Europe :: Jersey
  • Introduction :: Jersey
  • Background:
    Jersey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Dukedom of Normandy that held sway in both France and England. These islands were the only British soil occupied by German troops in World War II. The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British crown dependency but is not part of the UK or of the EU. However, the UK Government is constitutionally responsible for its defense and international representation.
  • Geography :: Jersey
  • Location:
    Western Europe, island in the English Channel, northwest of France
    Geographic coordinates:
    49 15 N, 2 10 W
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 116 sq km
    land: 116 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 225
    Area - comparative:
    about two-thirds the size of Washington, DC
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    Coastline:
    70 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
    Climate:
    temperate; mild winters and cool summers
    Terrain:
    gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast
    Elevation:
    0 m lowest point: English Channel
    136 highest point: Les Platons
    Natural resources:
    arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 66% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 66% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 0% (2011 est.)
    forest: 0% (2011 est.)
    other: 34% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    NA
    Population distribution:
    fairly even distribution; no notable trends
    Natural hazards:
    very large tidal variation can be hazardous to navigation
    Environment - current issues:
    habitat and species depletion due to human encroachment; water pollution; improper solid waste disposal
    Geography - note:
    largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier
  • People and Society :: Jersey
  • Population:
    99,602 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 196
    Nationality:
    noun: Channel Islander(s)
    adjective: Channel Islander
    Ethnic groups:
    Jersey 46.4%, British 32.7%, Portuguese/Madeiran 8.2%, Polish 3.3%, Irish, French, and other white 7.1%, other 2.4% (2011 est.)
    Languages:
    English 94.5% (official), Portuguese 4.6%, other 0.9% (2001 census)
    Religions:
    Protestant (Anglican, Baptist, Congregational New Church, Methodist, Presbyterian), Roman Catholic
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 16.37% (male 8,430 /female 7,870)
    15-24 years: 13.63% (male 7,004 /female 6,572)
    25-54 years: 40.71% (male 20,392 /female 20,160)
    55-64 years: 12.73% (male 6,187 /female 6,497)
    65 years and over: 16.56% (male 7,015 /female 9,475) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 47.1 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 21.6 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.4 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 3.9 (2015 est.)

    note: data represent the Guernsey and Jersey

    Median age:
    total: 37.7 years
    male: 35.9 years
    female: 40.2 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Population growth rate:
    0.76% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Birth rate:
    12.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Death rate:
    7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Net migration rate:
    3.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 33
    Population distribution:
    fairly even distribution; no notable trends
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 30.9% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 0.46% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

    note: data represent Guernsey and Jersey

    Major urban areas - population:
    34,000 SAINT HELIER (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 194
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 82 years (2018 est.)
    male: 79.5 years (2018 est.)
    female: 84.7 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 20
    Total fertility rate:
    1.66 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    NA
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    NA
  • Government :: Jersey
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Bailiwick of Jersey
    conventional short form: Jersey
    former: Norman Isles
    etymology: the name is of Old Norse origin, but the meaning of the root "Jer(s)" is uncertain; the "-ey" ending means "island"
    Dependency status:
    British crown dependency
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy (Assembly of the States of Jersey); a Crown dependency of the UK
    Capital:
    name: Saint Helier
    geographic coordinates: 49 11 N, 2 06 W
    time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    none (British crown dependency); there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 12 parishes; Grouville, Saint Brelade, Saint Clement, Saint Helier, Saint John, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Saint Ouen, Saint Peter, Saint Saviour, and Trinity
    Independence:
    none (British crown dependency)
    National holiday:
    Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)
    Constitution:
    history: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice (2016)
    amendments: proposed by a government minister to the Assembly of the States of Jersey, by an Assembly member, or by an elected parish head; passage requires several Assembly readings, a majority vote by the Assembly, review by the UK Ministry of Justice, and approval by the British monarch (Royal Assent) (2016)
    Citizenship:
    see United Kingdom
    Suffrage:
    16 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Lieutenant Governor Sir Stephen DALTON (since 13 March 2017)
    head of government: Chief Minister John LE FONDRE (since 8 June 2018); Bailiff William BAILHACHE (since 29 January 2015)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed individually by the states
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; Council of Ministers, including the chief minister, indirectly elected by the Assembly of States; lieutenant governor and bailiff appointed by the monarch
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Assembly of the States of Jersey (49 elected members; 8 senators to serve 4-year terms, and 29 deputies and 12 connetables, or heads of parishes, to serve 4-year terms; 5 non-voting members appointed by the monarch include the bailiff, lieutenant governor, dean of Jersey, attorney general, and the solicitor general)
    elections: last held on 16 May 2018 (next to be held on 16 May 2022)
    election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 49; composition - men 36, women 13, percent of 26.5%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Jersey Court of Appeal (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, and 12 judges); Royal Court (consists of the bailiff, deputy bailiff, 6 commissioners and lay people referred to as jurats, and is organized into Heritage, Family, Probate, and Samedi Divisions); appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are heard by the Judicial Committe of the Priviy Council in London
    judge selection and term of office: Jersey Court of Appeal bailiffs and judges appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; bailiffs and judges appointed for extent of good behavior; Royal Court bailiffs appointed by the Crown upon the advice of the Secretary of State for Justice; commissioners appointed by the bailiff; jurats appointed by the Electoral College; bailiffs and commissioners appointed for extent of good behavior; jurats appointed until retirement at age 72
    subordinate courts: Magistrate's Court; Youth Court; Petty Debts Court; Parish Hall Enquires (a process of preliminary investigation into youth and minor adult offenses to determine need for presentation before a court)
    Political parties and leaders:
    one registered party: Reform Jersey [Sam MEZEC]

    note: most senators and deputies sit as independents

    International organization participation:
    UPU
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    none (British Crown dependency)
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    none (British Crown dependency)
    Flag description:
    white with a diagonal red cross extending to the corners of the flag; in the upper quadrant, surmounted by a yellow crown, a red shield with three lions in yellow; according to tradition, the ships of Jersey - in an attempt to differentiate themselves from English ships flying the horizontal cross of St. George - rotated the cross to the "X" (saltire) configuration; because this arrangement still resembled the Irish cross of St. Patrick, the yellow Plantagenet crown and Jersey coat of arms were added
    National symbol(s):
    Jersey cow; national colors: red, white
    National anthem:
    name: "Isle de Siez Nous" (Island Home)
    lyrics/music: Gerard LE FEUVRE

    note: adopted 2008; serves as a local anthem; as a British Crown dependency, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)

  • Economy :: Jersey
  • Economy - overview:
    Jersey's economy is based on international financial services, agriculture, and tourism. In 2016, the financial services sector accounted for about 41% of the island's output. Agriculture represented about 1% of Jersey’s economy in 2016. Potatoes are an important export crop, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy cattle originated on the island and is known worldwide. The dairy industry remains important to the island with approximately $8.8 million gallons of milk produced in 2015. Tourism accounts for a significant portion of Jersey’s economy, with more than 700,000 total visitors in 2015. Living standards come close to those of the UK. All raw material and energy requirements are imported as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs. Light taxes and death duties make the island a popular offshore financial center. Jersey maintains its relationship with the EU through the UK. Therefore, in light of the UK’s decision to leave the EU, Jersey will also need to renegotiate its ties to the EU.
    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $5.569 billion (2016 est.)
    $5.514 billion (2015 est.)
    $4.98 billion (2014)

    note: data are in 2015 US dollars

    country comparison to the world: 175
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $5.004 billion (2015 est.) (2015 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    1% (2016 est.)
    10.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 184
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $56,600 (2016 est.)
    $49,500 (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 2% (2010)
    industry: 2% (2010)
    services: 96% (2010)
    Agriculture - products:
    potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes; beef, dairy products
    Industries:
    tourism, banking and finance, dairy, electronics
    Industrial production growth rate:
    NA
    Labor force:
    59,950 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 187
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 3%
    industry: 12%
    services: 85% (2014 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    4% (2015 est.)
    4.6% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    0.3 (2014 est.)
    0.3 (2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 158
    Budget:
    revenues: 829 million (2005)
    expenditures: 851 million (2005)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    16.6% (of GDP) (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -0.4% (of GDP) (2005)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.7% (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 146
    Market value of publicly traded shares:

    NA

    Exports:

    NA

    Exports - commodities:
    light industrial and electrical goods, dairy cattle, foodstuffs, textiles, flowers
    Imports:

    NA

    Imports - commodities:
    machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals
    Debt - external:

    NA

    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    (31 December 2009 est.)
    Exchange rates:
    Jersey pounds (JEP) per US dollar
    0.7836 (2017 est.)
    0.738 (2016 est.)
    0.738 (2015)
    0.6542 (2012)
    0.6391 (2011 est.)
  • Energy :: Jersey
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    NA (2017)
    Electricity - consumption:
    630.1 million kWh (2004 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    450,000 Mt (2012 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
  • Communications :: Jersey
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 55,938 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 58 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 122,668 (July 2016 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 119 (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: modern system with broadband access (2015)
    domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available (2015)
    international: country code - 44; submarine cable connectivity to Guernsey, the UK, and France (2015)
    Broadcast media:
    multiple UK terrestrial TV broadcasts are received via a transmitter in Jersey; satellite packages available; BBC Radio Jersey and 1 other radio station operating (2009)
    Internet country code:
    .je
    Internet users:
    total: 58,000 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 59.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
  • Transportation :: Jersey
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 2 (registered in UK) (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 11 (registered in UK) (2015)
    Airports:
    1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 226
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    Roadways:
    total: 576 km (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Gorey, Saint Aubin, Saint Helier
  • Military and Security :: Jersey
  • Military - note:
    defense is the responsibility of the UK
  • Transnational Issues :: Jersey
  • Disputes - international:
    none