Europe :: Luxembourg
  • Introduction :: Luxembourg
  • Background:
    Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839 but gained a larger measure of autonomy. In 1867, Luxembourg attained full independence under the condition that it promise perpetual neutrality. Overrun by Germany in both world wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the EEC (later the EU), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.
  • Geography :: Luxembourg
  • Location:
    Western Europe, between France and Germany
    Geographic coordinates:
    49 45 N, 6 10 E
    Map references:
    Europe
    Area:
    total: 2,586 sq km
    land: 2,586 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Area - comparative:
    slightly smaller than Rhode Island; about half the size of Delaware
    Land boundaries:
    total: 327 km
    border countries (3): Belgium 130 km, France 69 km, Germany 128 km
    Coastline:
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    Climate:
    modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
    Terrain:
    mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
    Elevation:
    mean elevation: 325 m
    elevation extremes: 133 m lowest point: Moselle River
    559 highest point: Buurgplaatz
    Natural resources:
    iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 50.7% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 24% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.6% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 26.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 33.5% (2011 est.)
    other: 15.8% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    0 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    most people live in the south, on or near the border with France
    Natural hazards:
    occasional flooding
    Environment - current issues:
    air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland; unsustainable patterns of consumption (transport, energy, recreation, space) threaten biodiversity and landscapes
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
    Geography - note:
    landlocked; the only grand duchy in the world
  • People and Society :: Luxembourg
  • Population:
    605,764 (July 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 171
    Nationality:
    noun: Luxembourger(s)
    adjective: Luxembourg
    Ethnic groups:
    Luxembourger 52.1%, Portuguese 16%, French 7.6%, Italian 3.6%, Belgian 3.4%, German 2.2%, Spanish 1.1%, British 1%, other 13% (2018 est.)

    note: data represent population by nationality

    Languages:
    Luxembourgish (official administrative and judicial language and national language (spoken vernacular)) 55.8%, Portuguese 15.7%, French (official administrative, judicial, and legislative language) 12.1%, German (official administrative and judicial language) 3.1%, Italian 2.9%, English 2.1%, other 8.4% (2011 est.)
    Religions:
    Christian (predominantly Roman Catholic) 70.4%, Muslim 2.3%, other (includes Buddhist, folk religions, Hindu, Jewish) 0.5%, none 26.8% (2010 est.)
    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 16.74% (male 52,243 /female 49,183)
    15-24 years: 12.06% (male 37,391 /female 35,650)
    25-54 years: 44.18% (male 137,381 /female 130,252)
    55-64 years: 11.9% (male 36,670 /female 35,442)
    65 years and over: 15.11% (male 41,002 /female 50,550) (2018 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 43.6 (2015 est.)
    youth dependency ratio: 23.5 (2015 est.)
    elderly dependency ratio: 20.1 (2015 est.)
    potential support ratio: 5 (2015 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 39.3 years
    male: 38.7 years
    female: 39.9 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Population growth rate:
    1.9% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Birth rate:
    11.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 170
    Death rate:
    7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 123
    Net migration rate:
    15.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Population distribution:
    most people live in the south, on or near the border with France
    Urbanization:
    urban population: 91% of total population (2018)
    rate of urbanization: 1.55% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2017 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    30.1 years (2015 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    10 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    male: 3.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 205
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 82.4 years (2018 est.)
    male: 79.9 years (2018 est.)
    female: 85 years (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 16
    Total fertility rate:
    1.62 children born/woman (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Health expenditures:
    6.6% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 91
    Physicians density:
    2.92 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    4.9 beds/1,000 population (2014)
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 100% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved: urban: 97.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 98.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 97.6% of population (2015 est.)
    unimproved: urban: 2.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 1.5% of population (2015 est.)
    total: 2.4% of population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.3% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    1,100 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2017 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    22.6% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Education expenditures:
    4% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 14 years (2012)
    male: 14 years (2012)
    female: 14 years (2012)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 18.9% (2016 est.)
    male: 19.7% (2016 est.)
    female: 18% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 69
  • Government :: Luxembourg
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
    conventional short form: Luxembourg
    local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
    local short form: Luxembourg
    etymology: from the Celtic "lucilem" (little) and the German "burg" (castle or fortress) to produce the meaning of the "little castle"
    Government type:
    constitutional monarchy
    Capital:
    name: Luxembourg
    geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
    time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
    Administrative divisions:
    12 cantons (cantons, singular - canton); Capellen, Clervaux, Diekirch, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg, Mersch, Redange, Remich, Vianden, Wiltz
    Independence:
    1839 (from the Netherlands)
    National holiday:
    National Day (Birthday of Grand Duke HENRI), 23 June; note - this date of birth is not the true date of birth for any of the Royals, but the national festivities were shifted in 1962 to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
    Constitution:
    history: previous 1842 (heavily amended 1848, 1856); latest effective 17 October 1868 (2016)
    amendments: proposed by the Chamber of Deputies or by the monarch to the Chamber; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote by the Chamber in two successive readings three months apart; a referendum can be substituted for the second reading if approved by more than one-quarter of the Chamber members or by 25,000 valid voters; adoption by referendum requires a majority of all valid voters; amended many times, last in 2009 (2016)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    Citizenship:
    citizenship by birth: limited to situations where the parents are either unknown, stateless, or when the nationality law of the parents' state of origin does not permit acquisition of citizenship by descent when the birth occurs outside of national territory
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Luxembourg
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 7 years
    Suffrage:
    18 years of age; universal and compulsory
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch, born 11 November 1981)
    head of government: Prime Minister Xavier BETTEL (since 4 December 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Etienne SCHNEIDER (since 4 December 2013)
    cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the monarch
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch; prime minister and deputy prime minister are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by party-list proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - a 21-member Council of State appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies
    elections: last held on 14 October 2018 (next to be held by October 2023)
    election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 28.3%, LSAP 17.6%, DP 16.9%, Green Party 15.1%, ADR 8.3%, Pirate Party 6.4%, The Left 5.5%, other 1.9%; seats by party - CSV 21, DP 12, LSAP 10, Green Party 9, ADR 4, Pirate Party 2, The Left 2; composition - men 46, women 14, percent of women 23.3%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court of Justice includes Court of Appeal and Court of Cassation (consists of 27 judges on 9 benches); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
    judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts appointed by the monarch for life
    subordinate courts: Court of Accounts; district and local tribunals and courts
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS]
    Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ]
    Democratic Party or DP [Corinne CAHEN]
    Green Party [Francoise FOLMER, Christian KMIOTEK]
    Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN]
    The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [collective leadership, Central Committee]
    other minor parties
    International organization participation:
    ADB (nonregional member), Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Sylvie LUCAS (since 16 September 2016)
    chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171
    FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
    consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador James Randolph "Randy" EVANS (since 19 June 2018)
    embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
    mailing address: Unit 3560, APO-AE 09126-3560 (official mail)
    telephone: [352] 46-01-23 00
    FAX: [352] 46-14-01
    Flag description:
    three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; the coloring is derived from the Grand Duke's coat of arms (a red lion on a white and blue striped field)
    National symbol(s):
    red, rampant lion; national colors: red, white, light blue
    National anthem:
    name: "Ons Heemecht" (Our Motherland); "De Wilhelmus" (The William)
    lyrics/music: Michel LENTZ/Jean-Antoine ZINNEN; Nikolaus WELTER/unknown

    note: "Ons Heemecht," adopted 1864, is the national anthem, while "De Wilhelmus," adopted 1919, serves as a royal anthem for use when members of the grand ducal family enter or exit a ceremony in Luxembourg

  • Economy :: Luxembourg
  • Economy - overview:

    This small, stable, high-income economy has historically featured solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. Luxembourg, the only Grand Duchy in the world, is a landlocked country in northwestern Europe surrounded by Belgium, France, and Germany. Despite its small landmass and small population, Luxembourg is the fifth-wealthiest country in the world when measured on a gross domestic product (PPP) per capita basis. Luxembourg has one of the highest current account surpluses as a share of GDP in the euro zone, and it maintains a healthy budgetary position, with a 2017 surplus of 0.5% of GDP, and the lowest public debt level in the region.

    Since 2002, Luxembourg’s government has proactively implemented policies and programs to support economic diversification and to attract foreign direct investment. The government focused on key innovative industries that showed promise for supporting economic growth: logistics, information and communications technology (ICT); health technologies, including biotechnology and biomedical research; clean energy technologies, and more recently, space technology and financial services technologies. The economy has evolved and flourished, posting strong GDP growth of 3.4% in 2017, far outpacing the European average of 1.8%.

    Luxembourg remains a financial powerhouse – the financial sector accounts for more than 35% of GDP - because of the exponential growth of the investment fund sector through the launch and development of cross-border funds (UCITS) in the 1990s. Luxembourg is the world’s second-largest investment fund asset domicile, after the US, with $4 trillion of assets in custody in financial institutions.

    Luxembourg has lost some of its advantage as a favorable tax location because of OECD and EU pressure, as well as the "LuxLeaks" scandal, which revealed advantageous tax treatments offered to foreign corporations. In 2015, the government’s compliance with EU requirements to implement automatic exchange of tax information on savings accounts - thus ending banking secrecy - has constricted banking activity. Likewise, changes to the way EU members collect taxes from e-commerce has cut Luxembourg’s sales tax revenues, requiring the government to raise additional levies and to reduce some direct social benefits as part of the tax reform package of 2017. The tax reform package also included reductions in the corporate tax rate and increases in deductions for families, both intended to increase purchasing power and increase competitiveness.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $62.11 billion (2017 est.)
    $60.71 billion (2016 est.)
    $58.9 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 105
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $62.53 billion (2017 est.) (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    2.3% (2017 est.)
    3.1% (2016 est.)
    2.9% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 142
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $105,100 (2017 est.)
    $105,400 (2016 est.)
    $104,600 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 5
    Gross national saving:
    22.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    23% of GDP (2016 est.)
    23.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 30.2% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 16.5% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 16.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 1.1% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 230% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -194% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 0.3% (2017 est.)
    industry: 12.8% (2017 est.)
    services: 86.9% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy and livestock products
    Industries:
    banking and financial services, construction, real estate services, iron, metals, and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation and logistics, chemicals, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism, biotechnology
    Industrial production growth rate:
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 134
    Labor force:
    282,800 (2017 est.)

    note: data exclude foreign workers; in addition to the figure for domestic labor force, about 150,000 workers commute daily from France, Belgium, and Germany

    country comparison to the world: 165
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 1.1%
    industry: 20%
    services: 78.9% (2013 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    5.8% (2017 est.)
    6.3% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    Population below poverty line:
    NA
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
    highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
    30.4 (2013 est.)
    26 (2005 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 132
    Budget:
    revenues: 27.75 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 26.8 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    44.4% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    1.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 23
    Public debt:
    23% of GDP (2017 est.)
    20.8% of GDP (2016 est.)

    note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; intragovernmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

    country comparison to the world: 183
    Fiscal year:
    calendar year
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    2.1% (2017 est.)
    0% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Central bank discount rate:
    0% (31 December 2017)
    0% (31 December 2010)

    note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

    country comparison to the world: 157
    Commercial bank prime lending rate:
    1.9% (31 December 2017 est.)
    1.98% (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    Stock of narrow money:
    $275.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $229.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

    note: see entry for the EU for money supply for the entire euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 18 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

    country comparison to the world: 18
    Stock of broad money:
    $275.6 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $229.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
    Stock of domestic credit:
    $128.5 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $109.9 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Market value of publicly traded shares:
    $47.13 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
    $63.17 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
    $78.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 52
    Current account balance:
    $3.112 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.988 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 34
    Exports:
    $15.99 billion (2017 est.)
    $16.37 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 74
    Exports - partners:
    Germany 25.6%, Belgium 17.6%, France 14%, Netherlands 5.1%, Italy 4.1%, UK 4.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
    Imports:
    $20.66 billion (2017 est.)
    $20.41 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Imports - commodities:
    commercial aircraft, minerals, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, luxury consumer goods
    Imports - partners:
    Belgium 32%, Germany 24.9%, France 11.1%, US 5.7%, Netherlands 4.9% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $878 million (31 December 2017 est.)
    $974 million (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Debt - external:
    $3.781 trillion (31 March 2016 est.)
    $3.806 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 6
    Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
    $11.21 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

    NA

    Exchange rates:
    euros (EUR) per US dollar -
    0.885 (2017 est.)
    0.903 (2016 est.)
    0.9214 (2015 est.)
    0.885 (2014 est.)
    0.7634 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: Luxembourg
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    334.5 million kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Electricity - consumption:
    6.475 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 111
    Electricity - exports:
    1.42 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Electricity - imports:
    7.718 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 30
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    1.709 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    25% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 189
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    8% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    67% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 2
    Crude oil - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Crude oil - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 156
    Crude oil - imports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 155
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    59,850 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 173
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    59,020 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Natural gas - production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 160
    Natural gas - consumption:
    792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 96
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Natural gas - imports:
    792.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    10.72 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 103
  • Communications :: Luxembourg
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 275,300 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 46 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 118
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 794,000 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 163
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables (2016)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity about 50 per 100 persons; nationwide mobile-cellular telephone system with market for mobile-cellular phones virtually saturated (2016)
    international: country code - 352 (2016)
    Broadcast media:
    Luxembourg has a long tradition of operating radio and TV services for pan-European audiences and is home to Europe's largest privately owned broadcast media group, the RTL Group, which operates 46 TV stations and 29 radio stations in Europe; also home to Europe's largest satellite operator, Societe Europeenne des Satellites (SES); domestically, the RTL Group operates TV and radio networks; other domestic private radio and TV operators and French and German stations available; satellite and cable TV services available (2016)
    Internet country code:
    .lu
    Internet users:
    total: 567,698 (July 2016 est.)
    percent of population: 97.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 212,900 (2017 est.)
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 36 (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 107
  • Transportation :: Luxembourg
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 3 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 119 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 1,830,972 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 6,309,473,324 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    LX (2016)
    Airports:
    2 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 202
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 1 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 1 (2013)
    under 914 m: 1 (2013)
    Heliports:
    1 (2013)
    Pipelines:
    142 km gas, 27 km refined products (2013)
    Railways:
    total: 275 km (2014)
    standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (275 km electrified) (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Roadways:
    total: 2,899 km (2011)
    paved: 2,899 km (includes 152 km of expressways) (2011)
    country comparison to the world: 167
    Waterways:
    37 km (on Moselle River) (2010)
    country comparison to the world: 104
    Merchant marine:
    total: 152 (2017)
    by type: bulk carrier 3, container ship 21, general cargo 2, other 126 (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Ports and terminals:
    river port(s): Mertert (Moselle)
  • Military and Security :: Luxembourg
  • Military expenditures:
    0.54% of GDP (2017)
    0.49% of GDP (2016)
    0.48% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 143
    Military branches:
    Luxembourg Army (Armee Luxembourgeoise) (2018)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18-24 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; Luxembourg citizen or EU citizen with 3-year residence in Luxembourg (2017)
  • Transnational Issues :: Luxembourg
  • Disputes - international:
    none
    Refugees and internally displaced persons:
    stateless persons: 83 (2017)