Field Listing :: Constitution
This entry provides information on a country’s constitution. It includes the dates of previous constitutions, the dates of the main steps in making and implementing the latest constitution, and the dates of amendments. For countries with 1-3 previous constitutions, the years are listed; for those with 4-9 previous, the entry is listed as “several previous,” and for those with 10 or more, the entry is “many previous.” Amendment entries are treated in the same manner, and include the date(s) of the last amendment(s).

The main steps in creating a constitution and amending it usually include drafting, legislative and/or executive branch review and approval, public referendum, and entry into law. In many countries this process is lengthy. Terms commonly used to describe constitutional changes are “amended,” “revised,” or “reformed.” In countries such as South Korea and Turkmenistan, sources differ as to whether changes are stated as new constitutions or are amendments/ revisions to existing ones.

A few countries including Canada, Israel, and UK have no single constitution document, but have various written and unwritten acts, statutes, common laws, and practices that, when taken together, describe a body of fundamental principles or established precedents as to how their countries are governed. Countries including Hong Kong, Macau, Oman, and Saudi Arabia use the term “basic law” instead of constitution.

A number of self-governing dependencies and territories such as the Cayman Islands, Bermuda, and Gibraltar (UK), Greenland and Faroe Islands (Denmark), Aruba, Curacao, and Sint Maarten (Netherlands), and Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (US) have their own country-level constitutions.
Country
Constitution
Afghanistan several previous; latest drafted 14 December 2003 - 4 January 2004, signed 16 January 2004, ratified 26 January 2004 (2012)
Akrotiri presented 3 August 1960, effective 16 August 1960; amended 1966 (The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council 1960, serves as a basic legal document) (2013)
Albania several previous; latest approved by parliament 21 October 1998, adopted by popular referendum 22 November 1998, promulgated 28 November 1998; amended 2007, 2008, 2012 (2014)
Algeria adopted 8 September 1963; amended several times, last in 2008 (2013)
American Samoa ratified 2 June 1966, effective 1 July 1967 (2013)
Andorra drafted 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993 (2013)
Angola previous 1975, 1992; latest adopted 5 February 2010 (2013)
Anguilla several previous; latest 1 April 1982; amended 1990 (2013)
Antigua and Barbuda several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981; effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981) (2011)
Argentina several previous; latest effective 11 May 1853; amended many times, last in 1994 (2013)
Armenia previous 1915, 1978; latest adopted 5 July 1995; amended 2005 (2013)
Aruba previous 1947, 1955; latest drafted and approved August 1985, enacted 1 January 1986 (regulates governance of Aruba, but is subordinate to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - in October 2010, following dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba became a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2013)
Australia 9 July 1900; effective 1 January 1901; amended several times, last in 1977; note - a referendum to amend the constitution to reflect the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Act 2013 is to be completed by the end of 2014 (2013)
Austria several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934 (authoritarian-corporate constitution), replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation; latest reinstated 1 May 1945 (1920 constitution with 1929 revisions); amended many times, last in 2008 (2013)
Azerbaijan several previous; latest adopted 12 November 1995; amended 1996, 2002, 2009 (2009)
Bahamas, The previous 1964 (preindependence); latest adopted 20 June 1973, effective 10 July 1973; amended many times, last in 2002; note - in 2012, a constitutional commission was appointed to review and recommend constitutional changes (2013)
Bahrain adopted 14 February 2002; amended 2012 (2012)
Bangladesh previous 1935, 1956, 1962 (preindependence); latest enacted 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended March 1982, restored November 1986; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
Barbados adopted 22 November 1966, effective 30 November 1966; amended several times, last in 2003 (2011)
Belarus several previous; latest drafted between late 1991 and early 1994, signed 15 March 1994; amended 1996, 2004 (2013)
Belgium drafted 25 November 1830, approved 7 February 1831, entered into force 26 July 1831, revised 14 July 1993 (creating a federal state); amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Belize previous 1954, 1963 (preindependence); latest signed and entered into force 21 September 1981; amended several times, last in 2012 (2013)
Benin previous 1946, 1958 (preindependence); latest adopted by referendum 2 December 1990, promulgated 11 December 1990 (2012)
Bermuda several previous (dating to 1684); latest entered into force 8 June 1968; amended several times, last in 2003 (2013)
Bhutan previous (various royal decrees); first constitution drafted November 2001 - March 2005, ratified 18 July 2008 (2011)
Bolivia many previous; latest drafted 6 August 2006 - 9 December 2008, approved by referendum 25 January 2009, effective 7 February 2009; amended 2013 (2013)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 14 December 1995 (constitution included as part of the Dayton Peace Accords); amended several times, last in 2003; note - each of the entities has its own constitution (2011)
Botswana previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966; amended several times, last in 2006 (2006)
Brazil several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
British Virgin Islands several previous; latest effective 15 June 2007 (2007)
Brunei drafted 1954 to 1959, signed 29 September 1959; amended 1984, 2004, 2011; note - some constitutional provisions suspended since 1962 under a State of Emergency, others since independence in 1984 (2011)
Bulgaria several previous; latest drafted between late 1990 and early 1991, adopted 12 July 1991; amended several times, last in 2007 (2007)
Burkina Faso several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Burma previous 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest approved by referendum 29 May 2008; approved 15 May 2008; reformed 2011 (2011)
Burundi several previous; latest ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005 (2012)
Cabo Verde previous 1981; latest effective 25 September 1992; revised 1995, 1999, 2010 (2010)
Cambodia previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993; amended 1999, 2008 (2008)
Cameroon several previous; latest effective 18 January 1996; amended 2008 (2008)
Canada made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to Constitution Act, 1982, last in 2011 (2011)
Cayman Islands several previous; latest approved 10 June 2009, entered into force 6 November 2009 (The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009) (2013)
Central African Republic several previous; latest ratified by referendum 5 December 2004, effective 27 December 2004; amended 2010 (2010)
Chad several previous; latest passed by referendum 31 March 1996, entered into force 8 April 1996; amended 2005 (2010)
Chile many previous; latest adopted 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
China several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2005 (2005)
Christmas Island 1 October 1958 (Christmas Island Act 1958); amended many times, last in 2010 (Territories Law Reform Act 2010) (2010)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands 23 November 1955 (Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act 1955); amended many times, last in 2010 (2010)
Colombia several previous; latest promulgated 5 July 1991; amended many times, last in 2011 (2013)
Comoros previous 1996; latest ratified 23 December 2001; amended 2009 and 2014 (2009)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the several previous; latest adopted 13 May 2005, approved by referendum 18-19 December 2005, promulgated 18 February 2006; revised 2011 (2011)
Congo, Republic of the previous 1992; latest approved by referendum 20 January 2002 (2002)
Cook Islands effective 4 August 1965 (Cook islands Constitution Act 1964); amended many times, last in 2004 (2004)
Costa Rica previous 1825; latest adopted 7 November 1949; amended many times, last in 2005 (2005)
Cote d'Ivoire previous 1960; latest approved by referendum 23 July 2000; amended 2012 (2012)
Croatia several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1990; amended several times, last in December 2013 through public referendum (2012)
Cuba several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 February 1976, effective 24 February 1976; amended 1978, 1992, 2002 (2010)
Curacao previous 1947, 1955; latest adopted 5 September 2010, entered into force 10 October 2010 (regulates governance of Curacao but is subordinate to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - in October 2010, with the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Curacao became a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2013)
Cyprus ratified 16 August 1960; note - in 1963, the constitution was partly suspended as Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the government; Turkish-held territory in 1983 was declared the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"); in 1985, the "TRNC" approved its own constitution (2013)
Czech Republic previous 1960; latest ratified 16 December 1992, effective 1 January 1993; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
Denmark previous 1665; latest adopted 5 June 1849; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Dhekelia presented 3 August 1960, effective 16 August 1960; amended 1966 (The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Order in Council 1960, serves as a basic legal document) (2013)
Djibouti approved by referendum 4 September 1992; amended 2006, 2008, 2010 (2010)
Dominica previous 1967 (preindependence); latest presented 25 July 1978, entered into force 3 November 1978; amended several times, last in 1984 (2011)
Dominican Republic many previous (38 total); latest proclaimed 26 January 2010; note - the Dominican Republic Government has a practice of promulgating a "new" constitution whenever an amendment is ratified (2013)
Ecuador many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011 (2011)
Egypt several previous; latest approved by a constitutional committee in December 2013, approved by referenfum held on 14-15 January 2014, ratified by interim president on 19 January 2014 (2012)
El Salvador many previous; latest drafted 16 December 1983, enacted 23 December 1983; amended many times, last in 2009 (2012)
Equatorial Guinea approved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Eritrea adopted 23 May 1997 (not fully implemented) (2014)
Estonia several previous; latest adopted 28 June 1992; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Ethiopia several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2013)
European Union none

note: the EU legal order, although based on a series of treaties, has often been described as "constitutional" in nature; the Treaty on European Union (TEU), as modified by the Lisbon Treaty, states in Article 1 that "the HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES establish among themselves a EUROPEAN UNION ... on which the Member States confer competences to attain objectives they have in common"; Article 1 of the TEU states further that the EU is "founded on the present Treaty and on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred to as 'the Treaties')," both possessing the same legal value; Article 6 of the TEU provides that a separately adopted Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union "shall have the same legal value as the Treaties" (2013)
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) previous 1985; latest entered into force 1 January 2009 (2011)
Faroe Islands 5 June 1953 (Danish Constitution), 23 March 1948 (Home Rule Act), and 24 June 2005 (Takeover Act ) serve as the Faroe Islands’ constitutional position in the Unity of the Realm (2013)
Fiji several previous; latest approved July 1997 (suspended in 2009); note - the prime minister submitted a new draft constitution in March 2013 (2013)
Finland previous 1906, 1919; latest drafted 17 June 1997, approved by Parliament 11 June 1999, entered into force 1 March 2000; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
France 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)
French Polynesia 4 October 1958 (French Constitution)
Gabon previous 1961; latest drafted May 1990, adopted 15 March 1991, promulgated 26 March 1991; amended several times, including 2003 and 2011 (2013)
Gambia, The previous 1970; latest adopted 8 April 1996, approved by referendum 8 August 1996, effective 16 January 1997; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Georgia previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
Germany previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Ghana several previous; latest drafted 31 March 1992, approved and promulgated 28 April 1992, entered into force 7 January 1993; amended 1996 (2012)
Gibraltar previous 1969; latest passed by referendum 30 November 2006, entered into effect 14 December 2006, entered into force 2 January 2007; amended 2009 (2009)
Greece many previous; latest entered into force 11 June 1975; amended 1986, 2001, 2008 (2013)
Greenland previous 1953 (Greenland established as a constituency in the Danish constitution), 1979 (Greenland Home Rule Act); latest 21 June 2009 (Greenland Self-Government Act) (2009)
Grenada previous 1967; latest presented 19 December 1973, came into operation 7 February 1974, some provisions suspended 1979; amended 1991 (Constitutional Judicature Act, 1991 - restored provisions suspended in 1979), 1992 (2008)
Guam effective 1 July 1950; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
Guatemala several previous; latest adopted 31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; suspended, reinstated, and amended in 1993 (2013)
Guernsey unwritten; includes royal charters, statutes, and common law and practice
Guinea previous 1958, 1990; latest promulgated 19 April 2010, approved 7 May 2010 (2010)
Guinea-Bissau promulgated 16 May 1984; amended several times, last in 1996; note - constitution suspended following military coup in April 2012 (2013)
Guyana several previous; latest promulgated 6 October 1980; amended many times, last in 2007 (2013)
Haiti many previous (23 total); latest adopted 10 March 1987; amended 2012 (2013)
Holy See (Vatican City) previous 1929, 1963; latest adopted 26 November 2000, effective 22 February 2001 (Fundamental Law by Pope JOHN PAUL II); note - Pope Francis in October 2013 appointed a group of cardinals to revise the constitution (2013)
Honduras several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
Hong Kong several previous (governance documents while under British authority); latest drafted April 1988 to February 1989, approved March 1990, promulgated 4 April 1990 (Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China serves as the constitution); note - since 1990, China's National People's Congress has interpreted specific articles of the Basic Law (2013)
Hungary previous 1949 (heavily amended in 1989 following collapse of communism); latest approved 18 April 2011, signed 25 April 2011, effective 1 January 2012; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
Iceland several previous; latest ratified 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944 (at independence); amended many times, last in 2013; note - a new constitution drafted in 2012 in the aftermath of the country's banking collapse was voted down in April 2013 by the recently elected parliament, though several amendments were passed (2013)
India previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)
Indonesia drafted July to August 1945, effective 17 August 1945, abrogated by 1949 and 1950 constitutions, 1945 constitution restored 5 July 1959; amended several times, last in 2002 (2013)
Iran previous 1906; latest adopted 24 October 1979, effective 3 December 1979; amended 1989 (2013)
Iraq several previous; latest adopted by referendum 15 October 2005 (2013)
Ireland previous 1922; latest drafted 14 June 1937, adopted by plebiscite 1 July 1937, effective 29 December 1937; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Isle of Man several previous; latest announced 16 October 2006 (Isle of Man Constitution Act 2006) (2006)
Israel no formal constitution; some functions of a constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the Basic Laws of the Parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law (2013)
Italy previous 1848 (originally for Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948; amended many times, last in 2012 (2013)
Jamaica several previous (preindependence); latest drafted 1961-62, submitted to British Parliament 24 July 1962, entered into force 6 August 1962 (at independence); amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
Japan previous 1890; latest approved 6 October 1946, adopted 3 November 1946, effective 3 May 1947 (2013)
Jersey unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice (2013)
Jordan previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952; amended several times, last in 2011 (2012)
Kazakhstan previous 1937, 1978 (preindependence ); latest adopted 28 January 1993, approved by referendum 30 August 1995, effective 5 September 1995; amended 1998, 2007, 2011 (2012)
Kenya previous 1963, 1969; latest drafted 6 May 2010, passed by referendum 4 August 2010, promulgated 27 August 2010 (2013)
Kiribati preindependence - The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Order in Council 1915, The Gilbert Islands Order in Council 1975; latest promulgated 12 July 1979 (at independence); amended 1995 (2013)
Korea, North previous 1948, 1972 (revised several times); latest adopted 1998 (during KIM Jong Il era); revised 2009, 2012 (2012)
Korea, South effective 17 July 1948; amended several times, last in 1987 (2013)
Kosovo previous 1974, 1990; latest (postindependence) draft finalized 2 April 2008, signed 7 April 2008, ratified 8 April 2008, entered into force 15 June 2008; amended 2013 (2013)
Kuwait approved and promulgated 11 November 1962 (2013)
Kyrgyzstan previous 1993; latest adopted 27 June 2010, effective 2 July 2010 (2010)
Laos previous 1947 (preindependence); latest promulgated 13-15 August 1991; amended 2003 (2003)
Latvia several previous (preindependence); note - at independence, parts of the 1922 constitution were reinforced and fully reinforced 6 July 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Lebanon drafted 15 May 1926, adopted 23 May 1926; amended several times, last in 2004 (2013)
Lesotho previous 1959, 1967; latest adopted 2 April 1993 (effectively restoring the 1967 version); amended 2001 (2013)
Liberia previous 1847 (at independence); latest drafted 19 October 1983, revised version adopted by referendum 3 July 1984, effective 6 January 1986; amended 2011 (2011)
Libya previous 1951, 1977; latest 2011 (interim); note - in mid-July 2013, Libya's legislative body agreed on steps for drafting a new constitution (2013)
Liechtenstein previous 1862; latest adopted 5 October 1921; amended many times, last in 2011 (2013)
Lithuania several previous; latest adopted by referendum 25 October 1992, entered into force 2 November 1992; amended 2003 (2012)
Luxembourg previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1968; amended many times, last in 2008 (2008)
Macau previous 1976 (Organic Statute of Macau, by Portugal); latest adopted 31 March 1993, effective 20 December 1999(Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region, by the People's Republic of China, serves as Macau's constitution) (2013)
Macedonia several previous; latest adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
Madagascar previous 1992; latest passed by referendum 17 November 2010, promulgated 11 December 2010 (2012)
Malawi previous 1953 (preindependence), 1966; latest drafted January to May 1994, approved 16 May 1994, entered into force 18 May 1995; amended several times, last in 2005 (2007)
Malaysia previous 1948; latest drafted 21 February 1957, effective 27 August 1957; amended many times, last in 2007 (2010)
Maldives many previous; latest ratified 7 August 2008 (2010)
Mali several previous; latest drafted August 1991, approved by referendum 12 January 1992, effective 25 February 1992; amended 1999; note - suspended briefly in 2012 (2011)
Malta many previous; latest adopted 21 September 1964; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
Marshall Islands effective 1 May 1979; amended several times, last in 1990 (2005)
Mauritania previous 1964; latest adopted 12 July 1991; amended 2006, 2012 (2012)
Mauritius several previous; latest adopted 12 March 1968; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Mexico several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Micronesia, Federated States of drafted June 1975, ratified 1 October 1978, entered into force 10 May 1979; amended 1990 (2012)
Moldova previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994; amended 2003 (2011)
Monaco previous 1911 (suspended 1959); latest adopted 17 December 1962; amended 2002 (2013)
Mongolia several previous; latest adopted 13 January 1992, effective 12 February 1992; amended 1999, 2001 (2011)
Montenegro several previous; latest adopted 22 October 2007; note - in early 2013, Montenegro's parliamentary constitutional committee began debate on proposed amendments (2013)
Montserrat previous 1960; latest effective 1 September 2010; amended 2011 (2012)
Morocco several previous; latest drafted 17 June 2011, approved by referendum 1 July 2011; note - sources disagree on whether the 2011 referendum was for a new constitution or for reforms to the previous constitution (2011)
Mozambique previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; note - draft amendments planned for parliamentary review in late 2013 (2013)
Namibia drafted 9 February 1990, signed 16 March 1990, entered into force 21 March 1990; amended 1998, 2010 (2010)
Nauru effective 29 January 1968; amended 1968, 2009; note - in early 2013, further amendments were introduced (2013)
Nepal several previous; latest entered into force 15 January 2007 (interim); note -a Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in 2008 to draft and promulgate a new constitution was unsuccessful and was disolved in mid-2012; a new CA was elected in late 2013 and the parties have committed to promulgating a new constitution within one year of the CAs first sitting of January 2014 (2013)
Netherlands previous 1597, 1798; latest adopted 24 August 1815 (substantially revised in 1848); amended many times, last in 2010 (2013)
New Caledonia 4 October 1958 (French Constitution with changes as reflected in Noumea Accord of 5 May 1998) (2013)
New Zealand Constitution Act 1986 (the principal formal charter) adopted and effective 1 January 1987; amended 1999, 2005 (2013)
Nicaragua several previous; latest adopted 19 November 1986, effective 9 January 1987; amended several times, last in 2007 (2007)
Niger several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 (2014) (2010)
Nigeria several previous; latest adopted 5 May 1999, effective 29 May 1999; amended 2010 (2010)
Niue several previous (New Zealand colonial statutes); latest 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act 1974); amended 1992, 2007 (2007)
Norfolk Island previous 1913, 1957; latest effective 7 August 1979; amended many times, last in 2010 (2011)
Northern Mariana Islands partially effective 1 January 1978 (Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands); fully effective 4 November 1986 (Covenant Agreement); amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Norway drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Oman previous 1996 (The Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman serves as the constitution); latest amended by royal decree in 2011 (2011)
Pakistan several previous; latest endorsed 12 April 1973, passed 19 April 1973, entered into force 14 August 1973 (suspended and restored several times); amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)
Palau ratified 9 July 1980, effective 1 January 1981; amended 1992, 2004 (2011)
Panama several previous; latest effective 11 October 1972; amended several times, last in 2004 (2010)
Papua New Guinea adopted 15 August 1975, effective at independence 16 September 1975; amended many times, last in 2003 (2013)
Paraguay several previous; latest approved and promulgated 20 June 1992; amended 2011 (2011)
Peru several previous; latest promulgated 29 December 1993, enacted 31 December 1993; amended several times, last in 2009 (2009)
Philippines several previous; latest ratified 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987 (2013)
Pitcairn Islands several previous; latest made 10 February 2010, presented 17 February 2010, effective 4 March 2010 (2010)
Poland several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1997, approved by referendum 25 May 1997, effective 17 October 1997; amended 2006, 2009 (2013)
Portugal several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976; amended several times, last in 2005 (2013)
Puerto Rico previous 1900 (Organic Act, or Foraker Act); latest ratified 3 March 1952, approved 3 July 1952, effective 25 July 1952; note - constitutional amendments introduced in 2012 were rejected in a referendum (2013)
Qatar previous 1972 (provisional); latest drafted 2 July 2002, approved by referendum 29 April 2003, endorsed 8 June 2004, effective 9 June 2005 (2013)
Romania several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2014)
Russia several previous (during Russian Empire and Soviet eras); latest drafted 12 July 1993, adopted by referendum 12 December 1993, effective 25 December 1993; amended 2008 (2013)
Rwanda several previous; latest adopted by referendum 26 May 2003, effective 4 June 2003; amended several times, last in 2010 (2013)
Saint Barthelemy 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)
Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha several previous; latest effective 1 September 2009 (The St. Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009) (2013)
Saint Kitts and Nevis several previous; latest presented 22 June 1983, effective 23 June 1983 (2011)
Saint Lucia previous 1958, 1960 (preindependence); latest presented 20 December 1978, effective 22 February 1979; note - a constitutional reform report was submitted to the St. Lucian Parliament in April 2013 (2013)
Saint Martin 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines several previous; latest presented 26 July 1979, effective 27 October 1979 (2009)
Samoa several previous (preindependence); latest 1 January 1962; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
San Marino consists of several legislative instruments, chief among them the Statutes (Leges Statuti) of 1600 and the Declaration of Citizen Rights of 1974; latter document amended 2000, 2002 (2013)
Sao Tome and Principe approved 5 November 1975; revised several times, last in 2003 (2012)
Saudi Arabia 1 March 1992 - Basic Law of Government, issued by royal decree, serves as the constitutional framework and is based on the Qur'an and the life and tradition of the Prophet Muhammad (2013)
Senegal previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2008 (2011)
Serbia many previous; latest approved by referendum 28-29 October 2006, adopted 30 September 2006, effective 8 November 2006 (2011)
Seychelles previous 1970, 1979; latest drafted May 1993, approved by referendum 18 June 1993, effective 23 June 1993; amended many times, last in 2011 (2011)
Sierra Leone several previous; latest in effect 1 October 1991; amended several times, last in 2010; note - in mid-2013 a committee was formed to review the constitution (2013)
Singapore several previous; latest adopted 22 December 1965; amended several times, last in 2010 (2013)
Sint Maarten Staatsregeling, 10 October 2010; revised Kingdom Charter pending previous 1947, 1955; latest adopted 21 July 2010, entered into force 10 October 2010 (regulates governance of Sint Maarten but is subordinate to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - in October 2010, with the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Sint Maarten became a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2013)
Slovakia several previous (preindependence); latest passed by legislature 1 September 1992, signed 3 September 1992, effective 1 October 1992; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
Slovenia previous 1974 (preindependence); latest passed by legislature 23 December 1991; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)
Solomon Islands adopted 31 May 1978, effective 7 July 1978; amended several times, last in 2010 (2012)
Somalia previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2012)
South Africa several previous; latest drafted 8 May 1996, approved 4 December 1997, effective 4 February 1997; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)
South Sudan previous 2005 (preindependence); latest signed 7 July 2011 (Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011); note - in January 2013, the mandate of the South Sudan National Constitutional Review Commission to address additional constitutional amendments was extended (2013)
Spain previous 1812; latest approved by legislature 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978; amended 1992, 2011 (2013)
Sri Lanka several previous; latest adopted 16 August 1978, certified 31 August 1978; amended many times, last in 2010 (2010)
Sudan previous 1998; latest (interim) adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2013)
Suriname previous 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987; amended 1992; note - in 2012, the president appointed a commission to revise the constitution (2012)
Swaziland previous 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2013)
Sweden several previous; latest adopted 1 January 1975; amended several times, last in 2011 (2011)
Switzerland previous 1848, 1874 (extensive revision of 1848 version); latest adopted by referendum 18 April 1999, effective 1 January 2000; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Syria several previous; latest issued 15 February 2012, passed by referendum 26 February 2012 (2013)
Taiwan previous 1912, 1931; latest adopted 25 December 1946, promulgated 1 January 1947, effective 25 December 1947; revised several times, last in 2005 (2013)
Tajikistan several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994; amended 1999, 2003 (2009)
Tanzania several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution (2013)
Thailand many previous; latest approved by referendum 19 August 2007, effective 24 August 2007 (2013)
Timor-Leste drafted 2001, approved 22 March 2002, entered into force 20 May 2002 (2013)
Togo several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1992, effective 14 October 1992; amended 2002, last in 2005 (2005)
Tokelau many previous; latest effective 1 January 1949 (Tokelau Islands Act 1948); amended many times, last in 2007 (2012)
Tonga adopted 4 November 1875; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)
Trinidad and Tobago previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2012)
Tunisia several previous; latest approved by Constituent Assembly 26 January 2014 (2014)
Turkey several previous; latest ratified 9 November 1982; amended 2001, 2007, 2010 (2010)
Turkmenistan adopted 18 May 1992; amended several times, last in 2008; note - sources disagree on whether the changes in 2008 are amendments or reflect a new constitution (2012)
Turks and Caicos Islands several previous; latest signed 7 August 2012, effective 15 October 2012 (Turks and Caicos Constitution Order 2011) (2012)
Tuvalu previous 1978 (at independence); latest effective 1 October 1986; amended 2007, 2010 (2010)
Uganda several previous; latest adopted 27 September 1995, promulgated 8 October 1995; amended many times, last in 2005 (2011)
Ukraine several previous; latest adopted and ratified 28 June 1996; amended 2004, 2010; note - to revert to the 2004 version pending additional constitutional reforms (2014)
United Arab Emirates previous 1971 (provisional); latest drafted in 1979, became permanent May 1996; amended 2009 (2012)
United Kingdom unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice; note - recent additions include the Human Rights Act of 1998, the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010, the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituencies Act 2011, and the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011 (2011)
United States previous 1781 (Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union); latest drafted July - September 1787, submitted to the Congress of the Confederation 20 September 1787, submitted for states' ratification 28 September 1787, ratification completed by nine states 21 June 1788, effective 4 March 1789; amended many times, last in 1992 (2013)
Uruguay several previous; latest approved by plebiscite 27 November 1966, effective 15 February 1967; amended several times, last in 2004 (2013)
Uzbekistan several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)
Vanuatu effective 30 July 1980; amended 1981, 1983, 1988 (2006)
Venezuela many previous; latest adopted 15 December 1999, effective 30 December 1999; amended 2009 (2013)
Vietnam several previous; latest adopted 15 April 1992, effective 1 January 1995; amended 2001; note - in early 2013, the Vietnamese Government asked for public comment on its constitution (2013)
Virgin Islands 22 July 1954 - the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands functions as a constitution for this territory of the US (2013)
Wallis and Futuna 4 October 1958 (French Constitution) (2013)
Yemen adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note - in early 2013, the Yemeni Government launched a National Dialogue to seek reforms and recommendations for a new constitution (2013)
Zambia several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996; note - in late 2013, a constitution committee submitted a draft constitution to the government, but the government has not yet publicly released the final copy or presented a plan to adopt the document (2013)
Zimbabwe previous 1979; latest approved by referendum 16 March 2013, approved by Parliament 9 May 2013 (2013)