Australia - Oceania :: New Zealand
  • Introduction :: New Zealand
  • Background:
    The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand sometime between A.D. 1250 and 1300. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Great Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. That same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both world wars. New Zealand's full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
  • Geography :: New Zealand
  • Location:
    Oceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
    Geographic coordinates:
    41 00 S, 174 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 268,838 sq km
    land: 264,537 sq km
    water: 4,301 sq km

    note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

    country comparison to the world: 77
    Area - comparative:
    almost twice the size of North Carolina; about the size of Colorado
    Area comparison map: Area comparison map
    Land boundaries:
    0 km
    15,134 km
    Maritime claims:
    territorial sea: 12 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    temperate with sharp regional contrasts
    predominately mountainous with large coastal plains
    mean elevation: 388 m
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Aoraki/Mount Cook 3,724 m; note - the mountain's height was 3,764 m until 14 December 1991 when it lost about 10 m in an avalanche of rock and ice; erosion of the ice cap since then has brought the height down another 30 m
    Natural resources:
    natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 43.2% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 1.8% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0.3% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 41.1% (2011 est.)
    forest: 31.4% (2011 est.)
    other: 25.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    7,210 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    over three-quarters of New Zealanders, including the indigenous Maori, live on the North Island, primarily in urban areas
    Natural hazards:

    earthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity

    volcanism: significant volcanism on North Island; Ruapehu (2,797 m), which last erupted in 2007, has a history of large eruptions in the past century; Taranaki has the potential to produce dangerous avalanches and lahars; other historically active volcanoes include Okataina, Raoul Island, Tongariro, and White Island; see note 2 under "Geography - note"

    Environment - current issues:
    water quality and availability; rapid urbanisation; deforestation; soil erosion and degradation; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species; negative effects of climate change
    Environment - international agreements:
    party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
    Geography - note:

    note 1: consists of two main islands and a number of smaller islands; South Island, the larger main island, is the 12th largest island in the world and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps; North Island is the 14th largest island in the world and is not as mountainous, but it is marked by volcanism

    note 2: New Zealand lies along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world's earthquakes and some 75% of the world's volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire

    note 3: almost 90% of the population lives in cities and over three-quarters on North Island; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world

  • People and Society :: New Zealand
  • Population:
    4,925,477 (July 2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    noun: New Zealander(s)
    adjective: New Zealand
    Ethnic groups:
    European 64.1%, Maori 16.5%, Chinese 4.9%, Indian 4.7%, Samoan 3.9%, Tongan 1.8%, Cook Islands Maori 1.7%, English 1.5%, Filipino 1.5%, New Zealander 1%, other 13.7% (2018 est.)

    note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic group

    English (de facto official) 95.4%, Maori (de jure official) 4%, Samoan 2.2%, Northern Chinese 2%, Hindi 1.5%, French 1.2%, Yue 1.1%, New Zealand Sign Language (de jure official) .5%, other or not stated 17.2% (2018 est.)

    note: shares sum to 124.1% due to multiple responses on the 2018 census

    Christian 37.3% (Catholic 10.1%, Anglican 6.8%, Presbyterian and Congregational 5.2%, Pentecostal 1.8%, Methodist 1.6%, Mormon 1.2%, other 10.7%), Hindu 2.7%, Maori 1.3%, Muslim, 1.3%, Buddhist 1.1%, other religion 1.6% (includes Judaism, Spiritualism and New Age religions, Baha'i, Asian religions other than Buddhism), no religion 48.6%, objected to answering 6.7% (2018 est.)

    note: based on the 2018 census of the usually resident population; percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one religion

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 19.63% (male 496,802/female 469,853)
    15-24 years: 12.92% (male 328,327/female 308,132)
    25-54 years: 39.98% (male 996,857/female 972,566)
    55-64 years: 11.93% (male 285,989/female 301,692)
    65 years and over: 15.54% (male 358,228/female 407,031) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid: population pyramid
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 55.8
    youth dependency ratio: 30.3
    elderly dependency ratio: 25.5
    potential support ratio: 3.9 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 37.2 years
    male: 36.4 years
    female: 37.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Population growth rate:
    1.44% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Birth rate:
    12.8 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 147
    Death rate:
    6.9 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Net migration rate:
    8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 12
    Population distribution:
    over three-quarters of New Zealanders, including the indigenous Maori, live on the North Island, primarily in urban areas
    urban population: 86.7% of total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 1.01% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas - population:
    1.607 million Auckland, 415,000 WELLINGTON (capital) (2020)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
    total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Mother's mean age at first birth:
    27.8 years (2009 est.)

    note: median age at first birth

    Maternal mortality rate:
    9 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 148
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 3.5 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 3.7 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 200
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 82.1 years
    male: 80.4 years
    female: 84 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Total fertility rate:
    1.87 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Drinking water source:
    improved: urban: 100% of population
    rural: 100% of population
    total: 100% of population
    unimproved: urban: 0% of population
    rural: 0% of population
    total: 0% of population (2017 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    9.2% (2017)
    Physicians density:
    3.47 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
    Hospital bed density:
    2.7 beds/1,000 population (2017)
    HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
    0.1% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
    3,600 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 125
    HIV/AIDS - deaths:
    <100 (2018 est.)
    Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
    30.8% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 22
    Education expenditures:
    6.4% of GDP (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 24
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 19 years
    male: 18 years
    female: 20 years (2016)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 11.5%
    male: 12.3%
    female: 10.7% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
  • Government :: New Zealand
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: New Zealand
    abbreviation: NZ
    etymology: Dutch explorer Abel TASMAN was the first European to reach New Zealand in 1642; he named it Staten Landt, but Dutch cartographers renamed it Nova Zeelandia in 1645 after the Dutch province of Zeeland; British explorer Captain James COOK subsequently anglicized the name to New Zealand when he mapped the islands in 1769
    Government type:
    parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
    name: Wellington
    geographic coordinates: 41 18 S, 174 47 E
    time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April

    note: New Zealand has two time zones: New Zealand standard time (UTC+12) and Chatham Islands time (45 minutes in advance of New Zealand standard time; UTC+12:45)

    etymology: named in 1840 after Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victorious general at the Battle of Waterloo

    Administrative divisions:
    16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawke's Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
    Dependent areas:
    Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
    26 September 1907 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); Anzac Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
    history: New Zealand has no single constitution document; the Constitution Act 1986, effective 1 January 1987, includes only part of the uncodified constitution; others include a collection of statutes or "acts of Parliament," the Treaty of Waitangi, Orders in Council, letters patent, court decisions, and unwritten conventions
    amendments: proposed as bill by Parliament or by referendum called either by the government or by citizens; passage of a bill as an act normally requires two separate readings with committee reviews in between to make changes and corrections, a third reading approved by the House of Representatives membership or by the majority of votes in a referendum, and assent of the governor-general; passage of amendments to reserved constitutional provisions affecting the term of Parliament, electoral districts, and voting restrictions requires approval by 75% of the House membership or the majority of votes in a referendum; amended many times, last in 2014
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of New Zealand
    dual citizenship recognized: yes
    residency requirement for naturalization: 3 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor-General Dame Patricia Lee REDDY (since 28 September 2016)
    head of government: Prime Minister Jacinda ARDERN (since 26 October 2017); Deputy Prime Minister Winston PETERS (since 26 October 2017)
    cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor-general on the recommendation of the prime minister
    elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor-general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor-general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor-general; note - Prime Minister ARDERN heads up a minority coalition government consisting of the Labor and New Zealand First parties with confidence and supply support from the Green Party
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (usually 120 seats; 71 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies, including 7 Maori constituencies, by simple majority vote and 49 directly elected by proportional representation vote; members serve 3-year terms)
    elections: last held on 23 September 2017 (next to be held on 19 September 2020)
    election results: percent of vote by party - National Party 44.5%, Labor Party 36.9%, NZ First 7.2%, Green Party 6.3%, ACT Party 0.5%; seats by party - National Party 56, Labor Party 46, NZ First 9, Green Party 8, ACT Party 1; composition - men 74, women 46, percent of women 38.3%
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 justices, including the chief justice); note - the Supreme Court in 2004 replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) as the final appeals court
    judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor-general upon the recommendation of the attorney- general; justices appointed until compulsory retirement at age 70
    subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; tribunals and authorities; district courts; specialized courts for issues related to employment, environment, family, Maori lands, youth, military; tribunals
    Political parties and leaders:
    ACT New Zealand [David SEYMOUR]
    Green Party [James SHAW]
    Mana Movement [Hone HARAWIRA] (formerly Mana Party)
    Maori Party [Che WILSON and Kaapua SMITH]
    New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS]
    New Zealand Labor Party [Jacinda ARDERN]
    New Zealand National Party [Judith COLLINS]
    United Future New Zealand [Damian LIGHT]
    International organization participation:
    ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, FATF, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, PIF, SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador Rosemary BANKS (since 11 January 2019)
    chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
    consulate(s) general: Honolulu (HI), Los Angeles, New York
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Scott P. BROWN (since 27 June 2017) note - also accredited to Samoa
    telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
    embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
    FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
    consulate(s) general: Auckland
    Flag description:
    blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
    National symbol(s):
    Southern Cross constellation (four, five-pointed stars), kiwi (bird), silver fern; national colors: black, white, red (ochre)
    National anthem:
    name: God Defend New Zealand
    lyrics/music: Thomas BRACKEN [English], Thomas Henry SMITH [Maori]/John Joseph WOODS

    note: adopted 1940 as national song, adopted 1977 as co-national anthem; New Zealand has two national anthems with equal status; as a commonwealth realm, in addition to "God Defend New Zealand," "God Save the Queen" serves as a national anthem (see United Kingdom); "God Save the Queen" normally played only when a member of the royal family or the governor-general is present; in all other cases, "God Defend New Zealand" is played

  • Economy :: New Zealand
  • Economy - overview:

    Over the past 40 years, the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy, dependent on concessionary British market access, to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes, but left behind some at the bottom of the ladder and broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector.

    Per capita income rose for 10 consecutive years until 2007 in purchasing power parity terms, but fell in 2008-09. Debt-driven consumer spending drove robust growth in the first half of the decade, fueling a large balance of payments deficit that posed a challenge for policymakers. Inflationary pressures caused the central bank to raise its key rate steadily from January 2004 until it was among the highest in the OECD in 2007 and 2008. The higher rate attracted international capital inflows, which strengthened the currency and housing market while aggravating the current account deficit. Rising house prices, especially in Auckland, have become a political issue in recent years, as well as a policy challenge in 2016 and 2017, as the ability to afford housing has declined for many.

    Expanding New Zealand’s network of free trade agreements remains a top foreign policy priority. New Zealand was an early promoter of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and was the second country to ratify the agreement in May 2017. Following the United States’ withdrawal from the TPP in January 2017, on 10 November 2017 the remaining 11 countries agreed on the core elements of a modified agreement, which they renamed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). In November 2016, New Zealand opened negotiations to upgrade its FTA with China; China is one of New Zealand’s most important trading partners.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $189 billion (2017 est.)
    $183.4 billion (2016 est.)
    $176.1 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 68
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $201.4 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP - real growth rate:
    3% (2017 est.)
    4.1% (2016 est.)
    4.2% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    GDP - per capita (PPP):
    $39,000 (2017 est.)
    $38,600 (2016 est.)
    $37,900 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 48
    Gross national saving:
    21% of GDP (2017 est.)
    21.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    20.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 89
    GDP - composition, by end use:
    household consumption: 57.2% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.2% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 23.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: 0.3% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 27% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -26.1% (2017 est.)
    GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 5.7% (2017 est.)
    industry: 21.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 72.8% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture - products:
    dairy products, sheep, beef, poultry, fruit, vegetables, wine, seafood, wheat and barley
    agriculture, forestry, fishing, logs and wood articles, manufacturing, mining, construction, financial services, real estate services, tourism
    Industrial production growth rate:
    1.8% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    Labor force:
    2.655 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 113
    Labor force - by occupation:
    agriculture: 6.6%
    industry: 20.7%
    services: 72.7% (2017 est.)
    Unemployment rate:
    4.7% (2017 est.)
    5.1% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
    Population below poverty line:
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 74.11 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 70.97 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    36.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    1.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 21
    Public debt:
    31.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
    33.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 162
    Fiscal year:
    1 April - 31 March

    note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes

    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    1.9% (2017 est.)
    0.6% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 98
    Current account balance:
    -$5.471 billion (2017 est.)
    -$4.171 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 186
    $37.35 billion (2017 est.)
    $33.61 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Exports - partners:
    China 22.4%, Australia 16.4%, US 9.9%, Japan 6.1% (2017)
    Exports - commodities:
    dairy products, meat and edible offal, logs and wood articles, fruit, crude oil, wine
    $39.74 billion (2017 est.)
    $35.53 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Imports - commodities:
    petroleum and products, mechanical machinery, vehicles and parts, electrical machinery, textiles
    Imports - partners:
    China 19%, Australia 12.1%, US 10.5%, Japan 7.3%, Germany 5.3%, Thailand 4.6% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $20.68 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $17.81 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 58
    Debt - external:
    $91.62 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $84.03 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Exchange rates:
    New Zealand dollars (NZD) per US dollar -
    1.416 (2017 est.)
    1.4341 (2016 est.)
    1.4341 (2015 est.)
    1.4279 (2014 est.)
    1.2039 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: New Zealand
  • Electricity access:
    electrification - total population: 100% (2016)
    Electricity - production:
    42.53 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 56
    Electricity - consumption:
    39.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 55
    Electricity - exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 176
    Electricity - imports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 179
    Electricity - installed generating capacity:
    9.301 million kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 63
    Electricity - from fossil fuels:
    23% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 154
    Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
    58% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Electricity - from other renewable sources:
    20% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    Crude oil - production:
    24,000 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 64
    Crude oil - exports:
    26,440 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 48
    Crude oil - imports:
    108,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 43
    Crude oil - proved reserves:
    51.8 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Refined petroleum products - production:
    115,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 65
    Refined petroleum products - consumption:
    169,100 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Refined petroleum products - exports:
    1,782 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 106
    Refined petroleum products - imports:
    56,000 bbl/day (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Natural gas - production:
    5.097 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 51
    Natural gas - consumption:
    5.182 billion cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 57
    Natural gas - exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 161
    Natural gas - imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 166
    Natural gas - proved reserves:
    33.7 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 67
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    37.75 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 68
  • Communications :: New Zealand
  • Telephones - fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 1.76 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 37 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 61
    Telephones - mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 6.4 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 134 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Telecommunication systems:
    general assessment: excellent domestic and international systems; mobile and P2P services soar; LTE rates some of the fastest in the world; growth in mobile broadband and fiber sectors; roll out of 5G; investment and development of infrastructure enable network capabilities to propel the digital economy, digital media sector along with e-government, e-commerce across the country; newest and most powerful commercial satellite, Kacific-1 satellite, launched in 2019 to improve telecommunications in the Asia Pacific region (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line 37 per 100 and mobile-cellular telephone subscribership 134 per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code - 64; landing points for the Southern Cross NEXT, Aqualink, Nelson-Levin, SCCN and Hawaiki submarine cable system providing links to Australia, Fiji, American Samoa, Kiribati, Samo, Tokelau, US and around New Zealand; satellite earth stations - 8 (1 Inmarsat - Pacific Ocean, 7 other) (2019)
    the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic's effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry - mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite - has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    state-owned Television New Zealand operates multiple TV networks and state-owned Radio New Zealand operates 3 radio networks and an external shortwave radio service to the South Pacific region; a small number of national commercial TV and radio stations and many regional commercial television and radio stations are available; cable and satellite TV systems are available, as are a range of streaming services (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 3,958,642
    percent of population: 88.5% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 88
    Broadband - fixed subscriptions:
    total: 1.647 million
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 34 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
  • Military and Security :: New Zealand
  • Military expenditures:
    1.5% of GDP (2019)
    1.3% of GDP (2018)
    1.2% of GDP (2017)
    1.2% of GDP (2016)
    1.2% of GDP (2015)
    country comparison to the world: 83
    Military and security forces:
    New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18; no conscription (2019)
    Military and security service personnel strengths:
    the New Zealand Defense Force (NZDF) has about 9,300 active duty troops (4,600 Army; 2,200 Navy; 2,500 Air Force) (2019 est.)
    Military equipment inventories and acquisitions:
    NZDF is equipped mostly with imported weapons and equipment from Western suppliers; Australia, France, and the US are the leading suppliers since 2010 (2019 est.)
    Military deployments:
    up to 220 Antarctica (summer season only) (2020)
  • Transportation :: New Zealand
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 6 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 123 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 15,304,409 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 999,384,961 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    ZK (2016)
    123 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 47
    Airports - with paved runways:
    total: 39 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 23 (2017)
    under 914 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports - with unpaved runways:
    total: 84 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 33 (2013)
    under 914 m: 48 (2013)
    331 km condensate, 2500 km gas, 172 km liquid petroleum gas, 288 km oil, 198 km refined products (2018)
    total: 4,128 km (2018)
    narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2018)
    country comparison to the world: 46
    total: 94,000 km (2017)
    paved: 61,600 km (includes 199 km of expressways) (2017)
    unpaved: 32,400 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 53
    Merchant marine:
    total: 113
    by type: general cargo 12, oil tanker 4, other 97 (2019)
    country comparison to the world: 84
    Ports and terminals:
    major seaport(s): Auckland, Lyttelton, Manukau Harbor, Marsden Point, Tauranga, Wellington
  • Transnational Issues :: New Zealand
  • Disputes - international:

    asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

    Illicit drugs:
    significant consumer of amphetamines