Africa :: Cabo Verde
  • Introduction :: Cabo Verde
  • Background:
    The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cabo Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. The fusing of European and various African cultural traditions is reflected in Cabo Verde’s Crioulo language, music, and pano textiles. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cabo Verde continues to sustain one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cabo Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cabo Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents. Cabo Verde’s population descends from its first permanent inhabitants in the late 15th-century – a preponderance of West African slaves, a small share of Portuguese colonists, and even fewer Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese Jews. Among the nine inhabited islands, population distribution is variable. Islands in the east are very dry and are only sparsely settled to exploit their extensive salt deposits. The more southerly islands receive more precipitation and support larger populations, but agriculture and livestock grazing have damaged their soil fertility and vegetation. For centuries, the country’s overall population size has fluctuated significantly, as recurring periods of famine and epidemics have caused high death tolls and emigration.
  • Geography :: Cabo Verde
  • Location:
    Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
    Geographic coordinates:
    16 00 N, 24 00 W
    Map references:
    Africa
    Area:
    total: 4,033 sq km
    land: 4,033 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Area - comparative:
    slightly larger than Rhode Island
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    965 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
    Climate:
    temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and erratic
    Terrain:
    steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: Atlantic Ocean
    2829 highest point: Mt. Fogo (a volcano on Fogo Island)
    Natural resources:
    salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 18.6% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 11.7% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.7% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 6.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 21% (2011 est.)
    other: 60.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    35 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    among the nine inhabited islands, population distribution is variable; islands in the east are very dry and are only sparsely settled to exploit their extensive salt deposits; the more southerly islands receive more precipitation and support larger populations, but agriculture and livestock grazing have damaged the soil fertility and vegetation; approximately half of the population lives on Sao Tiago Island, which is the location of the capital of Praia; Mindelo, on the northern island of Sao Vicente, also has a large urban population
    Natural hazards:

    prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active

    volcanism: Fogo (2,829 m), which last erupted in 1995, is Cabo Verde's only active volcano

    Environment - current issues:
    deforestation due to demand for firewood; water shortages; prolonged droughts and improper use of land (overgrazing, crop cultivation on hillsides lead to desertification and erosion); environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography - note:
    strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
  • People and Society :: Cabo Verde
  • Population:
    568,373 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Nationality:
    noun: Cabo Verdean(s)
    adjective: Cabo Verdean
    Ethnic groups:
    Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
    Languages:
    Portuguese (official), Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
    Religions:
    Roman Catholic 77.3%, Protestant 4.6% (includes Church of the Nazarene 1.7%, Adventist 1.5%, Assembly of God 0.9%, Universal Kingdom of God 0.4%, and God and Love 0.1%), other Christian 3.4% (includes Christian Rationalism 1.9%, Jehovah's Witness 1%, and New Apostolic 0.5%), Muslim 1.8%, other 1.3%, none 10.8%, unspecified 0.7% (2010 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Cabo Verde’s population descends from its first permanent inhabitants in the late 15th-century – a preponderance of West African slaves, a small share of Portuguese colonists, and even fewer Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese Jews. Over the centuries, the country’s overall population size has fluctuated significantly, as recurring periods of famine and epidemics have caused high death tolls and emigration.

    Labor migration historically reduced Cabo Verde’s population growth and still provides a key source of income through remittances. Expatriates probably outnumber Cabo Verde’s resident population, with most families having a member abroad. Cabo Verdeans have settled in the US, Europe, Africa, and South America. The largest diaspora community in New Bedford, Massachusetts, dating to the early 1800s, is a byproduct of the transatlantic whaling industry. Cabo Verdean men fleeing poverty at home joined the crews of US whaling ships that stopped in the islands. Many settled in New Bedford and stayed in the whaling or shipping trade, worked in the textile or cranberry industries, or operated their own transatlantic packet ships that transported compatriots to the US. Increased Cabo Verdean emigration to the US coincided with the gradual and eventually complete abolition of slavery in the archipelago in 1878.

    During the same period, Portuguese authorities coerced Cabo Verdeans to go to Sao Tome and Principe and other Portuguese colonies in Africa to work as indentured laborers on plantations. In the 1920s, when the US implemented immigration quotas, Cabo Verdean emigration shifted toward Portugal, West Africa (Senegal), and South America (Argentina). Growing numbers of Cabo Verdean labor migrants headed to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s. They filled unskilled jobs in Portugal, as many Portuguese sought out work opportunities in the more prosperous economies of northwest Europe. Cabo Verdeans eventually expanded their emigration to the Netherlands, where they worked in the shipping industry. Migration to the US resumed under relaxed migration laws. Cabo Verdean women also began migrating to southern Europe to become domestic workers, a trend that continues today and has shifted the gender balance of Cabo Verdean emigration.

    Emigration has declined in more recent decades due to the adoption of more restrictive migration policies in destination countries. Reduced emigration along with a large youth population, decreased mortality rates, and increased life expectancies, has boosted population growth, putting further pressure on domestic employment and resources. In addition, Cabo Verde has attracted increasing numbers of migrants in recent decades, consisting primarily of people from West Africa, Portuguese-speaking African countries, Portugal, and China. Since the 1990s, some West African migrants have used Cabo Verde as a stepping stone for illegal migration to Europe.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 28.7% (male 82,035 /female 81,082)
    15-24 years: 19.64% (male 55,811 /female 55,798)
    25-54 years: 40.02% (male 110,646 /female 116,804)
    55-64 years: 6.4% (male 16,154 /female 20,245)
    65 years and over: 5.24% (male 11,272 /female 18,526) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.4 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 48.4 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 6.9 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 14.4 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 25.8 years
    male: 25 years
    female: 26.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Population growth rate:
    1.32% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Birth rate:
    19.7 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 79
    Death rate:
    6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Net migration rate:
    -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Population distribution:
    among the nine inhabited islands, population distribution is variable; islands in the east are very dry and are only sparsely settled to exploit their extensive salt deposits; the more southerly islands receive more precipitation and support larger populations, but agriculture and livestock grazing have damaged the soil fertility and vegetation; approximately half of the population lives on Sao Tiago Island, which is the location of the capital of Praia; Mindelo, on the northern island of Sao Vicente, also has a large urban population
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 65.7% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.97% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    168,000 PRAIA (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    42 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 21.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 24.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 17.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 72.7 years (2018 est.)
    male: 70.3 years (2018 est.)
    female: 75.1 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Total fertility rate:
    2.21 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Health expenditures:
    4.8% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Physicians density:
    0.79 physicians/1,000 population (2015)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 94% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 87.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 91.7% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 12.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 8.3% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 81.6% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 54.3% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 72.2% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 1.4% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 45.7% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 27.8% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.6% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    2,400 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Major infectious diseases:

    note: active local transmission of Zika virus by Aedes species mosquitoes has been identified in this country (as of August 2016); it poses an important risk (a large number of cases possible) among US citizens if bitten by an infective mosquito; other less common ways to get Zika are through sex, via blood transfusion, or during pregnancy, in which the pregnant woman passes Zika virus to her fetus

    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    11.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Education expenditures:
    5.4% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Literacy:
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
    total population: 86.8% (2015 est.)
    male: 91.7% (2015 est.)
    female: 82% (2015 est.)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years (2015)
    male: 13 years (2015)
    female: 13 years (2015)
  • Government :: Cabo Verde
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Cabo Verde
    conventional short form: Cabo Verde
    local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
    local short form: Cabo Verde
    etymology: the name derives from Cap-Vert (Green Cape) on the Senegalese coast, the westernmost point of Africa and the nearest mainland to the islands
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    Capital:
    name: Praia
    geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
    time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    Administrative divisions:
    22 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Porto Novo, Praia, Ribeira Brava, Ribeira Grande, Ribeira Grande de Santiago, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina do Fogo, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Lourenco dos Orgaos, Sao Miguel, Sao Salvador do Mundo, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal, Tarrafal de Sao Nicolau
    Independence:
    5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1981; latest effective 25 September 1992 (2017)
    amendments: proposals require support of at least four-fifths of the active National Assembly membership; amendment drafts require sponsorship of at least one-third of the active Assembly membership; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Assembly membership; constitutional sections including those on national independence, form of government, political pluralism, suffrage, and human rights and liberties cannot be amended; revised 1995, 1999, 2010 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Cabo Verde
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 5 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Jorge Carlos FONSECA (since 9 September 2011)
    head of government: Prime Minister Ulisses CORREIA E. SILVA (since 22 April 2016)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 2 October 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
    election results: Jorge Carlos FONSECA reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge Carlos FONSECA (MPD) 74%, Albertino GRACA (independent) 23%, other 3%
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)
    elections: last held on 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021)
    election results: percent of vote by party MPD 54.5%, PAICV 38.2%, UCID 7%, other 0.3%; seats by party - MPD 40, PAICV 29, UCID 3
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and at least 7 judges and organized into civil, criminal, and administrative sections)
    judge selection and term of office: judge appointments - 1 by the president of the republic, 1 elected by the National Assembly, and 3 by the Superior Judicial Council (SJC), a 16-member independent body chaired by the chief justice and includes the attorney general, 8 private citizens, 2 judges, 2 prosecutors, the senior legal inspector of the Attorney General's office, and a representative of the Ministry of Justice; chief justice appointed by the president of the republic from among peers of the Supreme Court of Justice and in consultation with the SJC; judges appointed for life
    subordinate courts: appeals courts, first instance (municipal) courts; audit, military, and fiscal and customs courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    rz African Party for Independence of Cabo Verde or PAICV [Janira Hopffer ALMADA]
    Democratic and Independent Cabo Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]
    Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]
    Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]
    Movement for Democracy or MPD [Ulisses CORREIA E SILVA]
    Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]
    Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Anibal MEDINA]
    Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
    International organization participation:
    ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, CD, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos VEIGA (since 18 January 2017)
    chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
    telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
    FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
    consulate(s) general: Boston
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Donald L. HEFLIN (since 5 February 2015)
    embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo 6, Praia
    mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
    telephone: [238] 260-89-00
    FAX: [238] 261-13-55
    Flag description:
    five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10 yellow, five-pointed stars is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side; blue stands for the sea and the sky, the circle of stars represents the 10 major islands united into a nation, the stripes symbolize the road to formation of the country through peace (white) and effort (red)
    National symbol(s):
    ten, five-pointed, yellow stars; national colors: blue, white, red, yellow
    National anthem:
    name: "Cantico da Liberdade" (Song of Freedom)
    lyrics/music: Amilcar Spencer LOPES/Adalberto Higino Tavares SILVA

    note: adopted 1996

  • Economy :: Cabo Verde
  • Economy - overview:

    Cabo Verde’s economy depends on development aid, foreign investment, remittances, and tourism. The economy is service-oriented with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for about three-fourths of GDP. Tourism is the mainstay of the economy and depends on conditions in the euro-zone countries. Cabo Verde annually runs a high trade deficit financed by foreign aid and remittances from its large pool of emigrants; remittances as a share of GDP are one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Although about 40% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. The island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages, exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought, and poor soil for growing food on several of the islands, requiring it to import most of what it consumes. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited.

    Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy and mitigate high unemployment. The government’s elevated debt levels have limited its capacity to finance any shortfalls.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $3.777 billion (2017 est.)
    $3.631 billion (2016 est.)
    $3.468 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 182
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $1.776 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    4% (2017 est.)
    4.7% (2016 est.)
    1% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $7,000 (2017 est.)
    $6,800 (2016 est.)
    $6,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 157
    Gross national saving:
    32.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
    34.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    35.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 25
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 50.1% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.3% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 32.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.9% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 48.6% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -51.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 8.9% (2017 est.)
    industry: 17.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 73.7% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
    Industries:
    food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
    Industrial production growth rate:
    2.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
    Labor force:
    196,100 (2007 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 174
    Unemployment rate:
    9% (2017 est.)
    9% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Population below poverty line:
    30% (2000 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 40.6% (2000)
    highest 10%: 40.6% (2001)
    Budget:
    revenues: 493.5 million (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 546.7 million (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    27.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Public debt:
    125.8% of GDP (2017 est.)
    127.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 8
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    0.8% (2017 est.)
    -1.4% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 39
    Central bank discount rate:
    7.5% (31 December 2010)
    7.5% (31 December 2009)
    country comparison to the world: 42
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    9.5% (31 December 2017 est.)
    9.61% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Stock of narrow money:
    $774 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $602.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Stock of broad money:
    $774 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $602.1 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 165
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $1.61 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.316 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Current account balance:
    -$109 million (2017 est.)
    -$40 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 87
    Exports:
    $189 million (2017 est.)
    $148.4 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 190
    Exports - partners:
    Spain 45.3%, Portugal 40.3%, Netherlands 8.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    fuel (re-exports), shoes, garments, fish, hides
    Imports:
    $836.1 million (2017 est.)
    $687.3 million (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 188
    Imports - commodities:
    foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
    Imports - partners:
    Portugal 43.9%, Spain 11.6%, Netherlands 6.1%, China 6.1% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $617.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $572.7 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 145
    Debt - external:
    $1.713 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.688 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $2.088 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $1.735 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
    $64.6 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $39.9 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Exchange rates:
    Cabo Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar -
    101.8 (2017 est.)
    99.688 (2016 est.)
    99.688 (2015 est.)
    99.426 (2014 est.)
    83.114 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Cabo Verde
  • Electricity access:
    population without electricity: 153,027 (2012)
    electrification - total population: 70.6% (2012)
    electrification - urban areas: 84.4% (2012)
    electrification - rural areas: 46.8% (2012)
    Electricity - production:
    395 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
    Electricity - consumption:
    367.4 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 115
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    162,500 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    79% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 60
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    21% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 35
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 117
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 105
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 126
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    5,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 139
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    5,607 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 112
    Natural gas - consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 101
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    867,800 Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 172
  • Communications :: Cabo Verde
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 64,970 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 12 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 153
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 612,259 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 109 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: good system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995; major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT) (2017)
    domestic: 12 per 100 fixed-line and 109 per 100 mobile-cellular; fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched early in the decade (2017)
    international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); new agreement between CVT and private company and subsea fibre connectivity in 2020 will promote growth in Internet, cloud computing and 5G services to the region, reaching Europe and Latin America (2017)
    Broadcast media:
    state-run TV and radio broadcast network plus a growing number of private broadcasters; Portuguese public TV and radio services for Africa are available; transmissions of a few international broadcasters are available (2007)
    Internet country code:
    .cv
    Internet users:
    total: 266,562 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 48.2% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 14,493 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 3 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
  • Transportation :: Cabo Verde
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 5 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 567,182 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 1,728,152 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    D4 (2016)
    Airports:
    9 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 9 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2017)
    under 914 m: 2 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 1,350 km (2013)
    paved: 932 km (2013)
    unpaved: 418 km (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Merchant marine:
    total: 42 (2017)
    by type: general cargo 19, oil tanker 2, other 21 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 119
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Porto Grande
  • Military and Security :: Cabo Verde
  • Military expenditures:
    0.63% of GDP (2016)
    0.57% of GDP (2015)
    0.54% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Military branches:
    Armed Forces: Army (also called the National Guard, GN), Cabo Verde Coast Guard (Guardia Costeira de Cabo Verde, GCCV, includes naval infantry) (2013)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-35 years of age for male and female selective compulsory military service; 2-years conscript service obligation; 17 years of age for voluntary service (with parental consent) (2013)
  • Transnational Issues :: Cabo Verde
  • Disputes - international:
    none
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 115 (2017)
    Illicit drugs:
    used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe, particularly because of Lusophone links to Brazil, Portugal, and Guinea-Bissau; has taken steps to deter drug money laundering, including a 2002 anti-money laundering reform that criminalizes laundering the proceeds of narcotics trafficking and other crimes and the establishment in 2008 of a Financial Intelligence Unit