Australia-Oceania :: NORFOLK ISLAND
  • Introduction :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.
  • Geography :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
    29 02 S, 167 57 E
    total: 36 sq km
    land: 36 sq km
    water: 0 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 236
    about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
    0 km
    32 km
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
    subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
    volcanic island with mostly rolling plains
    mean elevation: NA
    elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Mount Bates 319 m
    agricultural land: 25%
    arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 25%
    forest: 11.5%
    other: 63.5% (2011 est.)
    0 sq km (2012)
    population concentrated around the capital of Kingston
    tropical cyclones (especially May to July)
    inadequate solid waste management; most freshwater obtained through rainwater catchment; preservation of unique ecosystem
    most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
  • People and Society :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • 1,748 (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 232
    noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
    adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)
    Australian 79.5%, New Zealander 13.3%, Fijian 2.5%, Filipino 1.1%, English 1%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
    English (official) 44.9%, Norfolk (also known as Norfuk or Norf'k, which is a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian) 40.3%, Fijian 1.8%, other 6.8%, unspecified 6.2%
    note: data represent language spoken at home (2016 est.)
    Protestant 46.8% (Anglican 33.6%, Uniting Church in Australia 12.8%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.2%), Roman Catholic 12.6%, other Christian 2.9%, other 1.4%, none 26.7%, unspecified 9.5% (2016 est.)
    0.01% (2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 192
    population concentrated around the capital of Kingston
    total: NA
    male: NA
    female: NA
    total population: NA
    male: NA
    female: NA (2017 est.)
  • Government :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
    conventional short form: Norfolk Island
    etymology: named by British explorer Captain James COOK after Mary HOWARD, Duchess of Norfolk, in 1774
    self-governing territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts, and Sport
    non-self-governing overseas territory of Australia; note - the Norfolk Island Regional Council, which began operations 1 July 2016, is responsible for planning and managing a variety of public services, including those funded by the Government of Australia
    name: Kingston
    geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E
    time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    none (territory of Australia)
    none (territory of Australia)
    Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)
    history: previous 1913, 1957; latest effective 7 August 1979
    amendments: amended many times, last in 2015 (2017)
    English common law and the laws of Australia
    see Australia
    18 years of age; universal
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia General Sir Peter COSGROVE (since 28 March 2014)
    head of government: Administrator Eric HUTCHINSON (since 1 April 2017)
    cabinet: Executive Council consists of 4 Legislative Assembly members
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
    description: unicameral Norfolk Island Regional Council (5 seats; councillors directly elected by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms); mayor elected annually by the councillors
    elections: elections last held 28 May 2016 (next to be held in 2020)
    election results: seats by party - independent 5
    note: following an administrative restructuring of local government, the Legislative Assembly was dissolved on 18 June 2015 and replaced by an interim Norfolk Island Advisory Council effective 1 July 2015; the Advisory Council consisted of 5 members appointed by the Norfolk Island administrator based on nominations from the community; following elections on 28 May 2016, the new Norfolk Island Regional Council commenced operations on 1 July 2016
    highest court(s): Supreme Court of Norfolk Island (consists of the chief justice and several justices); note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island are heard by the Federal Court and the High Court of Australia
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor general of Australia from among justices of the Federal Court of Australia; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Petty Court of Sessions; specialized courts including a Coroner's Court and the Employment Tribunal
    Norfolk Island Labor Party [Mike KELLY]
    Norfolk Liberals [John BROWN]
    none (territory of Australia)
    none (territory of Australia)
    three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band; green stands for the rich vegetation on the island, and the pine tree - endemic to the island - is a symbol of Norfolk Island
    note: somewhat reminiscent of the flag of Canada with its use of only two colors and depiction of a prominent local floral symbol in the central white band; also resembles the green and white triband of Nigeria
    Norfolk Island pine
    name: "Come Ye Blessed"
    lyrics/music: New Testament/John Prindle SCOTT
    note: the local anthem, whose lyrics consist of the words from Matthew 25:34-36, 40, is also known as "The Pitcairn Anthem;" as a territory of Australia, "God Save the Queen" is official (see Australia); however, the island does not recognize "Advance Australia Fair"
  • Economy :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • Norfolk Island is suffering from a severe economic downturn. Tourism, the primary economic activity, is the main driver of economic growth. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
    Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry
    tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
    978 (2006)
    country comparison to the world: 230
    agriculture: 6%
    industry: 14%
    services: 80% (2006 est.)
    revenues: $4.6 million
    expenditures: $4.8 million (FY99/00)
    1 July - 30 June
    postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
    Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
    1.31 (2017 est.)
    1.33 (2016 est.)
    1.33 (2015)
    1.33 (2014 est.)
    1.11 (2013 est.)
  • Communications :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • general assessment: adequate
    domestic: free local calls
    international: country code - 672; submarine cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
    1 local radio station; broadcasts of several Australian radio and TV stations available via satellite (2009)
    total: 765
    percent of population: 34.6% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 227
  • Transportation :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • 1 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 229
    total: 1
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2017)
    total: 80 km
    paved: 53 km
    unpaved: 27 km (2008)
    country comparison to the world: 217
    major seaport(s): Kingston
  • Military and Security :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • defense is the responsibility of Australia
  • Transnational Issues :: NORFOLK ISLAND

  • none