Asia :: Uzbekistan
  • Introduction :: Uzbekistan
  • Background:
    Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991 upon the dissolution of the USSR, the country has reduced its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. Uzbekistan’s first president, Islom KARIMOV, led Uzbekistan for 25 years until his death in September 2016. The political transition to his successor, then-Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV was peaceful, but sidelined the constitutional process where the chairman of the Senate would have served as the acting president. MIRZIYOYEV, who won the presidential election in December 2016, has improved relations with Uzbekistan’s neighbors and introduced wide-ranging economic and judicial reforms.
  • Geography :: Uzbekistan
  • Location:
    Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan
    Geographic coordinates:
    41 00 N, 64 00 E
    Map references:
    Asia
    Area:
    total: 447,400 sq km
    land: 425,400 sq km
    water: 22,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Area - comparative:
    about four times the size of Virginia; slightly larger than California
    Land boundaries:
    total: 6,893 km
    border countries (5): Afghanistan 144 km, Kazakhstan 2330 km, Kyrgyzstan 1314 km, Tajikistan 1312 km, Turkmenistan 1793 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
    Maritime claims:
    none (doubly landlocked)
    Climate:
    mostly mid-latitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
    Terrain:
    mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
    Elevation:
    -12 m lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli
    4301 highest point: Adelunga Toghi
    Natural resources:
    natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 62.6% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 10.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 51.7% (2011 est.)
    forest: 7.7% (2011 est.)
    other: 29.7% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    42,150 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    Natural hazards:
    earthquakes; floods; landslides or mudslides; avalanches; droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
  • People and Society :: Uzbekistan
  • Population:
    30,023,709 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Nationality:
    noun: Uzbekistani
    adjective: Uzbekistani
    Ethnic groups:
    Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
    Languages:
    Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

    note: in the Karakalpakstan Republic, both the Karakalpak language and Uzbek have official status

    Religions:
    Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 23.61% (male 3,631,957 /female 3,457,274)
    15-24 years: 17.85% (male 2,735,083 /female 2,623,511)
    25-54 years: 44.95% (male 6,714,567 /female 6,781,485)
    55-64 years: 8.15% (male 1,156,462 /female 1,289,703)
    65 years and over: 5.44% (male 698,610 /female 935,057) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 47.7 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 41.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 16 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 29.1 years
    male: 28.5 years
    female: 29.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Population growth rate:
    0.91% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Birth rate:
    16.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Death rate:
    5.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 183
    Net migration rate:
    -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Population distribution:
    most of the population is concentrated in the fertile Fergana Valley in the easternmost arm of the country; the south has significant clusters of people, while the central and western deserts are sparsely populated
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 50.5% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.28% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    2.464 million TASHKENT (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    23.4 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    36 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 17.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 20.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 74.3 years (2018 est.)
    male: 71.2 years (2018 est.)
    female: 77.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Total fertility rate:
    1.75 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Health expenditures:
    5.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Physicians density:
    2.45 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    4 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 98.5% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 80.9% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 87.3% of population (2012 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.5% of population (2012 est.)
    rural: 19.1% of population (2012 est.)
    total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    52,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,900 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    16.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Education expenditures:
    NA
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 100% (2015 est.)
    male: 100% (2015 est.)
    female: 100% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 12 years (2016)
    male: 13 years (2016)
    female: 12 years (2016)
  • Government :: Uzbekistan
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
    conventional short form: Uzbekistan
    local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
    local short form: O'zbekiston
    former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
    etymology: a combination of the Turkic words "uz" (self) and "bek" (master) with the Persian suffix "-stan" (country) to give the meaning "Land of the Free"
    Government type:
    presidential republic; highly authoritarian
    Capital:
    name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
    geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
    time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent Province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)

    note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)

    Independence:
    1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the Supreme Assembly or by referendum; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of both houses of the Assembly or passage in a referendum; amended several times, last in 2014 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Uzbekistan
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (interim president from 8 September 2016; formally elected president on 4 December 2016 to succeed longtime President Islom KARIMOV, who died on 2 September 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Abdulla ARIPOV (since 14 December 2016); First Deputy Prime Minister Achilbay RAMATOV (since 15 December 2016)
    cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with most requiring approval of the Senate chamber of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a 5-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to 7 years, and reverted to 5 years in 2011); election last held on 4 December 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by majority party in legislature since 2011, but appointed along with the ministers and deputy ministers by the president
    election results: Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV elected president in first round; percent of vote - Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (LDPU) 88.6%, Khatamjon KETMONOV (NDP) 3.7%, Narimon UMAROV (Adolat) 3.5%, Sarvar OTAMURADOV (Milliy Tiklanish/National Revival) 2.4%, other 1.8%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of:
    Senate (100 seats; 84 members indirectly elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)
    Legislative Chamber or Qonunchilik Palatasi (150 seats; 135 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by absolute majority vote with a second round, if needed, and 15 indirectly elected by the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held 13-14 January 2015 (next to be held in 2020)
    Legislative Chamber - last held on 21 December 2014 and 4 January 2015 (next to be held in December 2019)
    election results:
    Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 83, women 17, percent of women 17%
    Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 52, National Revival Democratic Party 36, NDP 27, Adolat 20, Ecological Movement 15; composition - men 126, women 24, percent of women 16%; note - total Supreme Assembly percent of women 16.4%
    note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 67 judges organized into administrative, civil, criminal, economic, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of the highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for initial 5-year term, subsequent 10-year term, and lifetime term subject to reappointment
    subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts; economic courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIKHANOV]
    Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
    Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV]
    National Revival Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Milliy Tiklanish Demokratik Partiyasi) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
    People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)
    International organization participation:
    ADB, CICA, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Javlon VAKHABOV (since 29 November 2017)
    chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
    FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
    consulate(s) general: New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela L. SPRATLEN (since 27 January 2015)
    embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
    mailing address: use embassy street address
    telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
    FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar
    National symbol(s):
    khumo (mythical bird); national colors: blue, white, red, green
    National anthem:
    name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
    lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV

    note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics

  • Economy :: Uzbekistan
  • Economy - overview:

    Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in which 51% of the population lives in urban settlements; the agriculture-rich Fergana Valley, in which Uzbekistan’s eastern borders are situated, has been counted among the most densely populated parts of Central Asia. Since its independence in September 1991, the government has largely maintained its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production, prices, and access to foreign currency. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbek agriculture remains largely centered on cotton; Uzbekistan is the world's fifth-largest cotton exporter and seventh-largest producer. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments, and export of natural gas, gold, and cotton provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings.

    Recently, lower global commodity prices and economic slowdowns in neighboring Russia and China have hurt Uzbekistan's trade and investment and worsened its foreign currency shortage. Aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government is taking incremental steps to reform the business sector and address impediments to foreign investment in the country. Since the death of first President Islam KARIMOV and election of President Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV, emphasis on such initiatives and government efforts to improve the private sector have increased. In the past, Uzbek authorities accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek laws and have frozen and seized their assets.

    As a part of its economic reform efforts, the Uzbek Government is looking to expand opportunities for small and medium enterprises and prioritizes increasing foreign direct investment. In September 2017, the government devalued the official currency rate by almost 50% and announced the loosening of currency restrictions to eliminate the currency black market, increase access to hard currency, and boost investment.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $223 billion (2017 est.)
    $211.8 billion (2016 est.)
    $196.5 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 63
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $48.83 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    5.3% (2017 est.)
    7.8% (2016 est.)
    7.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 44
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $6,900 (2017 est.)
    $6,700 (2016 est.)
    $6,300 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 158
    Gross national saving:
    32.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    25.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
    27.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 59.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 25.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 19% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -20% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 17.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 33.7% (2017 est.)
    services: 48.5% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
    Industries:
    textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals
    Industrial production growth rate:
    4.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Labor force:
    18.12 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    industry: 13.2% (2012 est.)
    services: 60.9% (2012 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    5% (2017 est.)
    5.1% (2016 est.)

    note: official data; another 20% are underemployed

    country comparison to the world: 75
    Population below poverty line:
    14% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    36.8 (2003)
    44.7 (1998)
    country comparison to the world: 85
    Budget:
    revenues: 15.22 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 15.08 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    31.2% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    0.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Public debt:
    24.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    10.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    12.5% (2017 est.)
    8% (2016 est.)

    note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012

    country comparison to the world: 208
    Central bank discount rate:
    9% (2016)
    9% (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    16% (31 December 2016 est.)
    11.2% (31 December 2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 31
    Stock of narrow money:
    $4.173 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Stock of broad money:
    $4.173 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $5.558 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $11.63 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $NA (31 December 2012)
    $715.3 million (31 December 2006)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Current account balance:
    $1.713 billion (2017 est.)
    $384 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Exports:
    $11.48 billion (2017 est.)
    $11.2 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Exports - commodities:
    energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, foodstuffs, machinery, automobiles
    Exports - partners:
    Switzerland 38.7%, China 15.5%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.7%, Afghanistan 4.7% (2017)
    Imports:
    $615.9 billion (2017 est.)
    $10.91 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 5
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $16 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Imports - partners:
    China 23.7%, Russia 22.5%, Kazakhstan 10.7%, South Korea 9.8%, Turkey 5.8%, Germany 5.6% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $16.9 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $16.76 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

    NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
    3,906.1 (2017 est.)
    2,966.6 (2016 est.)
    2,966.6 (2015 est.)
    2,569.6 (2014 est.)
    2,311.4 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Uzbekistan
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    59 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Electricity - consumption:
    48 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Electricity - exports:
    13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Electricity - imports:
    13 billion kWh (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    12.93 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    86.4% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    13.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 211
    Crude oil - production:
    52,910 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Crude oil - exports:
    27,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Crude oil - imports:
    380 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    594 million bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    63,650 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    61,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    4,102 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 213
    Natural gas - production:
    55.7 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 15
    Natural gas - consumption:
    7.55 billion cu m (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Natural gas - exports:
    14.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 207
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    109 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
  • Communications :: Uzbekistan
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 3,444,330 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 24,265,460 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 82 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas (2018)
    domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed-line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 2 state-owned operators with a total subscriber base of 22.8 million as of January 2018 (2018)
    international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber- optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2018)
    Broadcast media:
    government controls media; 18 state-owned broadcasters - 14 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media (NAEMM) of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media; in 2015, the NAEMM relaunched its TV channel under a different name (2017)
    Internet country code:
    .uz
    Internet users:
    total: 13,791,083 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 46.8% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 3,320,210 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 11 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
  • Transportation :: Uzbekistan
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 29 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 2,486,673 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 114,334,520 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    UK (2016)
    Airports:
    53 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 33 (2013)
    over 3,047 m: 6 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 13 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2013)
    under 914 m: 4 (2013)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 20 (2013)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
    under 914 m: 18 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    13700 km gas, 944 km oil (2016)
    Railways:
    total: 4,642 km (2018)
    broad gauge: 4,642 km 1.520-m gauge (1,684 km electrified) (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Roadways:
    total: 86,496 km (2000)
    paved: 75,511 km (2000)
    unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Waterways:
    1,100 km (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)
  • Military and Security :: Uzbekistan
  • Military branches:
    Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard (2017)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities; note - widely considered to have one of the strongest militaries in Central Asia, although it is untested (2016)
  • Transnational Issues :: Uzbekistan
  • Disputes - international:
    prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river statesfield demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 85,555 (2017)
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; government-compelled forced labor of adults remained endemic during the 2014 cotton harvest; despite a decree banning the use of persons under 18, children were mobilized to harvest cotton by local officials in some districts; in some regions, local officials forced teachers, students, private business employees, and others to work in construction, agriculture, and cleaning parks; Uzbekistani women and children are victims of sex trafficking domestically and in the Middle East, Eurasia, and Asia; Uzbekistani men and, to a lesser extent, women are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine in the construction, oil, agriculture, retail, and food sectors
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; law enforcement efforts in 2014 were mixed; the government made efforts to combat sex and transnational labor trafficking, but government-compelled forced labor of adults in the cotton harvest went unaddressed, and the decree prohibiting forced child labor was not applied universally; official complicity in human trafficking in the cotton harvest remained prevalent; authorities made efforts to identify and protect sex and transnational labor victims, although a systematic process is still lacking; minimal efforts were made to assist victims of forced labor in the cotton harvest, as the government does not openly acknowledge the existence of this forced labor; the ILO did not have permission or funding to monitor the 2014 harvest, but the government authorized the UN's International Labour Organization to conduct a survey on recruitment practices and working conditions in agriculture, particularly the cotton sector, and to monitor the 2015-17 cotton harvests for child and forced labor in project areas (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan