Europe :: Austria
  • Introduction :: Austria
  • Background:
    Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the EU in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic and Monetary Union in 1999.
  • Geography :: Austria
  • Location:
    Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
    Geographic coordinates:
    47 20 N, 13 20 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 83,871 sq km
    land: 82,445 sq km
    water: 1,426 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Area - comparative:
    about the size of South Carolina; slightly more than two-thirds the size of Pennsylvania
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,524 km
    border countries (8): Czech Republic 402 km, Germany 801 km, Hungary 321 km, Italy 404 km, Liechtenstein 34 km, Slovakia 105 km, Slovenia 299 km, Switzerland 158 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
    Terrain:
    mostly mountains (Alps) in the west and south; mostly flat or gently sloping along the eastern and northern margins
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 910 m
    elevation extremes: 115 m lowest point: Neusiedler See
    3798 highest point: Grossglockner
    Natural resources:
    oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 38.4% (2014 est.)
    arable land: 16.5% (2014 est.) / permanent crops: 0.8% (2014 est.) / permanent pasture: 21.1% (2014 est.)
    forest: 47.2% (2014 est.)
    other: 14.4% (2014 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    1,170 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas
    Natural hazards:
    landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
    Environment - current issues:
    some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe; water pollution; the Danube, as well as some of Austria’s other rivers and lakes, are threatened by pollution
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
  • People and Society :: Austria
  • Population:
    8,793,370 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Nationality:
    noun: Austrian(s)
    adjective: Austrian
    Ethnic groups:
    Austrian 84.2%, German 2.1% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Serbian 1.4%, Turkish 1.3%, Romanian 1.2%, Bosnian or Herzegovinian 1.1%, other 10.8% (2018 est.)

    note: data represent population by nationality

    Languages:
    German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene, official in South Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 est.)
    Religions:
    Catholic 73.8% (includes Roman Catholic 73.6%, other Catholic 0.2%), Protestant 4.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Orthodox 2.2%, other 0.8% (includes other Christian), none 12%, unspecified 2% (2001 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 14% (male 630,739 /female 600,663)
    15-24 years: 10.82% (male 484,515 /female 467,064)
    25-54 years: 42.1% (male 1,851,209 /female 1,851,100)
    55-64 years: 13.63% (male 595,146 /female 603,249)
    65 years and over: 19.44% (male 743,174 /female 966,511) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 49.2 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 21.1 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 28.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 44.2 years
    male: 42.9 years
    female: 45.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Population growth rate:
    0.42% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Birth rate:
    9.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Death rate:
    9.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Net migration rate:
    4.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Population distribution:
    the northern and eastern portions of the country are more densely populated; nearly two-thirds of the populace lives in urban areas
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 58.3% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.59% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.901 million VIENNA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    29 years (2014 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 175
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 81.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 79 years (2018 est.)
    female: 84.5 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Total fertility rate:
    1.48 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 199
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    65.7% (2012/13)

    note: percent of women aged 18-49

    Health expenditures:
    11.2% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Physicians density:
    5.23 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    7.6 beds/1,000 population (2013)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    7,400 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    20.1% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Education expenditures:
    5.4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 16 years (2015)
    male: 16 years (2015)
    female: 16 years (2015)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.3% (2016 est.)
    male: 12.1% (2016 est.)
    female: 10.2% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
  • Government :: Austria
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Austria
    conventional short form: Austria
    local long form: Republik Oesterreich
    local short form: Oesterreich
    etymology: the name Oesterreich means "eastern realm" or "eastern march" and dates to the 10th century; the designation refers to the fact that Austria was the easternmost extension of Bavaria, and, in fact, of all the Germans; the word Austria is a Latinization of the German name
    Government type:
    federal parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Vienna
    geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    etymology: the origin of the name is disputed but may derive from earlier settlements of the area; a Celtic town of Vedunia, established about 500 B.C., came under Roman dominance aound 15 B.C. and became known as Vindobona; archeological remains of the latter survive at many sites in the center of Vienna
    Administrative divisions:
    9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
    Independence:
    no official date of independence: 976 (Margravate of Austria established);17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded);6 January 1453 (Archduchy of Austria acknowledged);11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed);30 March 1867 (Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy established);12 November 1918 (First Republic proclaimed);27 April 1945 (Second Republic proclaimed)
    National holiday:
    National Day (commemorates passage of the law on permanent neutrality), 26 October (1955)
    Constitution:
    history: several previous; latest adopted 1 October 1920, revised 1929, replaced May 1934, replaced by German Weimar constitution in 1938 following German annexation, reinstated 1 May 1945 (2016)
    amendments: proposed through laws designated "constitutional laws" or through the constitutional process if the amendment is part of another law; approval required by at least a two-thirds majority vote by the National Assembly if one-half of the members are present; a referendum is required only if requested by one-third of the National Council or Federal Council membership; passage by referendum requires absolute majority vote; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Austria
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    Suffrage:
    16 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (since 26 January 2017)
    head of government: Chancellor Sebastian KURZ (since 18 December 2017); Vice Chancellor Heinz-Christian STRACHE (since 18 December 2017)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 24 April 2016 (first round), 22 May 2016 (second round, which was annulled), and 4 December 2016 (second round re-vote) (next election to be held in April 2022); chancellor appointed by the president but determined by the majority coalition parties in the Federal Assembly; vice chancellor appointed by the president on the advice of the chancellor
    election results: Alexander VAN DER BELLEN elected in second round; percent of vote in first round - Norbet HOFER (FPOe) 35.1%, Alexander VAN DER BELLEN (independent, allied with the Greens) 21.3%, Irmgard GRISS (independent) 18.9%, Rudolf HUNDSTORFER (SPOe) 11.3%, Andreas KHOL (OeVP) 11.1%, Richard LUGNER (independent) 2.3%; percent of vote in second round - Alexander VAN DER BELLEN 53.8%, Norbet HOFER 46.2%
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of:
    Federal Council or Bundesrat (61 seats; members appointed by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 seats in proportion to its population; members serve 5- or 6-year terms)
    National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Federal Council - appointed
    National Council - last held on 15 October 2017 (next to be held in 2022)
    election results:
    Federal Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 42, women 19, percent of women 30.6% 
    National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 31.5%, SPOe 26.9%, FPOe 26%, NEOS 5.3%, PILZ 4.4%, other 5.9%; seats by party - OeVP 62, SPOe 52, FPOe 51, NEOS 10, PILZ 8; composition - men 122, women 61, percent of women 33.3%; note - total Federal Assembly percent of women 32.7%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 85 judges organized into 17 senates or panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof (consists of 20 judges including 6 substitutes; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof - 2 judges plus other members depending on the importance of the case)
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; judges serve for life; Constitutional Court judges nominated by several executive branch departments and approved by the president; judges serve for life; Administrative Court judges recommended by executive branch departments and appointed by the president; terms of judges and members determined by the president
    subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal (4); Regional Courts (20); district courts (120); county courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Sebastian KURZ]
    Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER]
    Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz-Christian STRACHE]
    The Greens [Werner KOGLER]
    NEOS - The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ]
    Pilz List or PILZ [Bruno ROSSMANN and Wolfgang ZINGGL]
    Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Christian KERN]
    International organization participation:
    ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Wolfgang WALDNER (since 28 January 2016)
    chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
    telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
    FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
    consulate(s): Chicago
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Trevor TRAINA (since 24 May 2018)
    embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
    mailing address: Boltzmanngasse 16, 1090 Vienna, Austria
    telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
    FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red; the flag design is certainly one of the oldest - if not the oldest - national banners in the world; according to tradition, in 1191, following a fierce battle in the Third Crusade, Duke Leopold V of Austria's white tunic became completely blood-spattered; upon removal of his wide belt or sash, a white band was revealed; the red-white-red color combination was subsequently adopted as his banner
    National symbol(s):
    eagle, edelweiss, Alpine gentian; national colors: red, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Bundeshymne" (Federal Hymn)
    lyrics/music: Paula von PRERADOVIC/Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART or Johann HOLZER (disputed)

    note: adopted 1947; the anthem is also known as "Land der Berge, Land am Strome" (Land of the Mountains, Land by the River); Austria adopted a new national anthem after World War II to replace the former imperial anthem composed by Franz Josef HAYDN, which had been appropriated by Germany in 1922 and was thereafter associated with the Nazi regime; a gendered version of the lyrics was adopted by the Austrian Federal Assembly in fall 2011 and became effective 1 January 2012

  • Economy :: Austria
  • Economy - overview:

    Austria is a well-developed market economy with skilled labor force and high standard of living. It is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's, but also the US’, its third-largest trade partner. Its economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector.

    Austrian economic growth strengthen in 2017, with a 2.9% increase in GDP. Austrian exports, accounting for around 60% of the GDP, were up 8.2% in 2017. Austria’s unemployment rate fell by 0.3% to 5.5%, which is low by European standards, but still at its second highest rate since the end of World War II, driven by an increased number of refugees and EU migrants entering the labor market.

    Austria's fiscal position compares favorably with other euro-zone countries. The budget deficit stood at a low 0.7% of GDP in 2017 and public debt declined again to 78.4% of GDP in 2017, after reaching a post-war high 84.6% in 2015. The Austrian government has announced it plans to balance the fiscal budget in 2019. Several external risks, such as Austrian banks' exposure to Central and Eastern Europe, the refugee crisis, and continued unrest in Russia/Ukraine, eased in 2017, but are still a factor for the Austrian economy. Exposure to the Russian banking sector and a deep energy relationship with Russia present additional risks.

    Austria elected a new pro-business government in October 2017 that campaigned on promises to reduce bureaucracy, improve public sector efficiency, reduce labor market protections, and provide positive investment incentives.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $441 billion (2017 est.)
    $428.1 billion (2016 est.)
    $422 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 45
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $417.4 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    1.5% (2016 est.)
    1.1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $50,000 (2017 est.)
    $49,000 (2016 est.)
    $48,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 31
    Gross national saving:
    27% of GDP (2017 est.)
    26.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
    25.5% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 52.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 19.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 23.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.6% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 54.2% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -50.7% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 28.4% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.3% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    grains, potatoes, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber and other forestry products
    Industries:
    construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and paper, electronics, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    6.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Labor force:
    4.26 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 0.7%
    industry: 25.2%
    services: 74.1% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    5.5% (2017 est.)
    6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Population below poverty line:
    3% (2017 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
    highest 10%: 23.5% (2012 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    30.5 (2015)
    30.5 (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Budget:
    revenues: 201.7 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 204.6 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    48.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.7% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Public debt:
    78.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
    83.6% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: this is general government gross debt, defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year; it covers the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; as a percentage of GDP, the GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product in current year prices

    country comparison to the world: 37
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.2% (2017 est.)
    1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Central bank discount rate:
    0% (31 December 2017)
    0% (31 December 2010)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world: 147
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    1.57% (31 December 2017 est.)
    1.86% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Stock of narrow money:
    $271.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the European Union for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world: 19
    Stock of broad money:
    $271.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $555.4 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $483.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $96.08 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $96.79 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $117.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Current account balance:
    $7.859 billion (2017 est.)
    $8.313 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    Exports:
    $156.7 billion (2017 est.)
    $149.5 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 32
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 29.4%, US 6.3%, Italy 6.2%, Switzerland 5.1%, France 4.8%, Slovakia 4.8% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, manufactured goods, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
    Imports:
    $158.1 billion (2017 est.)
    $142.3 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products, natural gas; foodstuffs
    Imports - partners:
    Germany 41.8%, Italy 5.8%, Switzerland 5.5%, Czech Republic 4.4%, Netherlands 4.2% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $21.57 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $23.36 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Debt - external:
    $630.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $679.3 billion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $294.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $158.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $339.7 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $214.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Austria
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    60.78 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Electricity - consumption:
    64.6 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Electricity - exports:
    19.21 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    Electricity - imports:
    26.37 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    24.79 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 41
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    43% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 45
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    31% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 17
    Crude oil - production:
    14,260 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Crude oil - imports:
    146,600 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 37
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    41.2 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    186,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    268,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    49,960 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    135,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Natural gas - production:
    1.274 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Natural gas - consumption:
    9.486 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 50
    Natural gas - exports:
    5.437 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Natural gas - imports:
    14.02 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    63.93 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
  • Communications :: Austria
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 3,762,801 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 43 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 36
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 14,924,340 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 170 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: mobile-cellular subscribership is everywhere; cable networks are very extensive, the fiber-optic net is being developed; all telephone applications and Internet services are accessible; broadband is available in all large municipalities; regulatory measures have pomoted the reality of 5G use for 2020 (2017)
    domestic: highly developed and efficient; 43 per 100 fixed-line, 170 per 100 mobile-cellular; (2017)
    international: country code - 43; earth stations available in the Astra, Intelsat, Eutelsat satellite systems (2018)
    Broadcast media:
    worldwide cable and satellite TV are available; the public incumbent ORF competes with three other major, several regional domestic, and up to 400 international TV stations; TV coverage is in principle 100%, but only 90% use broadcast media; Internet streaming not only complements, but increasingly replaces regular TV stations (2018)
    Internet country code:
    .at
    Internet users:
    total: 7,346,055 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 84.3% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 2,511,200 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 29 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    Communications - note:
    the Austrian National Library contains important collections of the Imperial Library of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austrian Empire, as well as of the Austrian Republic; among its more than 12 million items are outstanding holdings of rare books, maps, globes, papyrus, and music; its Globe Museum is the only one in the world
  • Transportation :: Austria
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 11 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 130 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 14,718,641 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 351.379 million mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    OE (2016)
    Airports:
    52 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 90
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 24 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 4 (2017)
    under 914 m: 13 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 28 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
    under 914 m: 24 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    1888 km gas, 594 km oil, 157 km refined products (2017)
    Railways:
    total: 5,800 km (2017)
    standard gauge: 5,300 km 1.435-m gauge (3,826 km electrified) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Roadways:
    total: 138,696 km (2016)
    paved: 138,696 km (includes 2,208 km of expressways) (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Waterways:
    358 km (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna (Danube)
  • Military and Security :: Austria
  • Military expenditures:
    0.58% of GDP (2018)
    0.6% of GDP (2017)
    0.68% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 140
    Military branches:
    Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK) (2014)
    Military service age and obligation:
    registration requirement at age 17, the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory military service (6 months), or optionally, alternative civil/community service (9 months); males 18 to 50 years old in the militia or inactive reserve are subject to compulsory service; in a January 2012 referendum, a majority of Austrians voted in favor of retaining the system of compulsory military service (with the option of alternative/non-military service) instead of switching to a professional army system (2015)
  • Transnational Issues :: Austria
  • Disputes - international:
    none
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    refugees (country of origin): 30,958 (Syria), 20,220 (Afghanistan), 13,773 (Russia), 5,555 (Iraq) (2016)
    stateless persons: 1,003 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs