East Asia/Southeast Asia :: Cambodia
  • Introduction :: Cambodia
  • Background:

    Most Cambodians consider themselves to be Khmers, descendants of the Angkor Empire that extended over much of Southeast Asia and reached its zenith between the 10th and 13th centuries. Attacks by the Thai and Cham (from present-day Vietnam) weakened the empire, ushering in a long period of decline. The king placed the country under French protection in 1863, and it became part of French Indochina in 1887. Following Japanese occupation in World War II, Cambodia gained full independence from France in 1953. In April 1975, after a seven-year struggle, communist Khmer Rouge forces captured Phnom Penh and evacuated all cities and towns. At least 1.5 million Cambodians died from execution, forced hardships, or starvation during the Khmer Rouge regime under POL POT. A December 1978 Vietnamese invasion drove the Khmer Rouge into the countryside, began a 10-year Vietnamese occupation, and touched off almost 13 years of civil war.

    The 1991 Paris Peace Accords mandated democratic elections and a cease-fire, which was not fully respected by the Khmer Rouge. UN-sponsored elections in 1993 helped restore some semblance of normalcy under a coalition government. Factional fighting in 1997 ended the first coalition government, but a second round of national elections in 1998 led to the formation of another coalition government and renewed political stability. The remaining elements of the Khmer Rouge surrendered in early 1999. Some of the surviving Khmer Rouge leaders have been tried or are awaiting trial for crimes against humanity by a hybrid UN-Cambodian tribunal supported by international assistance. Elections in July 2003 were relatively peaceful, but it took one year of negotiations between contending political parties before a coalition government was formed. In October 2004, King Norodom SIHANOUK abdicated the throne and his son, Prince Norodom SIHAMONI, was selected to succeed him. The most recent local (Commune Council) elections were held in Cambodia in 2012, with little of the preelection violence that preceded prior elections. National elections in July 2013 were disputed, with the opposition - the Cambodian National Rescue Party (CNRP) - boycotting the National Assembly. The political impasse was ended nearly a year later, with the CNRP agreeing to enter parliament in exchange for ruling party commitments to electoral and legislative reforms. The CNRP made further gains in local commune elections in June 2017, accelerating sitting Prime Minister Hun SEN’s efforts to marginalize the CNRP before national elections in 2018. Hun Sen arrested CNRP’s President Kem Sokha in September 2017 and subsequently dissolved the CNRP in November 2017 and banned its leaders from participating in politics for at least five years. CNRP’s seats in the National Assembly were redistributed to smaller, more pliant opposition parties.

  • Geography :: Cambodia
  • Location:
    Southeastern Asia, bordering the Gulf of Thailand, between Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos
    Geographic coordinates:
    13 00 N, 105 00 E
    Map references:
    Southeast Asia
    Area:
    total: 181,035 sq km
    land: 176,515 sq km
    water: 4,520 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Area - comparative:
    one and a half times the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oklahoma
    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,530 km
    border countries (3): Laos 555 km, Thailand 817 km, Vietnam 1158 km
    Coastline:
    443 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm
    Climate:
    tropical; rainy, monsoon season (May to November); dry season (December to April); little seasonal temperature variation
    Terrain:
    mostly low, flat plains; mountains in southwest and north
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 126 m
    elevation extremes: 0 m lowest point: Gulf of Thailand
    1810 highest point: Phnum Aoral
    Natural resources:
    oil and gas, timber, gemstones, iron ore, manganese, phosphates, hydropower potential, arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 32.1% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 22.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 8.5% (2011 est.)
    forest: 56.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 11.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    3,540 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated in the southeast, particularly in and around the capital of Phnom Penh; further distribution is linked closely to the Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers
    Natural hazards:
    monsoonal rains (June to November); flooding; occasional droughts
    Environment - current issues:
    illegal logging activities throughout the country and strip mining for gems in the western region along the border with Thailand have resulted in habitat loss and declining biodiversity (in particular, destruction of mangrove swamps threatens natural fisheries); soil erosion; in rural areas, most of the population does not have access to potable water; declining fish stocks because of illegal fishing and overfishing; coastal ecosystems choked by sediment washed loose from deforested areas inland
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
    Geography - note:
    a land of paddies and forests dominated by the Mekong River and Tonle Sap (Southeast Asia's largest freshwater lake)
  • People and Society :: Cambodia
  • Population:
    16,449,519 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Nationality:
    noun: Cambodian(s)
    adjective: Cambodian
    Ethnic groups:
    Khmer 97.6%, Cham 1.2%, Chinese 0.1%, Vietnamese 0.1%, other 0.9% (2013 est.)
    Languages:
    Khmer (official) 96.3%, other 3.7% (2008 est.)
    Religions:
    Buddhist (official) 96.9%, Muslim 1.9%, Christian 0.4%, other 0.8% (2008 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.76% (male 2,556,733 /female 2,503,796)
    15-24 years: 17.84% (male 1,452,795 /female 1,482,065)
    25-54 years: 41.09% (male 3,312,036 /female 3,446,962)
    55-64 years: 5.94% (male 406,970 /female 569,383)
    65 years and over: 4.37% (male 269,159 /female 449,620) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 49.2 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 15.6 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 25.7 years
    male: 24.9 years
    female: 26.4 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Population growth rate:
    1.48% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Birth rate:
    22.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Death rate:
    7.4 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Net migration rate:
    -0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Population distribution:
    population concentrated in the southeast, particularly in and around the capital of Phnom Penh; further distribution is linked closely to the Tonle Sap and Mekong Rivers
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 23.4% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 3.25% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.952 million PHNOM PENH (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.65 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    22.9 years (2014 est.)

    note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

    Maternal mortality rate:
    161 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 46.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 52.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 39.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 65.2 years (2018 est.)
    male: 62.7 years (2018 est.)
    female: 67.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 182
    Total fertility rate:
    2.47 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Contraceptive prevalence rate:
    56.3% (2014)
    Health expenditures:
    5.7% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Physicians density:
    0.14 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
    Hospital bed density:
    0.8 beds/1,000 population (2015)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 69.1% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 75.5% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 30.9% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 24.5% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 88.1% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 30.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 42.4% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 11.9% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 69.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 57.6% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.5% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    67,000 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    1,300 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: very high (2016)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
    vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria (2016)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    3.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
    23.9% (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    Education expenditures:
    1.9% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 77.2% (2015 est.)
    male: 84.5% (2015 est.)
    female: 70.5% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 11 years (2008)
    male: 11 years (2008)
    female: 10 years (2008)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 1.6% (2012 est.)
    male: 1.8% (2012 est.)
    female: 1.4% (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
  • Government :: Cambodia
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Kingdom of Cambodia
    conventional short form: Cambodia
    local long form: Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea (phonetic transliteration)
    local short form: Kampuchea
    former: Khmer Republic, Democratic Kampuchea, People's Republic of Kampuchea, State of Cambodia
    etymology: the English name Cambodia is an anglicization of the French Cambodge, which is the French transliteration of the native name Kampuchea
    Government type:
    parliamentary constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Phnom Penh
    geographic coordinates: 11 33 N, 104 55 E
    time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:

    24 provinces (khett, singular and plural) and 1 municipality (krong, singular and plural)

    provinces: Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Kandal, Kep, Koh Kong, Kratie, Mondolkiri, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Sihanouk, Preah Vihear, Prey Veng, Pursat, Ratanakiri, Siem Reap, Stung Treng, Svay Rieng, Takeo, Tbong Khmum;

    municipalities: Phnom Penh (Phnum Penh)

    Independence:
    9 November 1953 (from France)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 9 November (1953)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1947; latest promulgated 21 September 1993 (2017)
    amendments: proposed by the monarch, by the prime minister, or by the president of the National Assembly if supported by one-fourth of the Assembly membership; passage requires two-thirds majority of the Assembly membership; constitutional articles on the multiparty democratic form of government and the monarchy cannot be amended; amended 1999, 2008, 2014 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cambodia
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: King Norodom SIHAMONI (since 29 October 2004)
    head of government: Prime Minister HUN SEN (since 14 January 1985); Permanent Deputy Prime Minister MEN SAM AN (since 25 September 2008); Deputy Prime Ministers SAR KHENG (since 3 February 1992), TEA BANH, Gen., HOR NAMHONG, NHEK BUNCHHAY (all since 16 July 2004), BIN CHHIN (since 5 September 2007), KEAT CHHON, YIM CHHAI LY (since 24 September 2008), KE KIMYAN (since 12 March 2009)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: monarch chosen by the 9-member Royal Council of the Throne from among all eligible males of royal descent; following legislative elections, a member of the majority party or majority coalition named prime minister by the Chairman of the National Assembly and appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch:
    description: bicameral Parliament of Cambodia consists of:
    Senate (62 seats; 58 indirectly elected by parliamentarians and commune councils, 2 indirectly elected by the National Assembly, and 2 appointed by the monarch; members serve 6-year terms)
    National Assembly (125 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections:
    Senate - last held on 25 February 2018 (next to be held in 2024); National Assembly - last held on 29 July 2018 (next to be held in 2023)
    election results:  
    Senate - percent of vote by party - CPP 96%, FUNCINPEC 2.4%, KNUP 1.6%; seats by party - CPP 58; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CPP 76.9%, FUNCINPEC 5.9%, LDP 4.9%, Khmer Will Party 3.4%, other 8.9%; seats by party - CPP 125
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Council (organized into 5- and 9-judge panels and includes a court chief and deputy chief); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members); note - in 1997, the Cambodian Government requested UN assistance in establishing trials to prosecute former Khmer Rouge senior leaders for crimes against humanity committed during the 1975-1979 Khmer Rouge regime; the Extraordinary Chambers of the Courts in Cambodia (also called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) were established and began hearings for the first case in 2009; court proceeding were ongoing in 2016
    judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Council judge candidates recommended by the Supreme Council of Magistracy, a 17-member body chaired by the monarch and includes other high-level judicial officers; judges of both courts appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of the court renewed every 3 years
    subordinate courts: Appellate Court; provincial and municipal courts; Military Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Cambodia National Rescue Party or CNRP [KHEM SOKHA] (dissolved by the government in November 2017; formed from a 2012 merger of the Sam Rangsi Party or SRP and the former Human Rights Party or HRP [KHEM SOKHA, also spelled KEM SOKHA])
    Cambodian Nationality Party or CNP [SENG SOKHENG]
    Cambodian People's Party or CPP [HUN SEN]
    Khmer Economic Development Party or KEDP [HUON REACH CHAMROEUN]
    Khmer National Unity Party or KNUP [NHEK Bun Chhay]
    Khmer Will Party [KONG MONIKA]
    League for Democracy Party or LDP [KHEM Veasna]
    National United Front for an Independent, Neutral, Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia or FUNCINPEC [Prince NORODOM RANARIDDH]
    International organization participation:
    ADB, ARF, ASEAN, CICA, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MINUSMA, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador CHUM SOUNRY (since 17 September 2018)
    chancery: 4530 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
    telephone: [1] (202) 726-7742
    FAX: [1] (202) 726-8381
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador William A. HEIDT (since 2 December 2015)
    embassy: #1, Street 96, Sangkat Wat Phnom, Khan Daun Penh, Phnom Penh
    mailing address: Unit 8166, Box P, APO AP 96546
    telephone: [855] (23) 728-000
    FAX: [855] (23) 728-600
    Flag description:
    three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (double width), and blue with a white, three-towered temple, representing Angkor Wat, outlined in black in the center of the red band; red and blue are traditional Cambodian colors

    note: only national flag to incorporate an actual building into its design

    National symbol(s):
    Angkor Wat temple, kouprey (wild ox); national colors: red, blue
    National anthem:
    name: "Nokoreach" (Royal Kingdom)
    lyrics/music: CHUON NAT/F. PERRUCHOT and J. JEKYLL

    note: adopted 1941, restored 1993; the anthem, based on a Cambodian folk tune, was restored after the defeat of the Communist regime

  • Economy :: Cambodia
  • Economy - overview:

    Cambodia has experienced strong economic growth over the last decade; GDP grew at an average annual rate of over 8% between 2000 and 2010 and about 7% since 2011. The tourism, garment, construction and real estate, and agriculture sectors accounted for the bulk of growth. Around 700,000 people, the majority of whom are women, are employed in the garment and footwear sector. An additional 500,000 Cambodians are employed in the tourism sector, and a further 200,000 people in construction. Tourism has continued to grow rapidly with foreign arrivals exceeding 2 million per year in 2007 and reaching 5.6 million visitors in 2017. Mining also is attracting some investor interest and the government has touted opportunities for mining bauxite, gold, iron and gems.

    Still, Cambodia remains one of the poorest countries in Asia and long-term economic development remains a daunting challenge, inhibited by corruption, limited human resources, high income inequality, and poor job prospects. According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the percentage of the population living in poverty decreased to 13.5% in 2016. More than 50% of the population is less than 25 years old. The population lacks education and productive skills, particularly in the impoverished countryside, which also lacks basic infrastructure.

    The World Bank in 2016 formally reclassified Cambodia as a lower middle-income country as a result of continued rapid economic growth over the past several years. Cambodia’s graduation from a low-income country will reduce its eligibility for foreign assistance and will challenge the government to seek new sources of financing. The Cambodian Government has been working with bilateral and multilateral donors, including the Asian Development Bank, the World Bank and IMF, to address the country's many pressing needs; more than 20% of the government budget will come from donor assistance in 2018. A major economic challenge for Cambodia over the next decade will be fashioning an economic environment in which the private sector can create enough jobs to handle Cambodia's demographic imbalance.

    Textile exports, which accounted for 68% of total exports in 2017, have driven much of Cambodia’s growth over the past several years. The textile sector relies on exports to the United States and European Union, and Cambodia’s dependence on its comparative advantage in textile production is a key vulnerability for the economy, especially because Cambodia has continued to run a current account deficit above 9% of GDP since 2014.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $64.21 billion (2017 est.)
    $60.09 billion (2016 est.)
    $56.18 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 104
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $22.09 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    6.9% (2017 est.)
    7% (2016 est.)
    7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $4,000 (2017 est.)
    $3,800 (2016 est.)
    $3,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 177
    Gross national saving:
    13.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    14.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
    13.4% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 76% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 5.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 21.8% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.2% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 68.6% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -73% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 25.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 32.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 41.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    rice, rubber, corn, vegetables, cashews, cassava (manioc, tapioca), silk
    Industries:
    tourism, garments, construction, rice milling, fishing, wood and wood products, rubber, cement, gem mining, textiles
    Industrial production growth rate:
    10.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 11
    Labor force:
    8.913 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 31.5% (2013 est.)
    industry: 19.9% (2013 est.)
    services: 31.5% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    0.2% (2016 est.)

    note: high underemployment, according to official statistics

    country comparison to the world: 2
    Population below poverty line:
    16.5% (2016 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
    highest 10%: 28% (2013 est.)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    37.9 (2008 est.)
    41.9 (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Budget:
    revenues: 3.947 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 4.354 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    17.9% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 164
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Public debt:
    30.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    29.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Central bank discount rate:
    NA% (31 December 2012)
    5.25% (31 December 2007)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    10.92% (31 December 2017 est.)
    11.36% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Stock of narrow money:
    $2.202 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.748 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Stock of broad money:
    $2.202 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.748 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $16.53 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $14.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Current account balance:
    -$1.871 billion (2017 est.)
    -$1.731 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Exports:
    $11.42 billion (2017 est.)
    $10.07 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Exports - commodities:
    clothing, timber, rubber, rice, fish, tobacco, footwear
    Exports - partners:
    US 21.5%, UK 9%, Germany 8.6%, Japan 7.6%, China 6.9%, Canada 6.7%, Spain 4.7%, Belgium 4.5% (2017)
    Imports:
    $14.37 billion (2017 est.)
    $12.37 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum products, cigarettes, gold, construction materials, machinery, motor vehicles, pharmaceutical products
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $12.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $9.122 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
    Imports - partners:
    China 34.1%, Singapore 12.8%, Thailand 12.4%, Vietnam 10.1% (2017)
    Debt - external:
    $11.87 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $10.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $29.17 billion (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 71
    Exchange rates:
    riels (KHR) per US dollar -
    4,055 (2017 est.)
    4,058.7 (2016 est.)
    4,058.7 (2015 est.)
    4,067.8 (2014 est.)
    4,037.5 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Cambodia
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 9.9 million (2013)
    electrification - total population: 34% (2013)
    electrification - urban areas: 97% (2013)
    electrification - rural areas: 18% (2013)
    Electricity - production:
    4.236 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Electricity - consumption:
    4.952 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 120
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - imports:
    1.526 billion kWh (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    1.542 million kW (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    37.6% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 168
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 62
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    60.3% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    2.1% of total installed capacity (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    39,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    37,930 bbl/day (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 92
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 78
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    6.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
  • Communications :: Cambodia
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 132,911 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 18,572,973 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 115 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: adequate fixed-line and/or cellular service in Phnom Penh and other provincial cities; mobile-cellular phone systems are widely used in urban areas to bypass deficiencies in the fixed-line network; mobile-phone coverage is rapidly expanding in rural areas; about 50% of Cambodians own at least one smart phone; in 2018 the MPTC launched a free Wi-Fi service for visitors and residents of Phnom Penh, customers can access free Wi-Fi services in selected parks around the city (2017)
    domestic: fixed-line connections stand at about 1 per 100 persons and declining; mobile-cellular usage, aided by competition among service providers, has increased to about 115 per 100 persons; in 2021 Camboidia hopes to launch it first communications satellite into orbit; fixed broadband penetration is predicted to reach over 2% by 2023 (2017)
    international: country code - 855; adequate but expensive landline and cellular service available to all countries from Phnom Penh and major provincial cities; satellite earth station - 1 Intersputnik (Indian Ocean region) (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    mixture of state-owned, joint public-private, and privately owned broadcast media; 14 TV broadcast stations with most operating on multiple channels, including 1 state-operated station broadcasting from multiple locations, 11 stations either jointly operated or privately owned with some broadcasting from several locations, and 2 TV relay stations - one relaying a French TV station and the other relaying a Vietnamese TV station; multi-channel cable and satellite systems are available (2018); roughly 50 radio broadcast stations - 1 state-owned broadcaster with multiple stations and a large mixture of public and private broadcasters; several international broadcasters are available (2009)
    Internet country code:
    .kh
    Internet users:
    total: 4,080,372 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 25.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 86
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 129,650 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 1 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
  • Transportation :: Cambodia
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 4 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 10 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,103,880 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 2,301,260 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    XU (2016)
    Airports:
    16 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 6 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 10 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 642 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 642 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)

    note: under restoration

    country comparison to the world: 107
    Roadways:
    total: 44,709 km (2010)
    paved: 3,607 km (2010)
    unpaved: 41,102 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 80
    Waterways:
    3,700 km (mainly on Mekong River) (2012)
    country comparison to the world: 28
    Merchant marine:
    total: 442 (2017)
    by type: container ship 3, general cargo 328, oil tanker 26, other 85 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Sihanoukville (Kampong Saom)
    river port(s): Phnom Penh (Mekong)
  • Military and Security :: Cambodia
  • Military expenditures:
    1.85% of GDP (2016)
    2.11% of GDP (2015)
    1.66% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Military branches:
    Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: Royal Cambodian Army, Royal Khmer Navy, Royal Cambodian Air Force; the Royal Cambodian Gendarmerie is the military police force responsible for internal security; the National Committee for Maritime Security performs Coast Guard functions and has representation from military and civilian agencies (2016)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
  • Transnational Issues :: Cambodia
  • Disputes - international:
    Cambodia is concerned about Laos' extensive upstream dam constructionCambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundaryin 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear Temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a UN World Heritage siteCambodia accuses Vietnam of a wide variety of illicit cross-border activitiesprogress on a joint development area with Vietnam is hampered by an unresolved dispute over sovereignty of offshore islands
    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Cambodia is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Cambodian men, women, and children migrate to countries within the region and, increasingly, the Middle East for legitimate work but are subjected to sex trafficking, domestic servitude, or forced labor in fishing, agriculture, construction, and factories; Cambodian men recruited to work on Thai-owned fishing vessels are subsequently subjected to forced labor in international waters and are kept at sea for years; poor Cambodian children are vulnerable and, often with the families’ complicity, are subject to forced labor, including domestic servitude and forced begging, in Thailand and Vietnam; Cambodian and ethnic Vietnamese women and girls are trafficked from rural areas to urban centers and tourist spots for sexual exploitation; Cambodian men are the main exploiters of child prostitutes, but men from other Asian countries, and the West travel to Cambodia for child sex tourism
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Cambodia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; the government has a written plan that, if implemented, would constitute making significant efforts to meet the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; authorities made modest progress in prosecutions and convictions of traffickers in 2014 but did not provide comprehensive data; endemic corruption continued to impede law enforcement efforts, and no complicit officials were prosecuted or convicted; the government sustained efforts to identify victims and refer them to NGOs for care, but victim protection remained inadequate, particularly for assisting male victims and victims identified abroad; a new national action plan was adopted, but guidelines for victim identification and guidance on undercover investigation techniques are still pending after several years (2015)
    Illicit drugs:
    narcotics-related corruption reportedly involving some in the government, military, and police; limited methamphetamine production; vulnerable to money laundering due to its cash-based economy and porous borders